Ascidian News*

Charles and Gretchen Lambert
Department of Biological Science
California State University Fullerton
Fullerton, California 92634
tel. (714)773-3481 Fax (714)773-3426
e-mail: or

Number 32
May 1992

The fall passed rapidly with too much teaching but very good research students in the lab. In late December we attended the WSN meetings in Santa Barbara and saw many of our old friends but were disappointed in the number of ascidian papers presented.
After the meetings we spent most of January at Friday Harbor, and were shocked to discover that Ascidia callosahad experienced a major die-off. This species was abundant on most floats throughout last summer but was completely missing from both major harbors in January with only a few to be found at all, and these were sick and dying. This is the first time in over 25 years that this species has been hard to collect. The other solitary ascidians were present in undiminished numbers. This suggests that some specific pathogen was involved rather than a general enviromnental problem. Also George Mackie reported that the A. callosa on Vancouver Island seemed to be okay, further supporting the idea of a specific pathogen on San Juan Island. We intend to monitor closely the regrowth of this most useful and normally abundant ascidian.
Last month we visited the Catalina Marine Lab where Gretchen and I lectured on ascidians in Richard Emlet's invertebrate zoology class and went dredging with the class. We found Ciona savignyi for the first time outside Los Angeles Harbor and Pyura vittata for the first time on our coast. Microcosmus squamiger, another recent invader, was abundant on floats.
Please continue to send us a reprint of all your ascidian papers. We greatly appreciate these additions to our reference collection, and it is the best way to assure that your papers will be included in A.N.
This June we will attend the Chris Reed Memorial Symposium at Friday Harbor and then spend the rest of the summer at Hopkins Marine Station, where we will work in David Epel's lab on fertilization and mineralization. Our address for the summer, from June 1-August 31, will be: Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, CA 93950; the lab number is (408) 655-6200, home (408) 372-0574. If you are in the area, stop by!


Van Names's monograph available again. The North and South American Ascidians by W.G. Van Name 1945, Bull. of the Amer. Mus. of Natural History vol 84, has been reprinted and is now available for $60.00. Please write to Walter J. Johnson Inc., 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, NJ 07648-2090 and include $5.00 for domestic or $10.00 for foreign postage and insurance charges. They will accept money orders in U.S. dollars or checks drawn on a U.S. bank.

Ascidian film still available. The outstanding 16 mm color film, Les Ascidies (Ascidiacea) (Urochordes, Urochordata) with sound track in French or English, 25 minutes in length and made in 1983 by Dr. F. Lafargue and J. Lecomte, is available for rent or purchase (5000FF, $873 U.S.) at C.N.R.S. Audiovisuel, 1 Place Aristide Briand, 92195 Meudon Cedex, France, tel. 45075686, Fax 45075900. It can also be purchased as videocassette VHS, PAL or SECAM for 488FF or $85 U.S. The film was taken underwater and features the common ascidian spp. from the Banyuls area of the Mediterranean. It illustrates feeding, respiration, reproduction and development both sexual and asexual. Swimming larvae are compared with appendicularians. Time-lapse photography shows the occurrence of spicules in didemnids and their migration from the lateral thoracic organs into the tunic.

Winona Trason Memorial. Monterey Peninsula College colleagues and friends of Dr. Winona Trason, who passed away Dec. 14, 1991, are building an outdoor memorial near the Life Science building which will be a place for students and faculty to gather for informal discussions and which will include engravings of, among other things, sketches of tunicates. Winona published a number of papers on ascidians, particularly Euherdmania claviformis and Pycnoclavella stanleyi, and worked with Don Abbott for many years.


1. Dr. E.L. Cooper, Dept. of Anatomy, Sch. of Medicine, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024.
Dr. Cooper and his associates have a very active research program on aspects of the immunobiology of tunicate hemocytes. They have identified markers which may be homologous with vertebrate lymphocyte markers, and are working on cytokine-like molecules from tunicate cells that appear to be involved in immuno-defense. A number of papers are in press and in preparation.

2. Charles and Gretchen Lambert, CSU Fullerton.
John Downey completed his M.A. degree on the method of anchorage of the sperm surface glycosidase to the sperm membrane. Charley is continuing to work on egg activation and glycosidase release along with Dr. Christina Goode in our Chemistry/ Biochemistry Department. Three undergraduate students are also working on this project. Bob Koch and Charley are working on sperm penetration and Bob has 2 graduate students involved in this work. Gretchen is busy working on mineralization in Pyura pachydermatina and also working as a consultant in ascidian identifications for environmental assessments.

