Ascidian News*
Number 31 October 1991
Charles and Gretchen Lambert
Department of Biological Science
California State University
Fullerton, California 92634
(714)773-3481 Fax (714)773-3426

The new references on research with our favorite organisms continue to arrive at a most impressive rate. It looks like everybody is getting a great deal of work done these days. We greatly appreciate getting copies of the papers along with the references.

The summer passed all to quickly at Friday Harbor with teaching and research. Charley further characterized the nature of the attachment of enzymes to the egg surface and Gretchen worked on a new paper on the ulotrastructure of mineralization. Mauro Pavao and his wife returned to Brazil in July after completing an interesting study on sulfated polysacharides in adult and larval ascidians here in our lab in Fullerton. We greatly enjoyed getting to know Mauro and Luciana and hope to visit Rio de Janeiro before too long. We plan to attend the western Society of Naturalists meetings in Sant Barbara after Christmas and hope to see many of you there.

*Ascidian News is not part of the scientific literature and should not be cited as such.


George Mackie elected Fellow of the Royal Society. George Mackie from the University of Victoria has our congratulations on being made a fellow of the Royal Society for his many contributions to our understanding of the biology ascidians and other marine organisms including sponges and cnidarians. Over a period of many years George has repeatedly made major discoveries on the basic function of these organisms. He has traveled the world to find the right organism for each investigation and has also served as mentor to many leading zoologists. We feel privileged to see him most summers at Friday Harbor.

New Book on Ascidians Released. Claude and Francoise Monniot sent us a copy of their new book with photographer Pierre Laboute "Coral Reef Ascidians of New Caledonia". This book is lavishly illustrated with beautiful color plates, line drawings, and black and white plates. The work is more than a taxonomic treatise on the ascidians of New Caledonia; it contains chapters on basic anatomy, modes of budding, spicules, pigments, ecology, symbiosis, predation, fouling, use as food and source of drugs. Along with all of this, the portion describing the fauna has extensive well-illustrated keys which should be very useful for identification of ascidians from other areas to genus. We are sure that all of our readers will be delighted to have a copy of this for themselves and their libraries. "Coral Reef Ascidians of New Caledonia" by Claude Monniot, Francoise Monniot and Pierre Laboute, 1991 248 p. 150 color pictures ISBN: 2-7009-1050-0 can be ordered directly from the publisher for 300 FF / 52 $ U.S. Editions de l'Orstrom, 72 route d'Aulnay, 93143 Bondy cedex, France.

Bill Bates to teach course on Urochordates. Bill Bates from Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1S 5B6, will teach a class on the biology of urochordates at the Bamfield Marine Station on the west coast of Vancouver Island. The waters near this marine station contain many fascinating ascidians including the direct developing Molgula pacifica and a new species of Molgula. See the reference by Bates and Mallet on development of Molgula in the new papers list. Write directly to Bill for more information on the course.

Outstanding Paper Awards to go Ascidiologists. Brian Bingham won a best paper award and Cate Hurlbut recieved an honorable mention for their presentations on ascidians at the Western Society of Zoologists meetings in Monterey California last December. Their abstracts can be found in AN # 30.

Correction: Dr. Patricia Kott brought to our attention that we had erred in stating that Part 2 of the Australian Ascidiacea was the final volume of this beautifully illustrated treatise. It was actually only the first third of the aplousobranchs with the Polyclinidae (part3) and Didemnidae (part 4) yet to appear. Our congratulations on this major accoplisment still hold, and we look forward to parts 3 and 4. Australia seems remarkably blessed by having such a rich fauna and Dr. Kott to sort it all out.

For complete abstracts of ascidian papers presented at the following recent meetings request copy of AN31.

3rd Intl. Congress of Comp. Physiol. & Biochem., Tokyo Met. Univ., Aug. 25-30, 1991.

61st Annual Meeting, Zool. Soc. of Japan, Oct. 3-5, 1990. Niigata, Japan. Published in Zool. Sci. 7, Dec. 1990.


Anderson, D.H., J.R. Berg & J.H. Swinehart 1991. Uptake of vanadium by the ascidian Ascidia ceratodes. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 99A:151-158.

