Vol. V, No. 22~ EINet News Briefs ~ Dec. 20 , 2002
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In this edition:
1. OVERVIEW OF INFECTIOUSDISEASE INFORMATION
Below is a semimonthly summary of AsiaPacific emerging infectious diseases.
New Zealand — First TB in deer for 14 years confirmed
Routine tests picked up TB when the herd was sent to the slaughterhouse. The rest of the animals were clear. "It is nothing like foot and mouth in England. We do not have any major concerns at all," AgriQuality veterinarian Keith Paterson said. The diseased deer were bought several months ago from a Taupo source which had been TBfree for 10 years. Four or five animals in the Taupo herd were also found to be infected and were killed.
Wildlife was the likely source of contamination and a rigorous control program had been carried out on possums and ferrets in the area, Mr. Paterson said. He did not believe there was any evidence bovine TB had spread beyond the one 18 ha Omanawa property in the Western Bay of Plenty.
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, M. bovis has been identified in humans in most countries where isolates of mycobacteria from human patients have been fully typed. The incidence of pulmonary TB caused by _M. bovis_ is higher in farm and slaughterhouse workers than in urban inhabitants. One of the results of bovine TB eradication programs has been a reduction in disease and death from TB among the human population. Pasteurization of milk and improved sanitation have also been of great importance.
Cattle are considered to be the true hosts of _M. bovis_, but the disease has
been reported in several other species of domestic and wild animals such as deer
and ferrets. Extensive investigations of sporadic M. bovis recurrence have also
shown that wildlife reservoirs exist in some countries.
India (Uttar Pradesh) — Undiagnosed febrile among children
Panicstricken parents insisted on keeping their children from going to school.
Attendance in the primary schools has dropped drastically as the toll of children
dying of the mysterious illness continued to rise.
Canada (multi provinces) — Viral Gastroenteritis
continue to affect Canadians
Toronto Public Health reports there are at least 50 outbreaks in the city. For now, no new patients are being admitted into Toronto General's emergency ward, where 10 patients are confined until the outbreak is over. They were receiving treatment when the ER closed and can't be transferred to another bed for fear of spreading the virus. Toronto Western and Mount Sinai hospitals were taking emergency patients who would otherwise go to Toronto General, and Emergency Medical Services said ambulances were coping with the loss of an emergency room. The emergency room won't reopen until two days after the last symptom disappears in the last viral gastroenteritis patient.
The same viral gastroenteritis outbreaks are occurring across Canada from Prince Edward Island in the east to Vancouver Island in the west. It has not been confirmed, however, that Norwalklike viruses are the etiologic agents in every case. Ontario’s chief medical officer of health urged Ontarians to take precautions to avoid contracting the virus. As in Toronto, hospitals in Brampton, Kitchener, Brantford, Alberta, Quebec and New Brunswick have been forced to restrict access because of the virus.
Norwalk viruses spread rapidly and cause severe vomiting, nausea,
stomach cramps, and diarrhea that lasts for a couple of days. Outbreaks of Norwalklike
viruses are common in winter, particularly in confined places such as nursing
homes, cruise ships, and other venues where people are gathered for several days
or more. Laboratory diagnosis of Norwalk is difficult, so diagnosis is often based
on the observation of a combination of symptoms and the short duration of the
USA (Michigan) — Suspected bovine Tuberculosis
Dr. Joan Arnoldi, veterinarian with the Michigan Department of Agriculture, said tests likely indicate bovine TB in a 5yearold cow in the 200plus animal herd. The herd was quarantined on 27 Nov. “(Researchers) isolated an organism from a cow that was a suspect,” Arnoldi said. “The cow didn't show lesions, but they could have been microscopic lesions that we couldn't see.” Final tests results should be available by midJanuary, she said.
Whitetailed deer also are susceptible to bovine TB and are blamed for passing on the disease to cattle. The state has aggressively reduced deer numbers in Montmorency, Alpena, Oscoda, and Alcona counties and continues to test deer for the disease.
Before this year, the state had tested 103 405 deer for bovine
TB. Of those, 398 tested positive, Bridget Patrick, spokeswoman for the state's
bovine TB program said. This year, between 23 and 29 tested deer show signs of
TB infection, she said.
The Oceana was the latest cruise ship to be stricken by outbreaks in recent weeks. Passengers and crew on four consecutive cruises of Holland America's Amsterdam and two cruises of Disney's Magic were sickened by a Norwalklike virus. A Norwalklike virus is also suspected in a recent outbreak aboard Carnival's Fascination.
A shipboard laboratory determined that Salmonella bacteria caused a recent outbreak of stomach illness on the Seven Seas Mariner, but the CDC has yet to confirm that finding. (ProMed 12/10/02)
USA—CDC Update: West Nile Virus Case Count
USA — Drugresistant bacteria in chicken
A consumer magazine reported that they found bacteria contamination in about half of the chickens they bought at stores nationwide and many of the contaminated chickens harbored strains of salmonella and campylobacter. Those bacteria are resistant to antibiotics commonly used.
They tested 484 fresh, whole broilers bought at supermarkets and healthfood stores in 25 cities nationwide last spring., including four leading brands (Foster Farms, Perdue, Pilgrim's Pride, and Tyson), 14 supermarket brands, nine premium brands (usually from smaller companies, usually more expensive, labeled as raised without antibiotics, and including freerange and organic brands), and two kosher brands. Their shoppers packed the raw birds in coolers and shipped them overnight to a lab. There, tests determined whether salmonella and campylobacter were present, showed whether those bacteria were resistant to a range of human antibiotics, and measured the chickens' total plate count, an indicator of spoilage.
Below are their main findings:
For viewing the entire report, please visit the following URL:
USA — Measles Outbreak Among Internationally Adopted Children
During the investigation, representatives of orphanage A retrospectively identified cases of suspected measles that preceded the index patient's illness and reported that newly arrived children at orphanage A had not been vaccinated adequately against measles. After completion of a measles vaccine campaign at orphanage A, no additional cases were reported, and the adoption of children from the orphanage resumed on March 29, a total of 3 weeks after the onset of the last known case of measles.
During 1997, the annual number of reported measles cases in the United
States ranged from 86 to 138, with imported cases accounting for 26%㫇% of the
total. The proportion of imported cases of measles among internationally adopted
children increased from 2% in 1997 to 20% in 2001; 10 of the 11 imported cases
of measles among internationally adopted children in 2001 were associated with
this outbreak. During fiscal year 2001, the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization
Service reported that 19,230 internationally adopted children, of whom 4,681 (24%)
were from China, were admitted to the United States.
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© 2002, The University of Washington