For complete abstracts of ascidian papers presented at the following meetings, request copy of AN32.
Amer. Soc. of Zoologists meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, Dec. 27-30, 1991.
3rd Pacific-Asia Symposium on Biologically Active Products, Noumea, New Caledonia, August 26-30, 1991.
Western Soc. of Naturalists meeting, Santa Barbara, CA, December 27-30, 1991.
Temperate Reef Symposium, Univ. of Aukland, Jan. 7-10, 1992.
First Calif. State Univ. Electron Microscopy Colloquium, Long Beach, CA, Nov. 22-23, 1991.


Bates, W.R. 1991. Ampulla morphogenesis in anural and urodele molgulid ascidians. Develop., Growth & Differ. 33:401-410.

Bates, W.R. & J.E. Mallett 1991. Ultrastructural and histochemical study of anural development in the ascidian Molgula pacifica (Huntsman). Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 200:193-201.

Batty, R.S., J.H.S. Blaxter & Q. Bone 1991. The effect of temperature on the swimming of a teleost (Clupea harengus) and an ascidian larva (Dendrodoa grossularia). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 100A: 297-300.

Bingham, B.L. & C.M. Young 1991. Influence of sponges on invertebrate recruitment: a field test of allelopathy. Mar. Biol. 109:19-26.

Bingham, B.L. & C.M. Young 1991. Larval behavior of the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata Herdman: an in situ experimental study of the effects of swimming on dispersal. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 145:189-204.

Burighel, P. et al. 1989. Junctional diversity in two regions of the epidermis of Oikopleura dioica (Tunicata, Larvacea). Cell Tiss. Res. 257:529-535.

Burighel, P. et al. 1992. Junctional complexes of the branchia and gut of the tunicate, Pyrosoma atlanticum (Pyrosomatida, Thaliacea). Cell Tiss. Res. 267:357-364.

Chiva, M., E. Rosenberg & H.E. Kasinsky 1990. Nuclear basic proteins in mature testis of the ascidian tunicate Styela montereyensis. J. Exp. Zool. 253:7-19.

Cloney, R.A. 1989. Urochordata--Ascidiacea. In Reproductive Biology of Invertebrates, ed. by K.G. & R.G. Adiyodi. Vol.4, Part B - Fertilization, Development & Parental Care, pp. 391-451.

Copp, B.R. & C.M. Ireland 1991. Wakayin: a novel cytotoxic pyrroliminoquinone alkaloid from the ascidian Clavelina species. J. Organic Chem. 56:4596-4597.

Cotelle, N. et al. 1991. Antioxidant properties of natural hydroquinones from the marine colonial tunicate Aplidium californicum. Free Radical Biol. & Medicine 11:63-68.

Davis, A.R., A.J. Butler & I. van Altena 1991. Settlement behaviour of ascidian larvae: preliminary evidence for inhibition by sponge allelochemicals. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 72:117-123.

Davis, A.R. & A.E. Wright 1989. Interspecific differences in fouling of two congeneric ascidians (Eudistoma olivaceum and E. capsulatum): is surface acidity an effective defense? Mar. Biol. 102:491-497.

Davis, A.R. & A.E. Wright 1990. Inhibition of larval settlement by natural products from the ascidian Eudistoma olivaceum (Van Name). J. Chem. Ecol. 16:1349-1357.

Davis, A.R. et al. 1989. Epibiosis of marine algae and benthic invertebrates: natural products chemistry and other mechanisms inhibiting settlement and overgrowth. In: Bioorganic Marine Chemistry 3:85-114.

Dey, C.S. & C.J. Brokaw 1991. Activation of Ciona sperm motility: phosphorylation of dynein polypeptides and effects of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. J. Cell Sci. 100:815-824.

Fahy, E. et al. 1991. 6-bromotryptamine derivatives from the Gulf of California tunicate Didemnum candidum. J. Natural Products 54:564-569.

Feldgarden, M. & P.O. Yund 1992. Allorecognition in colonial marine invertebrates: does selection favor fusion with kin or fusion with self? Biol. Bull. 182:155-158.

Fisher, N.S., C.V. Nolan & KG. Gorsky 1991. The retention of cadmium and zinc in appendicularian houses. Oceanologica Acta 14:427-430.

