Ascidian News*

Charles and Gretchen Lambert
Department of Biological Science
California State University Fullerton
Fullerton, California 92634
tel. (714)773-3481 Fax (714)773-3426
e-mail: or

Number 35
April 1994

At the end of January we returned from an exciting 8-month sabbatical leave, during which we travelled completely around the globe. We spent 6 months in France at the Roscoff and Villefranche marine labs, made brief visits to Banyuls-sur-mer, Zurich and Padua, then a week in Australia with 3 days at the Heron Is. Res. Station on the Great Barrier Reef, and finished with 2 months in New Zealand at the Portobello Marine Lab. We learned a great deal about ascidians, visited with many colleagues and had a wonderful time. We are most grateful to the many people who aided us in our travels and research.
It has been a year since the last issue of AN; we include in this issue about 140 (!) new publications on ascidians. Also, we have included a new mailing list and hope you will find it useful. Please send us a copy of your ascidian papers to ensure their inclusion in the November issue; we appreciate receiving reprints rather than just a reference. Do you have a student who has recently completed a doctorate or master's degree on ascidians?
Send us the thesis abstract for the next AN. We also need Work in Progress articles and abstracts from meetings.
Our address from June 18-August 25 will be Friday Harbor Labs, 620 Univ. Road, Friday Harbor WA 98250.

*Ascidian News is not part of the scientific literature and should not be cited as such.


New Book on Ascidians: Developmental Biology of Ascidians by Dr. Noriyuki Satoh has just been published by Cambridge Univ. Press (1994, 234 pp.; ISBN 0-521-35221-5). This is a lavishly illustrated work that includes descriptive and experimental analysis of the development of solitary ascidians from gametogenesis to metamorphosis. Also included is an account of the development and budding of colonial ascidians. We are sure that many of our readers will want to have a copy of this excellent book.

Millar's 1953 monograph, Ciona, now available: Port Erin Marine Lab has about 30 copies of Ciona by R.H. Millar (LMBC Memoirs No. XXXV, 1953) at a nominal price, plus postage. Send enquiries to the Port Erin Marine Lab, Port Erin, Isle of Man, British Isles.

Request for life history information on Ecteinascidia turbinata: Drs. John Chisholm and Janice Thompson, CalBioMarine Technologies Inc., 5145 Avenida Encinas, Suite C, Carlsbad, CA 92008 USA (Fax 619 431 5925; Tel 619 431 2214) are attempting to rear this species for its tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids, which have a potential for treatment of certain tumors. They have observed cyclical periods of zooid regression and regrowth but with gradually diminishing returns, and request information from AN readers on field biology and ecology and help in lab culture of E. turbinata.

Brainless sea squirts? A snippet from Dick Meyer at Humboldt State Univ., clipped from Herb Caen's column in the San Francisco Chronicle: "Prof. Michael Scriven of Inverness, breezing along the information superhighway in lane one, the Internet, picked up this scientific nugget: 'The juvenile sea squirt wanders through the sea searching for a suitable rock or hunk of coral to cling to and make its home for life. For this task it has a rudimentary nervous system. When it finds its spot and takes root, it doesn't need its brain any more so it eats it. It's rather like getting tenure.' Michael, tenured at Cal for 12 years, gravely nodded his brain-free head."

For complete abstracts of ascidian papers presented at the following recent meetings request copy of AN35.
Amer. Soc. of Zoologists meeting, Los Angeles, CA Dec. 26-30, 1993.
Amer. Soc. for Cell Biol. meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, Dec. 11-15, 1993.


Abdelmajid, H., C. Leclerc-David, M. Moreau, P. Guerrier & A. Ryazanov 1993. Release from the metaphase I block in invertebrate oocytes: possible involvement of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase III. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 37:279-290.

Arnoult, C. & M. Villaz 1994. Differential developmental fates of the two calcium currents in early embryos of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. J. Membane Biol. 137:127-136.

Azumi, K., N. Satoh & H. Yokosawa 1993. Functional and structural characterization of hemocytes of the solitary ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi. J. Exp. Zool. 265:309-316.