Anderson, D.H. & J.H. Swinehart 1991. The distribution of vanadium and sulfur in the blood cells, and the nature of vanadium in the blood cells and plasma of the ascidian, Ascidia ceratodes. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 99A:585-592.

Aron, S. & A. Sole-cava 1991. Genetic evaluation of the taxonomic status of two varieties of the cosmopolitan ascidian Botryllus niger (Ascidiaceae: Botryllidae). Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 19:271-276.

Bates, W.R. & J.E. Mallett 1991. Anural development of the ascidian Molgula pacifica (Huntsman). Can. J. Zool. 69:618-627.

Bollner, T., J. Storm-Mathisen & O.P. Ottersen 1991. GABA-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of Oikopleura dioica (App[endicularia). Biol. Bull. 180:119-124.

Brokaw, C.J. 1991. Microtubule sliding in swimming sperm flagella: direct and indirect measurements on sea urchin and tunicate spermatozoa. J. Cell Biol. 114:1201-1215.

Brownlee, C. & B. Dale 1990. Temporal and spatial correlation of fertilization current, calcium waves and cytoplasmic contraction in eggs of Ciona intestinalis. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B239:321-328.

Cerqueira, V.R. & M. Haimovici 1990. Population dynamics of the harvestfish Peprilus paru (Pisces, Stromateidae) in southern Brazil. Rev. Brasil. Biol. 50:599-613. (in Portuguese; English abstr.--food includes thaliaceans, salps and ascidians, spp. not listed)

Cotelle, N. et al. 1991. Generation of free radicals by simple prenylated hydroquinone derivatives, natural antitumor agents from the marine urochordate Aplidium californicum. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 4:300-305.

Dalby, J.E. 1989. Predation of ascidians by Melongena corona (Neogastropoda: Melongenidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Mar. Sci. 45:708-712.

Dale, B., R. Talevi & L.J. DeFelice 1991. L-type Ca2+ currents in ascidian eggs. Exp. Cell Res. 192:302-306.

Dauby, P. & J. Godeaux 1987. Application of the cluster analysis to the species of the genus Thalia (Tunicata: Thaliacea). Ann. Soc. R. Zool. Belg. 117:175-180. (in French; Engl. summary)

DeSantis, R. & M.R. Pinto 1988. The pathway of sperm-egg interaction in ascidians: biology and chemistry. Zool. Sci. 5:919-924.

DeSantis, R. & M.R. Pinto 1990. Gamete interaction in ascidians: sperm binding and penetration through the vitelline coat. NATO ASI Series, v. H45. Mechanisms of Fertilization:298-304.

DeSantis, R. & M.R. Pinto 1991. Gamete self-discrimination in ascidians: a role for the follicle cells. Molec. Repro. & Develop. 29:47-50.

Dudley, P.L. & P.L. Illg 1991. Marine fauna and flora of the eastern United States. Copepoda, Cyclopoida: Archinotodelphyidae, Notodelphyidae, and Ascidicolidae. NOAA Tech. Rept. NMFS 96:1-39.

Durante, K.M. 1991. Larval behavior, settlement preference, and induction of metamorphosis in the temporate solitary ascidian Molgula citrina Alder & Hancock. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 145:175-187.

Fenaux, R. & M.J. Youngbluth 1991. Two new mesopelagic appendicularians: Inopinata inflata gen. nov., sp. nov., Mesopelagica caudaornata gen. nov., sp. nov. J.M.B.A. UK 71:613-621.

Flood, P.R. 1991. A simple technique for preservation and staining of the delicate houses of oikopleurid tunicates. Mar. Biol. 108:105-110.

Flood, P.R. 1991. Yellow-stained oikopleurid appendicularians are caused by bacterial parasitism. Mar.Ecol. Prog. Ser. 71:291-295.

Flood, P.R., D. Deibel & C.C. Morris 1990. Visualization of the transparent, gelatinous house of the pelagic tunicate Oikopleura vanhoeffini using Sepia ink. Biol. Bull. 178:118-125.

Frazier, J.G., I. Goodbody & C.A. Ruckdeschel 1991. Epizoan communities on marine turtles: II. Tunicates. Bull. Mar. Sci. 48:763-765.

Fukumoto, M. 1990. Morphological aspects of ascidian fertilization (review). Zool. Sci. 7:989-998.

