Ascidian News*

Charles and Gretchen Lambert
Department of Biological Science
California State University Fullerton
Fullerton, California 92634
tel. (714)773-3481 Fax (714)773-3426
e-mail: or

Number 38
December 1995

We had a very fine summer, first at the Bamfield Marine Station on Vancouver Island, where we visited Bill Bates and gave a couple of lectures in his class, and then at the Friday Harbor Labs where Charley taught invertebrate embryology with Steve Stricker and Gretchen worked on several manuscripts and local ascidians. We had a great group of students in the class including Sawako Hori-Oshima from Hoshi's group and Markus Eisenhut from Honegger's lab. In August we had a marvelous visit with Danielle Georges and Thomas and Rosmarie Honegger. On our way south we stopped off at Coos Bay, Oregon to visit Richard Emlet and saw the tremendous growth of the lab, which we had not visited for 30 years. We are now collecting more data on tunicate introductions to southern California harbors as well as working on other research projects, manuscripts and teaching. In October Gretchen gave a paper on biomineralization in Wisconsin. We are looking forward to returning to the Portobello Lab in New Zealand in late Dec., as soon as Charley finishes his final exams. Unfortunately we have to return to Fullerton on 26 January!

We are delighted to have so many ascidian meeting abstracts for this issue of AN and amazed to see the number of new publications on our favorite beasts. It looks like everybody is keeping quite busy. We're sorry to have to reduce the print size on the abstracts; this in no way diminishes the significance of these reports on very recent discoveries. Please continue to send us work in progress for the May issue. We really appreciate receiving a copy of all your new papers. If you have recently acquired an email address, please let us know; we hope to send out the next issue to as many members as possible via internet.

*Ascidian News is not part of the scientific literature and should not be cited as such.


1.Ascidiologists Win Awards! In May the executive committee of the Zool. Society of Japan chose Drs. Hitoshi Michibata and Masaaki Morisawa as the 1995 Awardees. Dr. Hiroki Nishida was given the AZJ Award for Young Zoologists, a new award this year. Congratulations to these 3 fine ascidiologists! (Contributed by M. Hoshi)

2. Ascidians on the Internet! There is now an Ascidian Home Page in Japan, on the World Wide Web, in English and Japanese.
In addition, several Japanese ascidiologists have their own home page, tied to the above internet address. The Lamberts are obviously lagging behind, but we hope to have our own home page soon, tied in to the Japan home page.
Dr. Euichi Hirose has two:

3. Recent Retirements: Richard Cloney from the University of Washington and Mits Nakauchi as President of Kochi University. They are continuing their sea squirt studies; we look forward to new publications.


Larval Biology Meetings, 16-19 August 1995, Ft. Pierce, Florida

Turon,Xavier & Vazquez,Elsa (Universitat de Barcelona, Spain and Universidade de Santiago, Spain).
The recently described species Protostyela longicauda is a brooding form whose larvae feature a unique, non-locomotory tail. It is extremely elongated and anteriorly directed. It lacks external fins but possesses many irregular outgrowths. There is no notochord or muscle cell in the tails of well developed larvae, which consist of a glandular mass of cells which release fibrillar material to the tunic. Chordal cells can, however, be observed in developing larvae. The anterior part of the trunk bears 3 conical adhesive papillae and some ampullae which elongate at metamorphosis. We interpret these non-swimming larvae as being functionally equivalent to the tail-less forms of other ascidians and representing an adaptation for philopatry. This species lives exclusively attached to algal fronds in wave-swept, rocky intertidal habitats. Restricted dispersal of short-lived larvae in these communities diminishes the risk of being washed away. Upon release, the long filamentous tail, possibly with the aid of sticky secretions, rapidly becomes entangled with the algal matter allowing the anteriorly directed papillae to contact the substratum and achieve fixation.