Ballarin, L., F. Cima & A. Sabbadin 1993. Histoenzymatic staining and characterization of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Boll. Zool. 60:19-24.

Bayer, E., G. Schiefer, D. Waidelich, S. Scippa & M. de Vincentiis 1992. Structure of the tunichrome of tunicates and its role in concentrating vanadium. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 31:52-54.

Bedo, A.W., J.L. Acuna, D. Robins & R.P. Harris 1993. Grazing in the micron and sub-micron particle size range: the case of Oikopleura dioica (Appendicularia). Bull. Mar. Sci. 53:2-14.

Bishop, J.D.D. & J.S. Ryland 1993. Enzyme electrophoretic evidence forthe prevalence of outcrossing in the hermaphroditic brooding ascidian Dendrodoa grossularia (Chordata, Urochordata). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 168:149-165.

Blackman, A.J., C. Li, D.C.R. Hockless, B.W. Skelton & A.H. White 1993. Cylindricines A and B, novel alkaloids from the ascidian Clavelina cylindrica. Tetrahedron 49:8645-8656.

Bollner, T., P.W. Beesley & M.C. Thorndyke 1993. Distribution of GABA-like immunoreactivity during post-metamorphic development and regeneration of the central nervous system in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Cell Tiss. Res. 272:553-562.

Bollner, T., P.W. Beesley & M.C. Thorndyke 1993. Substance P-like and cholecystokinin-like immunoreactivity during post-metamorphic development of the central nervous system in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Cell Tiss. Res. 272:545-552.

Bollner, T. & I.A. Meinertzhagen 1993. The patterns of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in the nervous system of a larval ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. Biol. Bull. 184:277-285.

Brokaw, C.J. 1993. Microtubule sliding in reduced-amplitude bending waves of Ciona sperm flagella: resolution of metachronous and synchronous sliding components of stable bending waves. Cell Motil. Cytoskel. 26:144-162.

Burighel, P. & G.B. Martinucci 1994. Sexual reproduction in the compound ascidian Diplosoma listerianum (Tunicata). I. Metamorphosis, storage and phagocytosis of sperm in female duct. Mar. Biol. 118:489-498.

Burighel, P. & G.B. Martinucci 1994. Sexual reproduction in the compound ascidian Diplosoma listerianum (Tunicata). II. Sperm penetration through ovary wall and evidence of internal fertilization. Mar. Biol. 118:499-510.

Burighel, P., G.B. Martinucci & F. Magri 1985. Unusual structures in the spermatozoa of the ascidians Lissoclinum perforatum and Diplosoma listerianum (Didemnidae). Cell Tiss. Res. 241:513-521.

Casagrande, L., G.B. Martinucci & P. Burighel 1993. Origin and differentiation of branchial stigmata in the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri (Tunicata). Anim. Biol. 2:111-121.

Casazza, G., R. De Santis & M.R. Pinto 1987. Plasma membrane glycoproteins of Ciona intestinalis spermatozoa that interact with the egg. Dev., Growth & Differ. 30:147-158.

Conradi, M., P.J. Lopezgonzalez & J.C. Garciagomez 1992. A new species of Enterocola Van Beneden, 1860 (Copepoda, Ascidicolidae) associated with Sidnyum elegans (Giard, 1872) from the Iberian peninsula. Crustaceana 63:247-256.

Crafford, T., G.A. Durrheim, V.A. Corfield & M.H. Ricketts 1993. cDNA cloning and analysis of the gene encoding ribosomal protein L21 from the tunicate Pyura stolonifera. S. Afr. J. Sci. 89:478-480.

Crowther, R.J. & J.R. Whittaker 1994. Serial repetition of cilia pairs along the tail surface of an ascidian larva. J. Exp. Zool. 268:9-16.

Dalby, J.E.Jr. & C.M. Young 1992. Role of early post-settlement mortality in setting the upper depth limit of ascidians in Florida epifaunal communities. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 80:221-228.

Dalby, J.E.Jr. & M.C. Young 1993. Variable effects of ascidian competitors on oysters in a Florida epifaunal community. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 167:47-57.