Godeaux, J. 1987. La station zoologique de Villefranche-sur-Mer et les zoologistes liegeois. Trav. Sta. Zool. Villefranche/Mer (Cent. de la Sta. zool.) #H.S.1:70-77.

Godeaux, J. 1988. Thaliaces de la Mediterranee levantine et du nord de la Mer Rouge. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer. Medit. 31:304.

Godeaux, J. 1988. Thaliaces Mediterraneens: une synthese. (Engl. summary). Bull. Soc. Roy. Liege 57:359-377.

Godeaux, J.E.A. 19889. Functions of the endostyle in the tunicates. Bull. Mar. Sci. 45:228-242.

Godeaux, J.E.A. 1989. Thaliacea and Cladocera at both ends of the Suez Canal. Envl. Quality & Ecosystem Stability: v. 4B-Envl. Quality. ISEEQS Pub. ed. by E. Spanier et al. pp. 169-176.

Godeaux, J. 1989. Thaliaces recoltes en mer d'Arabie, dans le golfe Persique et dans le golfe d'Aden par le N.O. Commandant Robert Giraud. Bull. Seanc. Acad. r. Sci. Outre-Mer Medet. Zitt. K. Acad. overzeese Wet. 34:30l-324.

Godeaux, J. 1990. Thaliaces de la Mediterranee proche orientale et de la Mer Rouge. Bull. Inst. Oceanog. Monaco #7:131-141.

Godeaux, J.E.A. 1990. Urochordata - Thaliacea. Chapt. 15 in Reproductive Biol. of Invertebrates ed. by K.G. & G. Adiyodi, Oxford IBH Publ. Co., New Delhi. IVB:453-469.

Godknecht, A. & T.G. Honegger 1991. Isolation, characterization, and localization of a sperm-bound N-acetylglucosaminidase that is indispensable for fertilization in the ascidian, Phallusia mammillata. Dev. Biol. 143:398-407.

Grosberg, R.K. 1991. Sperm-mediated gene flow and the genetic structure of a population of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Evolution 45:130-142.

Hatcher, A. 1991. The use of metabolic ratios for determining the catabolic substrates of a solitary ascidian. Mar. Biol. 108:433-440. (Herdmania momus)

Havenhand, J. 1991. Fertilisation and the potential for dispersal of gametes and larvae in the solitary ascidian Ascidia mentula Muller. Ophelia 33:1-15.

Havenhand, J. & I. Svane 1991. Roles of hydrodynamics and larval behaviour in determining spatial aggregation in the tunicate Ciona intestinalis. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 68:271-276.

Hernandez-Marine, M., X. Turon & J. Catalan 1990. A marine Synechocystis (Chroococcales, Cyanophyta) epizoic on didemnid ascidians from the Mediterranean Sea. Phycologia 29:275-284.

Hirakow, R. & N. Kajita 1990. An electron microscopic study of the development of amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense: cleavage. J. Morph. 203:331-344.

Holland, N.D. & L. Z. Holland 1991. The fine structure of the growth stage oocytes of a lancelet (= amphioxus) Branchiostoma lanceolatum. Invert. Repro. & Develop. 19: 107-122.

Holland, P.W.H. 1991. Cloning and evolutionary analysis of msh-like homeobox genes from mouse, zebrafish and ascidian. Gene 98:253-257. (Ciona intestinalis)

Hurlbut, C.J. 1991. The effects of larval abundance, settlement and juvenile mortality on the depth distribution of a colonial ascidian. J. Expt. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 150:183-202.

Jeffery, W.R. & B.J. Swalla 1991. An evolutionary change in the muscle lineage of an anural ascidian embryo is restored by interspecific hybridization with a urodele ascidian. Dev. Biol. 145:328-337.

Kawamura, K., H.Fujita & M. Nakauchi 1988. Helper function of follicle cells in sperm-egg interactions of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. Develop., Growth & Differ. 30:693-703.

Kawamura, K., H. Fujita & M. Nakauchi 1989. Concanavalin A modifies allo-specific sperm-egg interactions in the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. Develop., Growth & Differ. 31:493-501.