5th Intl. Conf. on the Chem. & Biol. of Mineralized Tissues, Kohler, Wisc. Oct. 22-27, 1995

Gretchen Lambert and Charles C. Lambert, Dept. of Biol. Sci., Calif. State Univ. Fullerton, CA 92834-6850.
The New Zealand solitary ascidian Pyura pachydermatina (Phylum Chordata, Order Stolidobranchia, Family Pyuridae) lives attached to rocks primarily in wave-swept intertidal and shallow subtidal coastal areas, where it filter feeds. The 7-10 cm long body is attached to the end of a stalk about 1-2 cm in diameter and up to 1meter long. Both body and stalk are covered by a tough fibrous tunic; just inside the tunic cuticle are tightly packed spicules of crystalline calcite (Addadi and Aizenberg, unpubl.) 50-80 um in length with a central slender shaft and expanded knobbed ends that tend to interlock. The spicule surface is covered with minute overlapping thin plates of mineral that appear to be rhombohedral or in places hexagonal, which may indicate how new mineral is added. Fracturing is conchoidal. The spicules are covered by an extracellular matrix (ECM) and surrounded by tunic fibers, thus imparting a remarkably resilient strength to the stalk. The spicules form extracellularly within the tunic blood vessels; calcein labelling experiments (500 ppm in sea water over 1-4 days) indicate that they form in approximately 2 weeks and then pass through the distal side of the blood vessel wall into the tunic where they migrate radially. Each spicule is covered by interlocking sclerocytes; TEM of demineralized tunic reveals that the outer surface of the sclerocytes is attached to the inner surface of the blood vessel epithelium by a dense fibrous material. Calcein tagging indicates that all the spicules rapidly add mineral to their periphery only while they are surrounded by sclerocytes. As the spicules enlarge, most of the mineralization occurs at the ends as the knobs enlarge and additional knobs are added. The sclerocytes become thinner and finally separate at one or more leading points on the spicule. The surrounding blood vessel epithelial cells also separate at these points allowing the spicule to migrate out into the tunic; the epithelial cells then apparently close the space behind the spicule and re-form their interlocking structure, thus maintaining the integrity of the vessel. The sclerocytes degenerate, though remnants remain loosely associated with the spicule when it first leaves the blood vessel.
A second type of spicule, very different in shape and composition, occurs in the body tissues. These "antler" spicules are randomly branched, the branches being very long, thin and with side branches. The spicule surface is very smooth. They are formed of numerous layers of mineral alternating with ECM, giving them a relatively high organic:inorganic ratio of 0.1%; the mineral composition is amorphous calcium carbonate with some amorphous calcium phosphate (Addadi and Aizenberg, unpubl.). They are of many sizes and probably continue to enlarge throughout the life of the animal (2-3 years); the smallest spicules are single rods, while the largest contain numerous branches. The branching is very three-dimensional and where densest, in the endostyle, branchial sac and intestine, the branches interlock; probably this prevents the tissues from collapsing during filter feeding. The spicules form extracellularly within blood sinuses somewhat similar to body spicule formation in the related species Herdmania momus (Lambert 1992); each is covered by sclerocytes but they are not inside a sheath as in H. momus. Fluorescence analysis of calcein tagging indicates that mineralization is apparently episodic; some branches of existing spicules or the entire spicule surface of others become labelled while other spicules remain totally unlabelled.

For complete abstracts of ascidian papers presented at the following meetings request copy of AN38.

54th Annual Symp., Soc. for Dev. Biol., August 26-30, 1995, Univ. of California, San Diego. Published in Dev. Biol. 170(2).

35th annual meeting, Amer. Soc. for Cell biol., Dec. 9-13, 1995, Washington, DC. Published in Mol. Biol. of the Cell suppl., vol. 6.

4th Intl. Cong. of Comp. Physiol. & Biochem., Aug. 6-11, 1995, Birmingham, UK.

7th Intl. Cong. on Invert. Repro., Intl. Soc. for Invert. Repro., Aug. 5-11, 1995, Univ. of Calif. Santa Cruz.