D'Aniello, A., A. Vetere & L. Padula 1992. Occurrence of free D-amino acids in the gametes, embryos, larvae and adults of the sea-squirt Ciona intestinalis. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 102B:795-797.

De Bernardi, F. & C. Sotgia 1992. The neural induction in Chordata embryos. An "in situ" hybridization study. Recent Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology 3: Neurobiochemical Transmitter Pathways, Adrenoceptors and Muscarinic Receptors, Wegmann,RJ and Wegmann,MA (eds.):27-32.

De Bernardi, F., C. Sotgia & G. Ortolani 1991. Localization of tubulin mRNA during ascidian development. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 35:415-420.

Deibel, D., J.F. Cavaletto, M. Riehl & W.S. Gardner 1992. Lipid and lipid class content of the pelagic tunicate Oikopleura vanhoeffeni. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 88:297-302.

Deibel, D. & S.H. Lee 1992. Retention efficiency of sub-micrometer particles by the pharyngeal filter of the pelagic tunicate Oikopleura vanhoeffeni. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 81:25-30.

Enders, D. & M. Finkam 1993. 1st synthesis of the cytotoxic and antifungal C14-amine (2S,3E,5Z)-2 amino-3,5,13-tetradecatriene isolated from the New Zealand ascidian Pseudodistoma novaezelandiae. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie 5:551-556.

Fenaux, R. 1993. The classification of Appendicularia (Tunicata): history and current state. Mem. Inst. Oceanog. Monaco No. 17:123.

Fenaux, R. 1993. A new genus of midwater appendicularian: Mesoikopleura with four species. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 73:635-646.

Ford, P.W. & B.S. Davidson 1993. Synthesis of varacin, a cytotoxic naturally occurring benzopentathiepin isolated from a marine ascidian. J. Org. Chem. 58:4522-4523.

Foster, M.P. & C.M. Ireland 1993. Nairaiamides-A and nairaiamides-B - 2 novel di-proline heptapeptides isolated from a Fijian Lissoclinum bistratum ascidian. Tetrahedron Lett. 34:2871-2874.

Fredriksson, G., J.M. Lebel & J. Leloup 1993. Thyroid hormones and putative nuclear T-3 receptors in tissues of the ascidian, Phallusia mammillata Cuvier. Gen. & Comp. Endocrinol. 92:379-387.

Fujiwara, S. 1993. Temporal and spatial expression of a gene for the nuclear protein Hgv2 in embryos and adults of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Dev., Growth & Differ. 35:221-230.

Fuke, M. et al. 1993. Fine structure of blood cells of the solitary ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi, with reference to their behavior in vitro. Acta Zool. 74:61-71.

Fukumoto, M. 1990. The acrosome reaction in Ciona intestinalis (Ascidia, Tunicata). Dev., Growth & Differ. 32:51-55.

Fukumoto, M. 1992. The spermatozoa and spermiogenesis of Diplosoma macdonaldi (Ascidia, Tunicata) with special reference to the differentiation of the apex of the head and the differentiation of the tubular sacculi in the cytoplasm. Bull. Coll. Gen. Ed. Nagoya City Univ. 38:33-48.

Fukumoto, M. 1993. Acrosome reaction in ascidians induced by a calcium ionophore. J. Struct. Biol. 111:77-83.

Fukumoto, M. 1993. Morphological aspects of fertilization in Phallusia (Ascidia) nigra (Ascidiacea, Tunicata). Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 202:321-328.

Goudeau, M. & H. Goudeau 1993. In the egg of Phallusia mammillata, removal of external Ca modifies fertilization potential, induces polyspermy, and blocks the resumption of meiosis. Dev. Biol. 160:165-177.

Harms, J. 1993. Check list of species (algae, invertebrates and vertebrates) found in the vicinity of the island of Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight) - a review of recent records. Helgolander Meeresunters. 47:1-34.

Hice, R.E. & W.J. Moody 1988. Fertilization alters the spatial distribution and the density of voltage-dependent sodium current in the egg of the ascidian Boltenia villosa. Dev. Biol. 127:408-420.

