Ascidian News*

Charles and Gretchen Lambert
Department of Biological Science
California State University Fullerton
Fullerton, California 92634
tel. (714)773-3481 Fax (714)773-3426
e-mail: or

Number 33
November 1992

We attended the Chris Reed Memorial Symposium at Friday Harbor in June and were delighted to see so many old friends there. The meetings were a tremendous success and the proceedings are in the review process now. The remainder of the summer we spent at the Hopkins Marine Station in Pacific Grove in David Epel's lab. Ascidia ceratodes and Ciona intestinalis were very abundant on the floats throughout the summer. Gretchen worked on mineralization in Cystodytes and managed to culture colonies and fix them for electron microscopy at various times during spicule development. She also brought living colonies back to Fullerton where she is continuing to follow spicule formation. Charley continued work on ions and glycosidase release during fertilization and also prepared large cultures of tadpoles for polysaccharide analysis by Mauro Pavao in Rio de Janeiro.
This fall is going by at a rapid pace as we try to get done all of the usual fall things like teaching, committees and research etc. We plan to spend January at Friday Harbor. It will be interesting to see if A. callosa has re-colonized the floats but we will also be working on ovulation in Boltenia villosa.
We really need short contributions from you for our Work in Progress section. We also like to include thesis abstracts. Please continue sending us your reprints on ascidian biology. We are grateful that so many of you send us these interesting accounts and this is the best way to insure that we include the reference in A.N. With so many libraries cutting their subscription lists these days, it is more important than ever to ensure that our new publication lists are complete.
We are due for a sabbatical leave beginning in June and the papers have been filed. We are waiting to see if there will be any leaves next year with the California recession. If the sabbatical is granted we plan to spend June-November in France, working in Roscoff and Villefranche-sur-Mer, and from late November until the end of January 1994 in the Portobello laboratory near Dunedin, New Zealand. We hope to see many of you during our travels.

*Ascidian News is not part of the scientific literature and should not be cited as such.


Dr. Robert Fenaux has just retired from the Station Zoologique in Villefranche sur-mer after more than 30 years of research on appendicularian (larvacean) tunicates. His work includes over 80 papers and monographs on such topics as systematics, taxonomy, distribution, morphology, behavior, and culture. We wish him a long and pleasant retirement.
Congratulations to Dr. William R. Jeffery, who was recently selected as a AAAS Fellow by the AAAS Council. This award is for the many notable discoveries that Dr. Jeffery has made in the molecular biology of ascidian development.
A number of copies of several papers by the late Dr. Winona Trason were recently made available to us by Ralph Smith for distribution to AN members. They include: The life cycle and affinities of the colonial ascidian Pycnoclavella stanleyi; Brief notes on interesting ascidians (from the Gulf of Calif.); Ascidians of the Canadian Arctic waters. Please let us know the titles of any that you wish.
Dr. Motonori Hoshi has generously offered to print copies of AN in Japan and mail them to our Japanese members. This will save us a considerable expense in overseas mail costs. We would like to request that a volunteer from Italy do the same for us for the large number of AN subscribers there.
Dr. Werner Peters, Inst. fur Zool., Univ. of Dusseldorf, Universitatsstra. 1, D-4000 Dusseldorf, Germany has published a book entitled Peritrophic Membranes which contains a short section on the Tunicata. The price is 228 DM and can be ordered through Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, W-1000 Berlin 33, F.R. Germany.
Dr. Patricia Kott's third volume on the taxonomy of the Australian Ascidiacea has just appeared and includes part 2 of the Aplousobranchia and a Supplement. The complete reference is given in the New Publications section. Her Graphic Key to Ascidian Families from this volume, a concise and novel alternative to the usual dichotomous key, is included here with her kind permission.


Abstracts from the Amer. Soc. for Cell Biol. meetings, Denver, Colorado, Nov. 15-19, 1992. Request hard copy.


Azumi, K., H. Yokosawa & S.-I. Ishii 1990a. Halocyamines: novel antimicrobial tetrapeptide-like substances isolated from the hemocytes of the solitary ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Biochemistry 29:159-165.

Azumi, K., H. Yokosawa & S. Ishii 1990b. Presence of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-containing peptides in hemocytes of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi. Experientia 46:1020-1023.

Azumi, K., H. Yokosawa & S. Ishii 1991. Lipopolysaccharide induces release of a metallo-protease from hemocytes of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi. Develop. and Comp. Immunol. 15:1-7.