40th Annual Meeting of the Italian Embryology Group, June 6-8, 1994, Viterbo, Italy. Published in Animal Biology 3(2).


Akita, N. & M. Hoshi 1995. Hemocytes release phenoloxidase upon contact reaction, an allogeneic interaction, in the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Cell Structure and Function 20:81-87.

Ballarin, L., F. Cima & A. Sabbadin 1994. Phagocytosis in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Develop. and Comp. Immunol. 18:467-482.

Boden, C.D.J. & G. Pattenden 1995. Cyclopeptides from ascidians. Total synthesis of lissoclinamide 4, and a general strategy for the synthesis of chiral thiazoline-containing macrocyclic peptides. Tetrahedron Lett. 36:6153-6156.

Bonnard, I., N. Bontemps, S. Lahmy, B. Banaigs, G. Combaut, C. Francisco, et al. 1995. Binding to DNA and cytotoxic evaluation of ascididemnin, the major alkaloid from the Mediterranean ascidian Cystodytes dellechiajei. Anti-Cancer Drug Design 10:333-346.

Cammarata, M. & V. Arizza 1994. Method for phagocytosis fluorescence quenching in vitro assay for hemocytes in tunicates. Anim. Biol. 3:173-174.

Carballeira, N.M., F. Shalabi, K. Stefanov, K. Dimitrov, S. Popov, A. Kujumgiev, et al. 1995. Comparison of the fatty acids of the tunicate Botryllus schlosseri from the Black Sea with two associated bacterial strains. Lipids 30:677-679.

Chadwick-Furman, N.E. & I.L. Weissman 1995. Life histories and senescence of Botryllus schlosseri (Chordata, Ascidiacea) in Monterey Bay. Biol. Bull. 189:36-41.

Chaudhry, P.S., S. Creagh, N. Yu & C.J. Brokaw 1995. Multiple protein kinase activities required for activation of sperm flagellar motility. Cell Motil. Cytoskel. 32:65-79.

Conradi, M. & P.J. Lopez-Gonzalez 1994. Primera cita de Lichomolgus canui G. O. Sars, 1917 (Copepoda, Lichomolgidae) en la Peninsula Iberica. Misc. Zool. 17:99-106.

Cooper, E.L. 1995. Immunology: a look toward the sea and what we have learned from tunicates. Aquaculture 132:1-15.

Dan-Sohkawa, M., M. Morimoto & H. Kaneko 1995. In vitro reactions of coelomocytes against sheep red blood cells in the solitary ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Zool. Sci. 12:411-417.

DanSohkawa, M., M. Morimoto, H. Mishima & H. Kaneko 1995. Characterization of coelomocytes of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi based on phase-contrast, time-lapse video and scanning electron microscopic observations. Zool. Sci. 12:289-301.

Davis, A.K., A.A. Greaves, J.E. Dallman & W.J. Moody 1995. Comparison of ionic currents expressed in immature and mature muscle cells of an ascidian larva. J. Neurosci. 15:4875-4884.

De Bernardi, F., C. Sotgia & G. Ortolani 1994. Retinoic acid treatment of ascidian embryos: effects on larvae and metamorphosis. Anim. Biol. 3:75-81.

DiGregorio, A., A. Spagnuolo, F. Ristoratore, M. Pischetola, F. Aniello, M. Branno, et al. 1995. Cloning of ascidian homeobox genes provides evidence for a primordial chordate cluster. Gene 156:253-258.

Egan, E.A. 1984. The seasonal occurrence of the copepod Pachypygus australis Gotto (Notodelphyidae) in its host Pyura pachydermatina (Herdman) Pyuridae: Ascidiacea. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 76:247-262.

Egan, E.A. 1984. The seasonal reproductive cycle of the nemertean Gononemertes australiensis Gibson in relation to that of its ascidian host, Pyura pachydermatina (Herdman). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 76:225-246.