Hikosaka, H. et al. 1992. Introduction and expression of recombinant genes in ascidian embryos. Dev., Growth & Differ. 34:627-633.

Hirose, E. 1992. Tunic cells in Leptoclinides echinatus (Didemnidae, Ascidiacea): an application of scanning electron microscopy for paraffin embedding specimens. Hiyoshi Rev. Nat. Sci., Keio Univ. 11:5-8.

Hirose, E., Y. Saito & H. Watanabe 1991. Tunic cell morphology and classification in botryllid ascidians. Zool. Sci. 8:951-958.

Holland, P.W.H., J. Garcia-Fernandez, L.Z. Holland, N.A. Williams & N.D. Holland 1994. The molecular control of spatial patterning in amphioxus. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U. K. 74:49-60.

Holyoak, A.R. 1993. Morphogenetic movements and the assembly of strobilae into zooidal systems in early colony development of the compound ascidian Polyclinum planum. Biol. Bull. 183:432-439.

Hoshi, M. 1986. Sperm glycosidase as a plausible mediator of sperm binding to the vitelline envelope in ascidians. pp. 251-260 in The Molecular & Cellular Biology of Fertilization, Hedrick, J.L., ed.

Hurlbut, C.J. 1993. The adaptive value of larval behavior of a colonial ascidian. Mar. Biol. 115:253-262.

Ishaq, A.I., S.B. Brzvi, D.E. Wells & C.R. Tomlinson 1993. A characterization of the H3 and H4 histone genes from the ascidian Styela plicata. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 194:775-783.

Ivanov, A.V. & O.M. Ivanovakazas 1993. A new aberrant ascidian, Oligotrema laethmobia sp. n., and taxonomic rank of the group Sorberacea. Zoologichesky Zhurnal 72:104-115.

Ivanov, B.G. 1993. An interesting mode of feeding of tanner crabs Chionoecetes spp. (Crustacea, Decapoda, Majidae) on an ascidian Halocynthia aurantium. Zoologichesky Zhurnal 72:27-33.

Jackson, A.D., V.J. Smith & C.M. Peddie 1993. In vitro phenoloxidase activity in the blood of Ciona intestinalis and other ascidians. Develop. and Comp. Immunol. 17:97-108.

Jareserijman, E.A., C.P. Bapat, A. Lithgowbertelloni, K.L. Rinehart & R. Sakai 1993. Crucigasterins, new polyunsaturated amino alcohols from the Mediterranean tunicate Pseudodistoma crucigaster. J. Org. Chem. 58:5732-5737.

Jeffery, W.R. 1992. A gastrulation center in the ascidian egg. Development Supplement:53-63.

Jeffery, W.R. 1994. A model for ascidian development and developmental modifications during evolution. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 74:35-48.

Kajiwara, S. 1990. Retinal isomers in the cerebral ganglion of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi. Intl. J. Inv. Repro. Dev. 17:155-158.

Kanamori, K. et al. 1991. Raman spectral study on the structure of a hydrolytic dimer of aquavanadium (III) ion. Inorg. Chem. 30:3832-3836.

Kim, J.W., E.O. Pordesimo, S.I. Toth, F.J. Schmitz & I. Vanaltena 1993. Pantherinine, a cytotoxic aromatic alkaloid, and 7-deazainosine from the ascidian Aplidium pantherium. J. Nat. Prod. 56:1813-1816.

Kobayashi, J., Y. Doi & M. Ishibashi 1994. Shimofuridin A, a nucleoside derivative embracing an acylfucopyranoside unit isolated from the Okinawan marine tunicate Aplidium multiplicatum. J. Org. Chem. 59:255-257.

Koch, R.A., M.L. Norton, H. Vazquez & C.C. Lambert 1994. Sperm-surface chymotrypsin-like protease activity required for fertilization in ascidians. Dev. Biol. 162:438-450.

Koike, I., M. Yamamuro & P.C. Pollard 1993. Carbon and nitrogen budgets of 2 ascidians and their symbiont, Prochloron, in a tropical seagrass meadow. Aust. J. Mar. & FW Res. 44:173-182.