Azumi, K. et al. 1990. Inhibitory effect of halocyamine an antimicrobial substance from ascidian hemocytes on the growth of fish viruses and marine bacteria. Experientia 46:1066-1068.

Azumi, K. et al. 1991. A novel lipopolysaccharide-binding hemagglutinin isolated from hemocytes of the solitary ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi: it can agglutinate bacteria. Develop. and Comp. Immunol. 15:9-16.

Ballarin, L., F. Cima & A. Sabbadin 1991. Enzyme activity of hemocytes in the colonial ascidian, Botryllus schlosseri. Preliminary results. Acta Embryol. Morphol. Exper. n.s. 12:71-72.

Beach, R.L. & W.R. Jeffery 1992. Multiple actin genes encoding the same alpha-muscle isoform are expressed during ascidian development. Dev. Biol. 151:55-66.

Bergles, D. & S. Tamm 1992. Control of cilia in the branchial basket of Ciona intestinalis (Ascidiacea). Biol. Bull. 182:382-390.

Bishop, J.D.D. & J.S. Ryland 1991. Storage of exogenous sperm by the compound ascidian Diplosoma listerianum. Mar. Biol. 108:111-118.

Buencuerpo, V. 1988. A new description and scanning electron microscope study of the siphons of Dendrodoa grossularia (Tunicata, Ascidiacea). Arch. Biol. 99:365-376.

Buencuerpo, V. 1990a. An anatomical, histological, and scanning electron microscope study of the pharynx of Dendrodoa grossularia (Tunicata, Ascidiacea). Eur. Arch. Biol. 101:153-172.

Buencuerpo, V. 1990b. Microhabitat of the copepod Enteropsis roscoffensis in the ascidian Dendrodoa grossularia. Misc. Zool. 14:41-46.

Buencuerpo, V. 1991. An anatomical and histological study of the postpharyngeal digestive tract of Dendrodoa grossularia (Tunicata, Ascidiacea). Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. Paris 12:173-189.

Burighel, P. & G. Martinucci 1991. Sperm morphology and fertilization biology in ascidians. Acta Embryol. Morphol. Exper. n.s. 12:85-86.

Butler, A.J. 1991. Effect of patch size on communities of sessile invertebrates in Gulf St. Vincent, South Australia. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 153:255-280.

Chiva, M. et al. 1992. Protamines, not histones, are the predominant basic proteins in sperm nuclei of solitary ascidian tunicates. J. Exp. Zool. 263:338-349.

Coombs, J.L., M. Villaz & W.J. Moody 1992. Changes in voltage-dependent ion currents during meiosis and first mitosis in eggs of an ascidian. Dev. Biol. 153:272-282.

Cooper, E.L. et al. 1992. Invertebrate immunity: another viewpoint. Scand. J. Immunol. 35:247-266.

Dale, B., L. Santella & E. Tosti 1991. Gap-junctional permeability in early and cleavage-arrested ascidian embryos. Development 112:153-160.

Dallai, R. et al. 1989. Actin localization at the tight junctions of invertebrate ciliated epithelia. Tiss. & Cell 21:37-46.

Davis, A.R. 1991. Alkaloids and ascidian chemical defense: evidence for the ecological role of natural products from Eudistoma olivaceum. Mar. Biol. 111:375-379.

De Barnardi, F., C. Sotgia & G. Ortolani 1991. Tubulin mRNA and neural determination in ascidian embryos. Acta Embryol. Morphol. Exper. n.s. 12:107-108.

De Santis, R. et al. 1992. Evidence that metalloendoproteases are involved in gamete fusion of Ciona intestinalis, Ascidia. Dev. Biol. 153:165-171.

Goudeau, H., M. Goudeau & N. Guibourt 1992. The fertilization potential and associated membrane potential oscillations during the resumption of meiosis in the egg of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata. Dev. Biol. 153:227-241.

Hatcher, A. 1991. Effect of temperature on carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus turnover by the solitary ascidian Herdmania momus (Savigny). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 152:15-31.

Hily, C. 1991. Is the activity of benthic suspension feeders a factor controlling water quality in the Bay of Brest? Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 69:179-188.

Hirose, E. et al. 1992. Minute protrusions of ascidian tunic cuticle: some implications for ascidian phylogeny. Zool. Sci. 9:405-412.