Flood, P. 1991. Architecture of, and water circulation and flow rate in, the house of the planktonic tunicate Oikopleura labradoriensis. Mar. Biol. 111:95-111.

Flood, P.R., D. Deibel & C.C. Morris 1992. Filtration of colloidal melanin from sea water by planktonic tunicates. Nature 355:630-632.

Fredriksson, G. & R. Olsson 1991. The subchordal cells of Oikopleura dioica and O. albicans (Appendicularia, Chordata). Acta Zool. 72:251-256.

Fujiwara, S. & N. Satoh 1990. An 83-kDa embryonic-type nuclear antigen is detected within the germinal vesicles of oocytes of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 199:207-211.

Fujiwara, S. & N. Satoh 1990. Mass isolation of germinal vesicles from oocytes of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi. Bull. Mar. Biol. Sta. Asamushi 18:147-159.

Fujiwara, S. & N. Satoh 1990. Pattern of segregation of mitochondria into muscle lineage cells during embryogenesis of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Develop., Growth & Differ. 32:531-539.

Fukumoto, M. 1990. Morphological aspects of ascidian fertilization: acrosome reaction, apical processes and gamete fusion in Ciona intestinalis. Invert. Repro. & Develop. 17:147-154.

Gianguzza, M. & G. Dolcemascolo 1988. Further ultrastructural and cytochemical studies of test formation in the swimming larva of Ciona intestinalis. Acta Embryol. Morphol. Exper. n.s. 9:75-84.

Harumi, T. et al. 1990. Phospholipid utilization in ascidian Ciona intestinalis spermatozoa during swimming. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 96A:263-265.

He, H. & D.J. Faulkner 1991. Eudistones A and B: two novel octacyclic alkaloids from a Seychelles tunicate, Eudistoma sp. J. Organic Chem. 56:5369-5371.

Hirata, J. & H. Michibata 1991. Valency of vanadium in the vanadocytes of Ascidia gemmata separated by density-gradient centrifugation. J. Exp. Zool. 257:160-165.

Hurlbut, C.J. 1991. Community recruitment: settlement and juvenile survival of seven co-occurring species of sessile marine invertebrates. Mar. Biol. 109:507-515.

Kingsford, M.J., A. J. Underwood & S.J. Kennelly 1991. Humans as predators on rocky reefs in New South Wales, Australia. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 72:1-14.

Kong, F. & D.J. Faulkner 1991. Pictamine, a quinolizidine alkaloid from the tunicate Clavelina picta. Tetrahedron Letters 32:3667-3668.

Lafargue, F. & A. Fiala-Medioni 1991. Complementary data on the ascidian fauna of rocky bottoms off Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie Milieu 41:271-274.

Lauzon, R.J. & I.L. Weissman 1990. The paternal centrosome directs the polarity of early pattern formation in the fertilized Ascidia ceratodes egg. pp. 131-138 in: Advances in Invert. Repro., Proc. 5th Intl. Cong. of Invert. Repro., Nagoya, Japan, 1989. Ed. by M. Hoshi & O. Yamashita. Elsevier Sci. Publ.

Lesser, M.P. & W.R. Stochaj 1990. Photoadaptation and protection against active forms of oxygen in the symbiotic procaryote Prochloron sp. and its ascidian host. Applied & Env'l. Microbiol. 56:1530-1535.

Litscher, E. & T.G. Honegger 1991. Glycoprotein constituents of the vitelline coat of Phallusia mammillata (Ascidiacea) with fertilization inhibiting activity. Dev. Biol. 148:536-551.

Lubbering, B., T. Nishikata & G. Goffinet 1992. Initial stages of tunic morphogenesis in the ascidian Halocynthia: a fine structural study. Tissue & Cell 24:121-130.

Mancuso, V. 1989. Microvesicular cells in metamorphosing Ciona intestinalis. Acta Embryol. Morphol. Exper. n.s. 10:141-150.

Marikawa, Y. & N. Satoh 1991. Gray and red fragments of the egg of the ascidian Ciona savigni: preferential development of muscle cells from gray fragments. Develop., Growth & Differ. 33:307-316.

Martinucci, G.B., P. Burighel & R. Dallai 1991. Fine structure and function of ciliated cells in the ascidian branchial basket. In: Form and Function in Zoology ed. by G. Lanzavecchia & R. Valvassori. Selected Symp. & Monographs U.Z.I. 5:123-140.

Martinucci, G.B. et al. 1990. Unusual features of intercellular junctions in the larvacean Oikopleura dioica. Cell Tiss. Res. 260:299-305.