Koyama, H. & T. Kusunoki 1993. Organization of the cerebral ganglion of the colonial ascidian Polyandrocarpa misakiensis. J. Comp. Neurol. 338:549-559.

Lafargue, F., A.A. Ramos-Espla, V. Buencuerpo & E. Vazquez 1993. Trididemnum pedunculatum n. sp. (Ascidiacea, Aplousobranchia) from the Spanish side of the Gibraltar Strait. Vie Mil. 43:53-57.

Lauzon, R.J., C.W. Patton & I.L. Weissman 1993. A morphological and immunohistochemical study of programmed cell death in Botryllus schlosseri (Tunicata, Ascidiacea). Cell Tiss. Res. 272:115-127.

Lopezgonzalez, P.J., M. Conradi & J.C. Garciagomez 1993. Distribution and hosts of Enterocola sydnii Chatton and Harant 1924 (Copepoda, Ascidicolidae). Cah. Biol. Mar. 33:365-376.

Lopezgonzalez, P.J., M. Conradi & J.C. Garciagomez 1993. Enterocola africanus, a new species (Copepoda, Ascidicolidae) associated with a compound ascidian Synoicum sp. from North Africa (Strait of Gibraltar). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 106:131-136.

Lubbering, B., M.-M. Giraud-Guille & G. Goffinet 1993. Tunic morphogenesis in the sea peach (Halocynthia papillosa, Ascidiacea, Urochordata): cellular events, the initiation of twisted fibrous arrangements and spine formation. Biol. Cell. 79:167-176.

Manni, L., G. Zaniolo & P. Burighel 1993. Egg envelope cytodifferentiation in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri (Tunicata). Acta Zool. 74:103-114.

Manni, L., G. Zaniolo & P. Burighel 1994. Ultrastructural study of oogenesis in the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri (Tunicata). Acta Zool. 75:101-113.

Mansueto, C., M. Lo Valvo, L. Pellerito & M.A. Girasolo 1993. Organometallic complexes in ascidian embryonic development: II. Effects on different stages and larvae. Applied Organometallic Chem. 7:95-107.

Mansueto, C., L. Pellerito & M.A. Girasolo 1989. Organometallic complexes in ascidian embryonic development. I. Effects on gametes and fertilization. Acta Embryol. Morphol. Exper. n.s. 10:237-258.

Martin, D. & M.J. Uriz 1993. Chemical bioactivity of Mediterranean benthic organisms against embryos and larvae of marine invertebrates. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 173:11-27.

Matsuura, K., H. Sawada & H. Yokosawa 1993. Purification and properties of n-acetylglucosaminidase from eggs of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi. Eur. J. Biochem. 218:535-542.

Michibata, H., J. Uchiyama, Y. Seki, T. Numakunai & T. Uyama 1992. Accumulation of vanadium during embryogenesis in the vanadium-rich ascidian, Ascidia gemmata. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 34:219-223.

Miyazaki, K. & E. Hirose 1993. Application of SEM to the gonad embedded in paraffin in a pycnogonid, Ascorhynchus ramipes (Pycnogonida; Ammotheidae) and an ascidian, Herdmania momus (Ascidiacea; Pyuridae). Hiyoshi Rev. Nat. Sci., Keio Univ. 14:18-21.

Monniot, C. 1993. Tunicata: on three species of bathyal ascidians collected during the Franco-Indonesian Karubar cruise. pp. 355-359 in Resultats des Campagnes Musorstom, vol. 11, ed. by Crosnier, A.

Monniot, C. & F. Monniot 1992. Ascidies des seamounts lisitaniens (campagne Seamount I). Bull. Mus. natl. Hist. nat., Paris 4th ser, 14, sect. A, # 3-4:591-603.

Monniot, F. 1992. Ascidies de Nouvelle-Caledonie XII. Le genre Lissoclinum (Didemnidae) dans le lagon sud. Bull. Mus. natl. Hist. nat., Paris 4th ser., 14, sect. A,# 3-4:565-589.