Holland, L.Z. & N.D. Holland 1992. Early development in the lancelet (=Amphioxus) Branchiostoma floridae from sperm entry through pronuclear fusion: presence of vegetal pole plasm and lack of conspicuous ooplasmic segregation. Biol. Bull. 182:77-96.

Honegger, T.G. 1992. The involvement of sperm and egg glycosidases in animal fertilization. Trends Glycosci. & Glycotech. 4:437-444.

Hurlbut, C.J. 1992. Larval release and supply predict temporal variation in settlement of a colonial ascidian. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 80:215-219.

Ishida, T. et al. 1992. Molecular conformation of ascidiacyclamide, a cytotoxic cyclic peptide from ascidian: X-ray analyses of its free form and solvate crystals. Biopolymers 32:131-143.

Jeffery, W.R. & B.J. Swalla 1992a. Evolution of alternate modes of development in ascidians. BioEssays 14:219-226.

Jeffery, W.R. & B.J. Swalla 1992b. Factors necessary for restoring an evolutionary change in an anural ascidian embryo. Dev. Biol. 153:194-205.

Kawahara, H. & H. Yokosawa 1992. Cell cycle-dependent change of proteasome distribution during embryonic development of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Dev. Biol. 151:27-33.

Kott, P. 1992. The Australian Ascidiacea part 3, Aplousobranchia (2) and Supplement 2. Mem. Queensland Mus. 32:375-655.

Lambert, C.C. & C.A. Goode 1992. Glycolipid linkage of a polyspermy blocking glycosidase to the ascidian egg surface. Dev. Biol. 153:95-100.

Lambert, G. 1992. Ultrastructural aspects of spicule formation in the solitary ascidian Herdmania momus (Urochordata, Ascidiacea). Acta Zool. 73:237-245.

Lauzon, R.J., K.J. Ishizuka & I.L. Weissman 1992. A cyclical, developmentally-regulated death phenomenon in a colonial urochordate. Developmental Dynamics 194:71-83.

Lindquist, N. et al. 1991. Isolation and structure determination of diazonamides A and B, unusual cytotoxic metabolites from the marine ascidian Diazona chinensis. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 113:2303-2304.

Manni, L., G. Zaniolo & P. Burighel 1991. Aspetti ultrastrutturali dell'ovogenesi in Botryllus schlosseri (Ascidiacea, Tunicata). Atti del XVIII Congresso di M.E. :299-300.

Millar, R.H. 1988a. Ascidians collected during the International Indian Ocean Expedition. J. Nat. Hist. 22:823-848.

Millar, R.H. 1988b. Ascidians collected during the South-east Pacific Biological Oceanographic Program (SEPBOP). J. Nat. Hist. 22:225-240.

Millar, R.H. 1988c. Deep-sea ascidians from the eastern Pacific collected during the Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program. J. Nat. Hist. 22:1427-1435.

Millar, R.H. 1988d. The occurrence of the ascidian Didemnum albidum (Verrill, 1871) on the west coast of Scotland. Sarsia 73:147-148.

Monniot, F. et al. 1992. Opal in ascidians: a curious bioaccumulation in the ovary. Mar. Biol. 112:283-292.

Moran, P.J. 1991. The effects of dredging on the larval settlement and community development of fouling organisms in Port Kembla Harbour, Australia. Wat. Res. 25:1151-1155.

Nicol, D. & I.A. Meinertzhagen 1991. Cell counts and maps in the larval central nervous system of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis (L.). J. Comp. Neurol. 309:415-429.

Parry, D.L., S.G. Brand & K. Kustin 1992. Distribution of tunichrome in the Ascidiacea. Bull. Mar. Sci. 50:302-306.

Pinto, M.R. et al. 1990. Chymotrypsin-like enzymes are involved in sperm penetration through the vitelline coat of Ciona intestinalis egg. Molec. Repro. & Develop. 26:319-323.

Prinsep, M.R. et al. 1992. Westiellamide, a bistratamide-related cyclic peptide from the blue-green alga Westiellopsis prolifica. J. Nat. Prod. 55:140-142.

Raftos, D.A. & E.L. Cooper 1991. Proliferation of lymphocyte-like cells from the solitary tunicate, Styela clava, in response to allogeneic stimuli. J. Exp. Zool. 260:391-400.

Raftos, D.A., D.L. Stillman & E.L. Cooper 1990. In vitro culture of tissue from the tunicate Styela clava. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. 26:962-970.