Matthews, R.J. et al. 1991. Protein tyrosine phosphatase domains from the protochordate Styela plicata. Immunogenetics 33:33-41.

McDonald, L.A. & C.M. Ireland 1992. Patellamide E: a new cyclic peptide from the ascidian Lissoclinum patella. J. Nat. Products 55:376-379.

McNulty, J. & I.W.J. Still 1991. Diastereoselective Pictet-Spengler reactions of L-(Boc)Prolinal: a biomimetic synthesis of eudistomins H and I, and woodinine. Tetrahedron Letters 32:4875-4878.

Michibata, H. 1989. New aspects of accumulation and reduction of vanadium ions in ascidians, based on concerted investigation from both a chemical and biological viewpoint. Zool. Sci. 6:639-647.

Michibata, H., Y. Iwata & J. Hirata 1991. Isolation of highly acidic and vanadium-containing blood cells from among several types of blood cell from Ascidiidae species by density-gradient centrifugation. J. Exp. Zool. 257:306-313.

Michibata, H. & H. Sakurai 1990. Vanadium in ascidians. In: Vanadium in Biol. Systems, ed. by N.D. Chasteen, pp. 153-171. Kluwer Acad. Publ., Netherlands.

Michibata, H. & T. Uyama 1990. Extraction of vanadium-binding substance (vanadobin) from a subpopulation of signet ring cells newly identified as vanadocytes in ascidians. J. Exp. Zool. 254:132-137.

Michibata, H. et al. 1988. Autonomous fluorescence of ascidian blood cells with special reference to identification of vanadocytes. Experientia 44:906-907.

Michibata, H. et al. 1989. Effects of vanadium ions in different oxidation states on myosin ATPase extracted from the solitary ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi (Drasche). Zool. Sci. 6:289-293.

Michibata, H. et al. 1990. Extraction of a vanadium-binding substance (vanadobin) from the blood cells of several ascidian species. Biol. Bull. 179:140-147.

Michibata, H. et al. 1990. Vanadium-containing blood cells (vanadocytes) show no fluorescence due to the tunichrome in the ascidian, Ascidia sydneiensis samea. Zool. Sci. 7:55-61.

Michibata, H. et al. 1991. Uptake of 48V-labeled vanadium by subpopulations of blood cells in the ascidian, Ascidia gemmata. Zool. Sci. 8:447-452.

Monniot, C. 1991. Ascidies de Nouvelle-Caledonie. X. Stolidobranches (suite). Bull. Mus. natl. Hist. nat., Paris 13:3-37.

Monniot, C. & F. Monniot 1991. Tunicata: Peuplements d'ascidies profondes en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Diversite des strategies adaptives. Mem. Mus. natn. Hist. nat., (A) 151:357-448.

Mourao, P.A.S. 1991. Epimerization of D-glucose to L-galactose during the biosynthesis of a sulfated L-galactan in the ascidian tunic. Biochemistry 30:3458-3464.

Na, G.-H., C.-S. Lee & W.-J. Choi 1991. The effect of dissolved oxygen on the estival mass mortality of sea squirt, Halocynthia roretzi (Drasche). (in Korean; English abstract). Bull. Korean Fish. Soc. 24:52-58.

Nakauchi, M. & K. Kawamura 1990. Problems on the asexual reproduction of ascidians. pp. 49-54 in: Advances in Invert. Repro., Proc. 5th Intl. Cong. of Invert. Repro., Nagoya, Janap 1989. Ed. by M. Hoshi & O. Yamashita. Elsevier Sci. Publ.

Niwa, H., H. Inagaki & K. Yamada 1991. Didemnilactone and neodidemnilactone, two new fatty acid metabolites possessing a 10-membered lactone from the tunicate Didemnum moseleyi (Herdman). Tetrahedron Letters 32:5127-5128.

Oliver, A.E., D.W. Deamer & M. Akeson 1991. Evidence that sensitivity to steroid anesthetics appears late in evolution. Brain Res. 557:298-302.

Ooishi, S. 1991. North Pacific copepods (Cyclopoida: Ascidicolidae) associated mostly with compound ascidians. Proc. 4th Intl. Conf. on Copepoda. Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan spec. vol., pp. 49-68.

Paffenhofer, G.A. et al. 1991. High-resolution vertical profiles of pelagic tunicates. J. Plankton Res. 13:971-981.