Monniot, F., R. Martoja & C. Monniot 1993. Tin accumulation in tissues of ascidians from Mediterranean harbours (Corsica, France). Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. ser.III 316:588-592.

Morris, C.C. & D. Deibel 1993. Flow rate and particle concentration within the house of the pelagic tunicate Oikopleura vanhoeffeni. Mar. Biol. 115:445-452.

Nagabhushanam, A.K. & P. Krishnamoorthy 1992. Occurrence and biology of the solitary ascidian Ascidiella aspersa in Tamil Nadu coastal waters. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India 34:1-9.

Naranjo, S.A. & J.C. Garcia-Gomez 1993. The arctic species Heterostigma separ Arnback-Christie-Linde, 1924 (Ascidiacea: Pyuridae) in the Strait of Gibraltar (southern Spain). Beaufortia 43:116-123.

Nishida, H. 1993. Localized regions of egg cytoplasm that promote expression of endoderm-specific alkaline phosphatase in embryos of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Development 118:1-8.

Nishida, H. 1994. Localization of egg cytoplasm that promotes differentiation to epidermis in embryos of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Development 120:235-244.

Nishikawa, T. 1992. The ascidians of the Japan Sea. III. Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab. 35:303-334.

Nishikawa, T. 1994. Some didemnid ascidians from the northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia. Nat. Hist. Res. Special Issue, no. 1:299-302.

Nishikawa, T. & X. Turon 1993. Taxonomy and geographic variation of Pyura microcosmus (Savigny) from Lusitanian waters and the Red Sea (Urochordata, Ascidiacea). Zool. Sci. 10:1045-1056.

Okada, T. & M. Yamamoto 1993. Identification of early oogenetic cells in the solitary ascidians, Ciona savignyi and Ciona intestinalis: an immunoelectron microscopic study. Dev., Growth & Differ. 35:495-506.

Okamura, Y., H. Okado & K. Takahashi 1993. The ascidian embryo as a prototype of vertebrate neurogenesis. BioEssays 15:723-730.

Pancer, Z., H. Gershon & B. Rinkevich 1993. cDNA cloning of a putative protochordate FK506-binding protein. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 197:973-977.

Patricolo, E. & L. Villa 1992. Ascidian interspecific fertilization. II. A study of the external egg coating in hybrid crosses. Anim. Biol. 1:9-15.

Pavao, M.S.G., C.C. Lambert, G. Lambert & P.A.S. Mourao 1994. Comparison between the sulfated polysaccharides from larval and adult ascidians. J. Exp. Zool. 268:.

Pavao, M.S.G., M.A. Rodrigues & P.A.S. Mourao 1994. Acidic polysaccharides of the ascidian Styela plicata. Biosynthetic studies on the sulfated L-galactans of the tunic, and preliminary characterization of a dermatan sulfate-like polymer in body tissues. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1199: 229-237.

Pecorella, C., E. Tosti, K. Kyozuka & B. Dale 1993. Activation currents, sperm entry and surface contractions in ascidian eggs. Zygote 1:113-119.

Peddie, C.M. & V.J. Smith 1993. In vitro spontaneous cytotoxic activity against mammalian target cells by the hemocytes of the solitary ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. J. Exp. Zool. 267:616-623.

Pestarino, M., B. Lucaroni & S. Distefano 1993. Presence and distribution of immunoreactive FMRFamide and bovine pancreatic polypeptide-like peptides in a protochordate ascidian. Europ. J. Histochem. 37:225-232.

Pinto, M.R., R. De Santis, G. D'Alessio & F. Rosati 1981. Studies on fertilization in the ascidians. Fucosyl sites on vitelline coat of Ciona intestinalis. Exp. Cell Res. 132:289-295.

Ramos Espla, A.A., V. Buencuerpo, E. Vazquez & F. Lafargue 1992. Some biogeographical remarks about the ascidian littoral fauna of the Straits of Gibraltar (Iberian sector). Bull. Inst. Oceanog. Monaco 9:125-132.

Ramos-Espla, A.A., X. Turon & E. Vazquez 1993. Aplidium sagresensis n. sp. (Ascidiacea, Polyclinidae) from the Atlantic coast of the Iberian peninsula. Ophelia 38:97-105.