Raftos, D.A., D.L. Stillman & E.L. Cooper 1991. Interleukin-2 and phytohaemagglutinin stimulate the proliferation of tunicate cells. Immunol. & Cell Biol. 69:225-234.

Raftos, D.A. et al. 1991. Invertebrate cytokines: tunicate cell proliferation stimulated by an interleukin 1-like molecule. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 88:9518-9522.

Rinkevich, B. 1992. Aspects of the incompatibility nature in botryllid ascidians. Anim. Biol. 1:17-28.

Rinkevich, B. & C. Rabinowitz 1993. In vitro culture of blood cells from the colonial protochordate Botryllus schlosseri. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. 28A:.

Rinkevich, B. & I.L. Weissman 1991. Interpopulational allogeneic reactions in the colonial protochordate Botryllus schlosseri. Intl. Immunol. 3:1265-1272.

Rinkevich, B. & I.L. Weissman 1992a. Allogeneic resorption in colonial protochordates: consequences of nonself recognition. Develop. and Comp. Immunol. 16:275-286.

Rinkevich, B. & I.L. Weissman 1992b. Incidents of rejection and indifference in Fu/HC incompatible protochordate colonies. J. Exp. Zool. 263:105-111.

Rinkevich, B. et al. 1992. Evidence for a programmed life span in a colonial protochordate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89:3546-3550.

da Rocha, R.M. 1991. Replacement of the compound ascidian species in a southeastern Brazilian fouling community. Bolm Inst. Oceanogr., S Paulo 39:141-153.

Rozzi, R. & J.C. Torres-Mura 1990. The South American sea otter (Lutra felina) observed south of Chiloe Island: background for its conservation. Medio Ambiente 11:24-28.

Ryland, J.S. & J.D.D. Bishop 1993. Internal fertilization in hermaphroditic colonial invertebrates. Oceanog. & Mar. Biol.

Sabbadin, A., G. Zaniolo & L. Ballarin 1992. Genetic and cytological aspects of histocompatibility in ascidians. Boll. Zool. 59:167-173.

Saffo, M.B. 1992. Invertebrates in endosymbiotic associations. Amer. Zool. 32:557-565.

Sardet, C. et al. 1992. Polarity of the ascidian egg cortex before fertilization. Development 115:221-237.

Schmitz, F.J. et al. 1991. Cytotoxic aromatic alkaloids from the ascidians Amphicarpa meridiana and Leptoclinides sp.: meridine and 11 hydroxyascididemin. J. Org. Chem. 56:804-808.

Scippa, S., G. Iazzetti & M. De Vincentiis 1991. Localization of calcium in the gravity receptor of the larva of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata. Acta Embryol. Morphol. Exper. n.s. 12:133-134.

Speksnijder, J.E. 1992. The repetitive calcium waves in the fertilized ascidian egg are initiated near the vegetal pole by a cortical pacemaker. Dev. Biol. 153:259-271.

Svavarsson, J. 1990. Life cycle and population dynamics of the symbiotic copepod Lichomolgus canui Sars associated with the ascidian Halocynthia pyriformis (Rathke). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 142:1-12.

Swalla, B.J. & W.R. Jeffery 1992. Vestigial brain melanocyte development during embryogenesis of an anural ascidian. Develop., Growth & Differ. 34:17-25.

Taylor, S.W. et al. 1991. Oxidation of peptidyl 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine analogues: implications for the biosynthesis of tunichromes and related oligopeptides. J. Nat. Prod. 54:918-922.

Turner, S.J. & C.D. Todd 1991. The effects of Gibbula cineraria (L.), Nucella lapillus ( L.) and Asterias rubens ( L.) on developing epifaunal assemblages. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 154:191-213.

Turon, X. 1990. Structure of the branchial filters of ascidians (Tunicates). Misc. Zool. 14:125-133.

Turon, X. 1992. Periods of non-feeding in Polysyncraton lacazei (Ascidiacea: Didemnidae): a rejuvenative process? Mar. Biol. 112:647-655.

Turon, X. & M.A. Becerro 1992. Growth and survival of several ascidian species from the northwestern Mediterranean. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 82:235-247.

Uriz, M.J. et al. 1991. An approach to the ecological significance of chemically mediated bioactivity in Mediterranean benthic communities. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 70:175-188.

Woods, I.S. & R.P.S. Jefferies 1992. A new stem-group chordate from the lower Ordovician of South Wales, and the problem of locomotion in boot-shaped cornutes. Palaeontology 35:1-25.