Frank, P., R.M.K. Carlson & K.O. Hodgson 1986. Vanadyl ion EPR as a noninvasive probe of pH in intact vanadocytes from Ascidia ceratodes. Inorg. Chem. 25:470-478.

Frank, P., R.M.K. Carlson & K.O. Hodgson 1988. Further investigation of the status of ascidity and vanadium in the blood cells of Ascidia ceratodes. Inorg. Chem. 27:118-122.

Frank, P., B. Hedman, R.M.K. Carlson & K.O. Hodgson 1994. Interaction of vanadium and sulfate in blood cells from the tunicate Ascidia ceratodes: observations using X-ray absorption edge structure and EPR spectroscopies. Inorg. Chem. 33:3794-3803.

Frank, P., B. Hedman, R.M.K. Carlson, T.A. Tyson, A.L. Roe & K.O. Hodgson 1987. A large reservoir of sulfate and sulfonate resides within plasma cells from Ascidia ceratodes, revealed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. Biochemistry 26:4975-4979.

Fukumoto, M. & T. Numakunai 1995. Morphological aspects of fertilization in Halocynthia roretzi (Ascidiacea, Tunicata). J. Struct. Biol. 114:157-166.

Fukuzawa, S., S. Matsunaga & N. Fusetani 1995. Ten more ritterazines, cytotoxic steroidal alkaloids from the tunicate Ritterella tokioka. Tetrahedron 51:6707-6716.

Gianguzza, M. & G. Dolcemascolo 1994. Adhesive papillae in the swimming larva of Ascidia malaca: an ultrastructural investigation. Eur. Arch. Biol. 105:51-62.

Godknecht, A.J. & T.G. Honegger 1995. Specific inhibition of sperm (-N-acetylglucosaminidase by the synthetic inhibitor N-acetylglucosaminono-1,5-lactone O-(phenylcarbamoyl)oxime inhibits fertilization in the ascidian, Phallusia mammillata. Dev., Growth & Differ. 37:183-189.

Hedman, B., P. Frank, J.E. Penner-Hahn, A.L. Roe, K.O. Hodgson, R.M.K. Carlson, et al. 1986. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption studies using the 54-pole wiggler at SSRL in undulator mode. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A246:797-800.

Hirose, E. & T. Ishii 1995. Microfilament contraction promotes rounding of tunic slices: an integumentary defense system in the colonial ascidian Aplidium yamazii. Biol. Bull. 189:29-35.

Hirose, E., Y. Saito & H. Watanabe 1995. Regeneration of the tunic cuticle in the compound ascidian, Botrylloides simodensis. Develop. and Comp. Immunol. 19:143-152.

Hopcroft, R.R. & J.C. Roff 1995. Zooplankton growth rates: extraordinary production by the larvacean Oikopleura dioica in tropical waters. J. Plankton Res. 17:205-220.

Hoshi, M., S. Takizawa & N. Hirohashi 1994. Glycosidases, proteases and ascidian fertilization. Seminars in Developmental Biology 5:201-208.

Ishibashi, M., K. Deki & J. Kobayashi 1995. Revised structure of pseudodistomin A, a piperidine alkaloid isolated from the Okinawan tunicate Pseudodistoma kanoko. J. Nat. Prod. 58:804-806.

Ishida, T., Y. In, F. Shinozaki, M. Doi, D. Yamamoto, Y. Hamada, et al. 1995. Solution conformations of patellamides B and C, cytotoxic cyclic hexapeptides from marine tunicate, determined by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics. J. Org. Chem. 60:3944-3952. Katsuyama, Y., S. Wada, S. Yasugi & H. Saiga 1995. Expression of the labial group Hox gene HrHox-1 and its alteration induced by retinoic acid in development of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Development 121:3197-3206.

Kawamura, K. & S. Fujiwara 1995. Cellular and molecular characterization of transdifferentiation in the process of morphallaxis of budding tunicates. Seminars in Cell Biol. 6:117-126.