Rinkevich, B. 1993. Immunological resorption in Botryllus schlosseri (Tunicata) chimeras is characterized by multilevel hierarchial organization of histocompatibility alleles. A speculative endeavor. Biol. Bull. 184:342-345.

Rinkevich, B. & C. Rabinowitz 1994. Acquiring embryo-derived cell cultures and aseptic metamorphosis of larvae from the colonial protochordate Botryllus schlosseri. Invert. Repro. & Dev. 25:59-72.

Rinkevich, B., Z. Shlemberg, T. LilkerLevav, M. Goren & L. Fishelson 1993. Life history characteristics of Botrylloides (tunicata) populations in Akko Bay, Mediterranean coast of Israel. Israel J. Zool. 39:197-212.

Sabbadin, A., P. Burighel & G. Zaniolo 1991. Studies on the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. A review of some lines of research. Acta Embryol. Morphol. Exper. n.s. 12:259-279.

Saitoh, Y., H. Sawada & H. Yokosawa 1993. High-molecular-weight protease complexes (proteasomes) of sperm of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi -isolation, characterization, and physiological roles in fertilization. Dev. Biol. 158:238-244.

Sanamyan, K. 1993. Ascidians from the North-western Pacific region. 1. Polycitoridae. Ophelia 37:163-173.

Sanamyan, K. 1993. Ascidians from the north-western Pacific region. 2. Molgulidae. Ophelia 38:127-135.

Sanamyan, K. 1993. Pseudoplacentela smirnovi gen. et sp. n. (Tunicata, Ascidiacea), with a discussion of its phylogenetic relationships. Zoologica Scripta 22:305-307.

Satoh, N. 1994. Developmental biology of Ascidians. Developmental and cell biology series, #29 . Cambridge Univ. Press,, 234 pp pp.

Searle, P.A. & T.F. Molinski 1993. Structure and absolute configuration of (R)-(E)-1-aminotridec-5-en-2-ol, an antifungal amino alcohol from the ascidian Didemnum sp. J. Org. Chem. 58:7578-7580.

Shochet, N.R., A. Rudi, Y. Kashman, Y. Hod, M.R. Elmaghrabi & I. Spector 1993. Novel marine alkaloids from the tunicate Eudistoma sp. are potent regulators of cellular growth and differentiation and affect cAMP-mediated processes. J. Cell. Physiol. 157:481-492.

Singh, B. & A. Choudhury 1992. On the occurrence of a larvacean tunicate (Urochordata) in the mangrove waters of Hooghly Estuary, India. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India :285-287.

Sotgia, C., U. Fascio, G. Ortolani & F. DeBernardi 1993. Behavior of endodermal "button cells" during metamorphosis of ascidian larvae. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 37:547-554.

Svavarsson, J., I. Svane & G.V. Helgason 1993. Population biology of Doropygus pulex and Gunenotophorus globularis (Copepoda), symbionts within the ascidian Polycarpa pomaria (Savigny). J. Crustacean Biol. 13:532-537.

Swalla, B.J. & W.R. Jeffery 1993. Vestigial brain melanocyte development during embryogenesis of an anural ascidian. Dev., Growth & Differ. 34:17-26.

Swalla, B.J., K.W. Makabe, N. Satoh & W.R. Jeffery 1993. Novel genes expressed differentially in ascidians with alternate modes of development. Development 119:307-318.

Takizawa, S., H. Sawada, T. Someno, Y. Saitoh, H. Yokosawa & M. Hoshi 1993. Effects of protease inhibitors on binding of sperm to the vitelline coat of ascidian eggs - implications for participation of a proteasome (multicatalytic proteinase complex). J. Exp. Zool. 267:86-91.

Taylor, S.W., D.L. Parry, C.J. Hawkins & J.H. Swinehart 1993. Investigation of tunichrome and its relation to vanadium in living ascidian blood cells and their lysates. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. 106:531-536.

Toratani, S., T. Katada & H. Yokosawa 1993. Botulinum ADP-ribosyltransferase C3 induces elevation of the vitelline coat of ascidian eggs. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 193:1311-1317.