Kawamura,, K. & M. Nakauchi 1991. The effect of aphidicolin on morphogenesis of epithelial stem cells during budding in ascidians. Mem. Fac. Sci. Kochi Univ. 12:61-65.

Kawamura, K. & M. Nakauchi 1991. Homeostatic integration of stem cell dynamics during palleal budding of ascidians. Zool. Sci. 8:11-22. (review)

Kawamura, K. et al. 1991. Self-nonself recognition activity extracted from self-sterile eggs of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. Develop., Growth & Differ. 33:139-148.

Kessel, R.G. 1989. The cytoarchitecture of the cortical ooplasm of Styela oocytes with special reference to annulate lamellae-endoplasmic reticulum relationships. J. Submicrosc. Cytol. Pathol. 21:509-519.

Koch, R.A. & C.C. Lambert 1990. Ultrastructure of sperm, spermiogenesis, and sperm-egg interactions in selected invertebrates and lower vertebrates which use external fertilization. J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 16:115-154.

Kusakabe, T. et al. 1991. Temporal and spatial expression of a muscle actin gene during embryogenesis of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Develop., Growth & Differ. 33:227-234.

Lafargue, F. & M. Wahl 1990. Contribution to the knowledge of littoral ascidians (Ascidiacea, Tunicata) of the Senegalese coast. Bull. Inst. Fond. d'Afrique Noire 46:385-402.

Lambert, C., F. Lafargue & G. Lambert 1990. Preliminary note on the genetic isolation of Ciona species (Ascidiacea, Urochordata). Vie Milieu 40:293-295.

Lubbering, B. & G. Goffinet 1991. Ultrastructural survey of tunic morphogenesis in the larval and young adult ascidian Ascidiella aspersa (Tunicata, Ascidiacea). Belg. J. Zool. 121:39-53.

Lubbering, B., G. Goffinet & J. Godeaux 1990. Etude ultrastructurale de la morphogenese et des remaniements du revetement tunical au cours du developpement et de la metamorphose de la larve de l'ascidie Ascidiella aspersa (Tunicata, Ascidiacea). Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Medit. 32:225-226.

Makabe, K.W. et al. 1990. Specific expression of myosin heavy chain gene in muscle lineage cells of the ascidian embryo. Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 199:307-313.

McClintock, J.B. et al. 1991. Biochemical and energetic composition, population biology, and chemical defense of the antarctic ascidian Cnemidocarpa verrucosa Lesson. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 147:163-1;75.

McLean, N. & C.P. Galt 1990. Apodinium floodi n. sp., a dinoflagellate (Dinoflagellata:Apodinidae) ectoparasitic on Oikopleura labradoriensis (Urochordata:Larvacea). Diseases of Aquat. Org. 9:213-219.

Michibata, H., A. Morita & K. Kanamori 1991. Vanadobin, a vanadium-binding substance extracted from the blood cells of an ascidian, can reduce vanadate (V) to vanadyl (IV). Biol. Bull. 181:189-194.

Monniot, C. 1990-91. Ascidies de Nouvelle-Caledonie VIII. Phlebobranches (suite). Bull. Mus. natn. Hist. nat., Paris 12:491-515.

Monniot, C. & F. Monniot 1990. Relationships between deep-sea tunicate populations west and east of the Straits of Gibraltar. Prob. Oceanog. 24:289:296.

Monniot, C. & F. Monniot 1990. Revision of the class Sorberacea (benthic tunicates) with descriptions of seven new species. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 99:239-290.

Monniot, C. & F. Monniot 1991. Discovery of a new lineage among the deep sea ascidians: a carnivorous Ascidiidae. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 312:383-388. (in English abridged & French)

Monniot, F. 1990-91. Ascidies de Nouvelle-Caledonie. IX. Le genre Trididemnum. Bull. Mus. natn. Hist. nat., Paris 12:517-529.

Morikawa, Y. & N. Satoh 1991. Gray and red fragments of the egg of the ascidian Ciona savignyi: preferential development of muscle cells from gray fragments. Dev., Growth & Differ. 33:307-316.

Nishikata, T. & N. Satoh 1991. Expression of an antigen specific for trunk lateral cells in quarter embryos of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi. J. Exp. Zool. 258:344-352.

Nishikawa, T. 1991. The ascidians of the Japan Sea. II. Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab. 35:25-170.