Kearns, P.S., J.C. Coll & J.A. Rideout 1995. A (-carboline dimer from an ascidian, Didemnum sp. J. Nat. Prod. 58:1075-1076.

Kimura, s & T. Itoh 1995. Evidence for the role of the glomerulocyte in cellulose synthesis in the tunicate, Metandrocarpa uedai. Protoplasma 186:24-33.

Kubanek, J., D.E. Williams, E.D. deSilva, T. Allen & R.J. Andersen 1995. Cytotoxic alkaloids from the flatworm Prostheceraeus villatus and its tunicate prey Clavelina lepadiformis. Tetrahedron Lett. 36:6189-6192.

Kusakabe, T., A. Hikosaka & N. Satoh 1995. Coexpression and promoter function in two muscle actin gene complexes of different structural organization in the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Dev. Biol. 169:461-472.

Kuznetsova, L.A., S.A. Plesneva, K.V. Derkach & M.N. Pertseva 1995. Effects of biogenic amines and glucagon on the adenylate cyclase system in molluscan, holothurian and ascidian muscle membranes. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C 111:293-302.

Lindsay, B.S., L.R. Barrows & B.R. Copp 1995. Structural requirements for biological activity of the marine alkaloid ascididemin. Bioorg. & Med. Chem. Lett. 5:739-742.

Lubbering, B. & D.K. Hofmann 1995. Do test cells secrete a hatching enzyme in Ascidiella aspersa (Tunicata, Ascidiacea)? Helgolander Meeresunters. 49:295-301.

Mackie, G.O. 1995. Unconventional signalling in tunicates. Mar. Fresh. Behav. Physiol. 25:.

Makarieva, T.N., V.A. Stonik, A.S. Dmitrenok, B.B. Grebnev, V.V. Isakov, N.M. Rebachyk, et al. 1995. Varacin and three new marine antimicrobial polysulfides from the far-eastern ascidian Polycitor sp. J. Nat. Prod. 58:254-258.

Manni, L., G. Zaniolo & P. Burighel 1995. Oogenesis and oocyte envelope differentiation in the viviparous ascidian Botrylloides violaceus. Invert. Repro. & Develop. 27:167-180.

Marikawa, Y. 1995. Distribution of myoplasmic cytoskeletal domains among egg fragments of the ascidian Ciona savignyi: the concentration of deep filamentous lattice in the fragment enriched with muscle determinants. J. Exp. Zool. 271:348-355.

Matsuura, K., H. Sawada & H. Yokosawa 1995. N-acetylglucosaminidase inhibitor isolated from the vitelline coat of ascidian eggs is a candidate sperm receptor. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1257:311-316.

McDonald, L.A., J.C. Swersey, C.M. Ireland, A.R. Carroll, J.C. Coll, B.F. Bowden, et al. 1995. Botryllamides A-D, new brominated tyrosine derivatives from styelid ascidians of the genus Botryllus. Tetrahedron 51:5237-5244.

McDougall, A., C. Sardet & C.C. Lambert 1995. Different calcium-dependent pathways control fertilisation-triggered glycoside release and the cortical contraction in ascidian eggs. Zygote 3:251-258.

Monniot, C. 1994. Some ascidians collected with the M.S. "Marion-Dufresne" (Jasus, Reunion and Brazil cruises). Vie Mil. 44:229-242.

Monniot, C. & A.B. Klitgaard 1994. A new incubatory mode in an ascidian: redescription of Molgula mira (Arnback-Christie-Linde, 1931). Ophelia 40:159-165.

Monniot, C., E. Vazquez & M. White 1995. The genus Protostyela (Tunicata, Ascidiacea) in Europe. Ophelia 40:189-198.

Monniot, F., P. Clement & J.-P. Souron 1995. The ubiquity of fluorine amidst the taxonomic and mineralogical diversity of ascidian spicules. Biochem. System. & Ecol. 23:129-137.

Monniot, F., R. Martoja & C. Monniot 1994. Cellular sites of iron and nickel accumulation in ascidians related to the naturally and anthropic enriched New Caledonian environment. Ann. Inst. Oceanogr., Paris 70:205-216.