Tosti, E., A. Palumbo & B. Dale 1993. Inositol tri-phosphate in human and ascidian spermatozoa. Molec. Repro. & Develop. 35:52-56.

Tsukamoto, S., H. Hirota, H. Kato & N. Fusetani 1993. Isolation of eicosapentaenoyl and arachidonoyl lysophosphatidylinositols from the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi (V. Drasche). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. pt. C-Comp. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 106:151-154.

Turon, X. 1992. Morphology of the caudal system in the larvae of three ascidian species (Tunicata). Historia Animalium 1:71-86.

Urban, J.L., C.H. McKenzie & D. Deibel 1992. Seasonal differences in the content of Oikopleura vanhoeffeni and Calanus finmarchicus faecal pellets: illustrations of zooplankton food web shifts in coastal Newfoundland waters. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 84:255-264.

Uyama, T., J. Uchiyama, T. Nishikata, N. Satoh & H. Michibata 1992. The accumulation of vanadium and manifestation of an antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody specific to vanadocytes during embryogenesis in the vanadium-rich ascidian, Ascidia sydneiensis samea. J. Exp. Zool. 265:29-34.

Uyama, T., J. Uchiyama, T. Nishikata, N. Satoh & H. Michibata 1993. The accumulation of vanadium and manifestation of an antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody specific to vanadocytes during embryogenesis in the vanadium-rich ascidian, Ascidia sydneiensis samea. J. Exp. Zool. 265:29-34.

Vasquez, E. 1993. Diplosoma lafargueae n. sp., a new species of the didemnidae (compound ascidians) in the Iberian Atlantic coast. Vie Mil. 43:173-175.

Vasquez, E. & A.A. Ramos-espla 1993. Eudistoma roseum n. sp. (Ascidiacea, Polycitoridae) from the Iberian Atlantic coast. Ophelia 37:83-94.

Vazquez, E. 1993. Diplosoma lafargueae n. sp., a new species of the Didemnidae family (compound ascidians) in the Iberian atlantic coast. Vie Mil. 43:173-175.

Vazquez, E. & A.A. Ramos-Espla 1993. Eudistoma roseum n. sp. (Ascidiacea, Polycitoridae) from the Iberian Atlantic coast. Ophelia 37:95-100.

Vazquez, E. & V. Urgorri 1992. Ascidiaceos del "fouling" de la ensenada de A Grana, Ria de Ferrol (Galicia, Espana). Nova Acta Cientif. Comp. (Bioloxia) 3:161-167.

Villa, L. & E. Patricolo 1992. Ascidian interspecific fertilization I. Preliminary data on the involvement of the follicle cell layer. Eur. Arch. Biol. 103:25-30.

Wada, H., K.W. Makabe, M. Nakauchi & N. Satoh 1992. Phylogenetic relationships between solitary and colonial ascidians, as inferred from the sequence of the central region of their respective 18S rDNAs. Biol. Bull. 183:448-455.

Watters, D.J. & A.L. Vandenbrenk 1993. Toxins from ascidians. Toxicon 31:1349-1372.

Whitaker, M. & K. Swann 1993. Lighting the fuse at fertilization. Development 117:1-12.

Xie, M. & T.G. Honegger 1993. Ultrastructural investigations on sperm penetration and gamete fusion in the ascidians Boltenia villosa and Phallusia mammillata. Mar. Biol. 116:117-128.

Yoshida, M., K. Inaba & M. Morisawa 1993. Sperm chemotaxis during the process of fertilization in the ascidians Ciona savignyi and Ciona intestinalis. Dev. Biol. 157:497-506.

Young, C.M. 1989. Distribution and dynamics of an intertidal ascidian pseudopopulation. Bull. Mar. Sci. 45:288-303.

Young, C.M., R.F. Gowan, J.J. Dalby, C.A. Pennachetti & D. Gagliardi 1988. Distributional consequences of adhesive eggs and anural development in the ascidian Molgula pacifica (Huntsman, 1912). Biol. Bull. 174:39-46.