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D. C. Turk, Ph.D., H.D. Wilson, Ph.D.
One goal of Project CAOS is to develop an instrument for measuring clinicians' beliefs and practices regarding opioid use (Clinicians Attitudes about Opioids Scale, CAOS) using both traditional psychometric methods and advanced models based on item response theory (IRT). Moreover, we propose to replicate the strategy adopted by Turk et al. (1994) to study attitudes and behaviors by different specialties and region of the country. The development of such an instrument will permit in depth understanding of providers' current attitudes and behaviors associated with opioid prescribing and, importantly, it will also permit repeated assessment to investigate how evolving legislation and marketing practices alter beliefs. We propose to explore the use of IRT models to permit shorter surveys in the future making use of computer technology and artificial intelligence to "learn" about responders and items selected based on previous responses, sometimes referred to as computerized adaptive testing (CAT) (Hambleton, 2000; Reeve & Fayers, 2003).