Ooishi, S. 1994. Haplostomides hawaiiensis, new species (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Ascidicolidae), associated with the ascidian Polyclinum constellatum at Honolulu, Hawaii. Hydrobiologia 292/293:89-96.

Ooishi, S. 1994. A redescription of the ascidicolid copepod Haplostoma canui. Cah. Biol. Mar. 35:347-356.

Ooishi, S. 1995. Haplostoma humesi, new species (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Ascidicolidae), associated with a compound ascidian (Aplidium sp.) from Madagascar. J. Crust. Biol. 15:309-316.

Pancer, Z., H. Gershon & B. Rinkevich 1995. Coexistence and possible parasitism of somatic and germ cell lines in chimeras of the colonial urochordate Botryllus schlosseri. Biol. Bull. 189:106-112.

Parrinello, N., M. Cammarata, L. Lipari & V. Arizza 1995. Sphingomyelin inhibition of Ciona intestinalis (Tunicata) cytotoxic hemocytes assayed against sheep erythrocytes. Develop. and Comp. Immunol. 19:31-42.

Pinto, M.R., R. De Santis, R. Marino & N. Usui 1995. Specific induction of self-discrimination by follicle cells in Ciona intestinalis oocytes. Dev., Growth & Differ. 37:287-291.

Puccia, E. & A. Maiorca 1994. Cyclic nucleotides in Ciona intestinalis (Ascidiacea) egg, from fertilization to first cleavage. Anim. Biol. 3:149-155.

Rashid, M.A., K.R. Gustafson, J.H. Cardellina & M.R. Boyd 1995. Patellamide F, a new cytotoxic cyclic peptide from the colonial ascidian Lissoclinum patella. J. Nat. Prod. 58:594-597.

Riisgard, H.U., P.B. Christensen, N.J. Olesen, J.K. Petersen, M.M. Moller & P. Andersen 1995. Biological structure in a shallow cove (Kertinge Nor, Denmark) - control by benthic nutrient fluxes and suspension-feeding ascidians and jellyfish. Proc. Intl. Symp. on Nutrient Dynamics on Coastal and Estuarine Environments, Oct. 13-16, 1993, Helsinger, Denmark. Ophelia 41:329-344.

Rinkevich, B. 1995. Characteristics of allogeneic resorption in Botrylloides from the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Develop. and Comp. Immunol. 19:21-29.

Rinkevich, B., R. Porat & M. Goren 1995. Allorecognition elements on a urochordate histocompatibility locus indicate unprecedented extensive polymorphism. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 259:319-324.

Roegiers, F., A. McDougall & C. Sardet 1995. The sperm entry point defines the orientation of the calcium-induced contraction wave that directs the first phase of cytoplasmic reorganization in the ascidian egg. Development 121:3457.

Sabbadin, A. 1994. Coloniality in ascidians and its adaptive value, with special reference to Botryllus schlosseri. Anim. Biol. 3:157-163.

Sakai, R., J.G. Stroh, D.W. Sullins & K.L. Rinehart 1995. Seven new didemnins from the marine tunicate Trididemnum solidum. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 117:3734.

Satoh, N. & W.R. Jeffery 1995. Chasing tails in ascidians: developmental insights into the origin and evolution of chordates. Trends in Genetics 11:354-358.

Satou, Y., T. Kusakabe, I. Araki & N. Satoh 1995. Timing of initiation of muscle-specific gene expression in the ascidian embryo precedes that of developmental fate restriction in lineage cells. Dev., Growth & Differ. 37:319-328.

Schumacher, R.W. & B.S. Davidson 1995. Didemnolines A-D, new N9-substituted (-carbolines from the marine ascidian Didemnum sp. Tetrahedron 51:10125-10130.

Shimada, M., S. Fujiwara & K. Kawamura 1995. Expression of genes for two C-type lectins during budding of the ascidian Polyandrocarpa misakiensis. Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 204:406-411.