Potts, B.C.M. et al. 1991. Didemnaketals A and B, HIV-1 protease inhibitors from the ascidian Didemnum sp. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 113:6321-6322.

Purcell, J. & L.P. Madin 1991. Diel patterns of migration, feeding, and spawning by salps in the subarctic Pacific. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 73:211-217.

Ramos, A.A. et al. 1991. The littoral ascidians of the Spanish Mediterranean II. Balearic Islands. Species collected by the R/V "Prof. Georges Petit". Vie Milieu 41:153-163.

Reas, P.G., N. Ferruzza & R. Vitturi 1990. Production of lobes induced by a persistent low external level of sodium in ascidian Ciona intestinalis eggs. Acta Embryol. Morphol. Exper. n.s. 11:149-156.

Reinecke, M. et al. 1991. Phylogenetic aspects of pancreastatin- and chromogranin-like immunoreactive cells in the gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine system of vertebrates. Gen. & Comp. Endocrinol. 83:167-182.

Saffo, M.B. 1988. Nitrogen waste or nitrogen source? Urate degradation in the renal sac of molgulid tunicates. Biol. Bull. 175:403-409.

Saffo, M.B. 1990. Symbiosis within a symbiosis: intracellular bacteria within the endosymbiotic protist Nephromyces. Mar. Biol. 107:291-296.

Saffo, M.B. 1991. Symbiogenesis and the evolution of mutualism: lessons from the Nephromyces-bacterial endosymbiosis in molgulid tunicates. Chapt. 26 in: Symbiosis as a Source of Evolutionary Innovation, pp. 410-429. Ed. by L. Margulis & R. Fester. MIT Press, Mass.

Saiga, H. et al. 1991. Molecular cloning and expression of a novel homeobox gene AHox1 of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi. Development 111:821-828.

Sasikumar, N., K.V.K. Nair & J. Azariah 1990. Colonization of marine foulants at a power plant site. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 99:525-531.

Satoh, N., S. Fujiwara & K.W. Makabe 1991. Cell lineage and differentiation of muscle cells in prochordate embryos. In: Frontiers in Muscle Research, ed. by E. Ozawa et al. Chapt. 13, pp. 169-178.

Satoh, N. et al. 1990. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of muscle cell differentiation in ascidian embryos. In: Intl. Rev. of Cytology 122:221-258.

Sawada, H. 1990. Sperm penetration through the vitelline coat in ascidians. pp. 111-116 in: Advances in Invert. Repro., Proc. 5th Intl. Cong. of Invert. Repro., Nagoya, Japan 1989. Ed. by M. Hoshi & O. Yamashita. Elsevier Sci. Publ.

Shigeta, S., K. Ono & S. Oka 1991. Purification and characterization of a sea squirt beta - galactosidase. J. Biochem. 110:136-140.

Svane, I. & C.M. Young 1991. Sensory structures in tadpole larvae of the ascidians Microcosmus exasperatus Heller and Herdmania momus (Savigny). Acta Zool. 72:129-135.

Taylor, S.W. et al. 1991. Oxidation of peptidyl 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine analogues: implications for the biosynthesis of tunichromes and related oligopeptides. J. Natural Products 54:918-922.

Turon, X. 1989. Loxocalyx leptoclini (Entoprocta), epibionte de ascidias en el litoral ne espanol. Misc. Zool. 13:194-197. (in Spanish)

Turon, X. 1991. Morphology of the adhesive papillae of some ascidian larvae. Cah. Biol. Mar. 32:295-309.

Turon, X., M. Hernandez-Marine & J. Catalan 1991. A new species of Komvophoron (Cyanophyta, Borziaceae) epibiote on ascidians from the Mediterranean Sea. Algological Studies 64:249-259.

Usui, N., I. Takahashi & M. Hoshi 1987. Membrane differentiation in ascidian spermatozoa. pp. 265-274 In: New Horizons in Sperm Research, ed. by H. Mohri. Japan Sci. Soc. Press.

Wahl, M. & B. Benaigs 1991. Marine epibiosis III. Possible anti-fouling defense and adaptations in Polysyncraton lacazei (Giard) (Didemnidae, Ascidiacea). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 145:49-63.

Zaniolo, G., L. Manni & P. Burighel 1989. Test cell differentiation during oogenesis and early embryogenesis of Botryllus schlosseri (Ascidiacea). Acta Embryol. Morphol. Exper. n.s. 10:229-236.