Ohtsuki, H. 1989. The fate of the pigment cells in the cerebral vesicle of the ascidian larva, Styela plicata (Lesueur), during metamorphosis. Res. Bull. Fac. Ed., Oita Univ. 11:201-209.

Ohtsuki, H. 1990. Inner structures of the cerebral vesicle in the ascidian larva, Styela plicata: an SEM study. Zool. Sci. 7:739-746.

Ohtsuki, H. 1990. Statocyte and ocellar pigment cell in embryos and larvae of the ascidian, Styela plicata (Lesueur). Develop., Growth & Differ. 32:85-90.

Ohtsuki, H. 1991. Sensory organs in the cerebral vesicle of the ascidian larva, Aplidium sp.:an SEM study. Zool. Sci. 8:235-242.

Ohtsuki, H., K. Hirakawa & M. Yoshida 1989. Development of the solitary ascidian, Styela plicata (Lesueur). Res. Bull. Fac. Ed., Oita Univ. 11:117-132. (in Japanese, English abstr.)

Onate, F.C. 1991. Food and daily ration of the rock sole Lepidopsetta bilineata (Pleuronectidae) in the eastern Bering Sea. Mar. Biol. 108:185-191. (incl. Urochord., spp. not listed)

Ortolani, G. 1989. In memory of Giuseppe Reverberi. Acta Embryol. Morphol. Exper. n.s. 10:3-11.

Perera, M., M. Ballesteros & X. Turon 1990. Estudio de los organismos epibiontes en un cultivo de bivalvos marinos del delta del Ebro. Cah. Biol. Mar. 31:385-399.

Perry, N.B., J.W. Blunt & M.H.G. Munro 1991. Cytotoxic and antifungal C14 amines from a New Zealand ascidian: major lipid components of Pseudodistoma novaezelandiae. Aust. J. Chem. 44:627-633.

Rinkevich, B. & I.L. Weissman 1989. Variation in the outcomes following chimera formation in the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri. Bull. Mar. Sci. 45:213-227.

Robinson, W.E. et al. 1991. Glutathione effects Ciona intestinalis larval tunic morphogenesis. J. Exp. Zool. 257:58-63.

Simoncini, L. & W.J. Moody 1991. Dependence of Ca2+ and K+ current development on RNA and protein synthesis in muscle-lineage cells of the ascidian Boltenia villosa. J. Neurosci. 11:1413-1420.

Stocker, L.J. & A.J. Underwood 1991. The relationship between the presence of neighbours and rates of sexual and asexual reproduction in a colonial invertebrate. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. in press. (Didemnum moseleyi)

Stoner, D. 1990. Recruitment of a tropical colonial ascidian: relative importance of pre-settlement vs. post-settlement processes. Ecology 71:1682-1690.

Suzuki, T. et al. 1990. A calcium-dependent galactose-binding lectin from the tunicate Polyandrocarpa misakiensis. J. Biol. Chem. 265:1274-1281.

Turon, X. 1988. Distribucion ecologica le las ascidias en las costas de Cataluna e Islas Baleares (Mediterraneo Occidental). Misc. Zool. 12:219-236.

Turon, X. 1990. Distribution and abundance of ascidians from a locality on the northeast coast of Spain. P.S.Z.N.I.: Mar. Ecol. 11:291-308.

Van Daele, Y. 1990. Organisation du tegument des ascidies Halocynthia papillosa Gun. et Phallusia mammillata Cuv. (Urochordata, Ascidiacea). Morphogenese, ultrastructure et composition chimique de la tunique en relation avec ses propietes physiques. Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege, fasc. 5:5-93.

Van Daele, Y., F. Gaill & G. Goffinet 1991. Parabolic pattern of a peculiar striated body in the tunic of the ascidian Halocynthia papillosa (Tunicate, Ascidiacea). J. Struct. Biol. 106:115-124.

Wahl, M. 1989. Marine eipbiosis I. Fouling and antifouling: some basic aspects. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 58:175-189.

Wahl, M. & F. Lafargue 1990. Marine epibiosis II. Reduced fouling on Polysyncraton lacazei (Didemnidae, Tunicata) and proposal of an antifouling potential index. Oecologia 82:275-282.