Speksnijder, J.E., a McDougal, C. Sardet, R. Gualtieri, W.R. Jeffery, M.J. Berridge, et al. 1995. Calcium signalling and localization of endoplasmic reticulum in ascidian embryos. p. 291 in Calcium Waves, Gradients and Oscillations, CIBA Foundation Symposia ed. vol. 188, ed. by Bock, G.R. & K. Ackrill.

Steinberg, D.K. 1995. Diet of copepods (Scopalatum vorax) associated with mesopelagic detritus (giant larvacean houses) in Monterey Bay, California. Mar. Biol. 122:571-584.

Svane, I. & P. Dolmer 1995. Perception of light at settlement: a comparative study of two invertebrate larvae, a scyphozoan planula and a simple ascidian tadpole. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 187:51-61.

Svane, I. & J.N. Havenhand 1993. Spawning and dispersal in Ciona intestinalis (L.). P.S.Z.N.I.:Mar. Ecol. 14:53-66.

Swalla, B.J. & W.R. Jeffery 1995. A maternal RNA localized in the yellow crescent is segregated to the larval muscle cells during ascidian development. Dev. Biol. 170:353-364.

Teo, S.L.-M. & J.S. Ryland 1995. Potential antifouling mechanisms using toxic chemicals in some British ascidians. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 188:49-62.

Toratani, S. & H. Yokosawa 1995. Evidence for the involvement of the Rho GTP-binding protein in egg activation of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Dev., Growth & Differ. 37:31-38.

Tsukamoto, S., H. Kato, H. Hirota & N. Fusetani 1995. Pipecolate derivatives, anthosamines A and B, inducers of larval metamorphosis in ascidians, from a marine sponge Anthosigmella aff raromicrosclera. Tetrahedron 51:6687-6694.

Uye, S. & S. Ichino 1995. Seasonal variations in abundance, size composition, biomass and production rate of Oikopleura dioica (Fol) (Tunicata: Appendicularia) in a temperate eutrophic inlet. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 189:1-11.

Vazquez, E., F. Lafargue & V. Urgorri 1994. Nuevos datos sobre la distribucion de trece especies de la familia Didemnidae (Tunicata, Ascidiacea) en las costas ibericas. Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 91:219-229.

Vazquez, E. & V. Urgorri 1993. Nuevos datos sobre cuatro especies de ascidias de la familia Polyclinidae en la Peninsula Iberica. Anales de Biologia 19:19-27.

Vazquez, E. & V. Urgorri 1993. Primera cita de Gamaster dakarensis Pizon, 1894 (Tunicata, Molgulidae) en las costas de la peninsula Iberica. Bol. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr. 9:379-382.

Venkat, K., A.C. Anil, D.C. Khandeparker & S.S. Mokashe 1995. Ecology of ascidians in the macrofouling community of New Mangalore port. Indian J. Mar. Sci. 24:41-.

Wada, S., Y. Katsuyama, S. Yasugi & H. Saiga 1995. Spatially and temporally regulated expression of the LIM class homeobox gene Hrlim suggests multiple distinct functions in development of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi. Mechanisms of Development 51:115-126.

Wahl, M. 1995. Bacterial epibiosis on Bahamian and Pacific ascidians. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 191:239-255.

Wuchiyama, J. & H. Michibata 1995. Classification, based on autonomous fluorescence, of the blood cells of several ascidians that contain high levels of vanadium. Acta Zool. 76:51-55.

Young, C.M. & E. Vazquez 1995. Morphology, larval development, and distribution of Bathypera feminalba n. sp. (Ascidiacea: Pyuridae), a deep-water ascidian from the fjords and sounds of British Columbia. Invert. Biol. 114:89-106.

Yund, P.O. 1995. Gene flow via the dispersal of fertilizing sperm in a colonial ascidian (Botryllus schlosseri): the effect of male density. Mar. Biol. 122:649-654.