Gretchen and Charles Lambert
home page: http://depts.washington.edu/ascidian/
Number 57 June 2005
In March and early
April Charlie taught a course that dealt chiefly with ascidians at the
Sugashima Marine Station of Nagoya University with Hitoshi Sawada and Yoshito
Hirada. During this period he also had an opportunity to visit Teruaki
Nishikawa in his lab at
During June and July we will be in
*Ascidian News is not part of the scientific literature and should not be cited as such.
1. The International Invasive Sea Squirt Conference at Woods Hole,
Just click on the individual titles to read the abstracts. The Proceedings will be published in the Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, with Bob Whitlatch generously donating a great deal of his time to be the guest editor of this special edition. Attendees wishing to submit manuscripts must do so to Bob by July 1. firstname.lastname@example.org
2. Don’t forget the Third International Tunicata meeting,
3. The January 2005 special issue of Canadian
Journal of Zoology on the Protochordata is now out (vol. 83 number 1): The issue is dedicated to Dr. Norman J.
Berrill. This is the journal’s 4th special review on various invertebrate groups;
earlier ones are annelids (Feb. 2001), echinoderms (July 2001) and cnidarians
(Nov. 2002). The editors K.G. Davey, A.S.M. Saleuddin and M.B. Fenton have
provided a short Foreword. Titles of all the included papers are marked with an
asterisk * in the New Publications section at the end of this
newsletter. You can order a copy of this issue for $35.00 (
4. From Françoise and
Claude Monniot: we continue our taxonomic work at the Museum National
d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris, with most of our time devoted to tropical
ascidians from the western Pacific and Indian Oceans. These specimens have
significantly increased the MNHN collections. A new paper about the
Polyclinidae and Polycitoridae from the western
Numerous splendid photos are sent to us from all parts of the world, but we are sorry to repeat that serious identifications cannot be given if the picture is not accompanied by the specimen.
4. Recipe for Styela clava!!! Available online (and copyrighted) from the Korea National Tourism organization. It’s called Mideodok-chim (steamed Styela clava). Mmmmmmm. Maybe it’s the garlic, shredded beef, clams, green pepper, onions, watercress, bean sprouts, etc. that make it sound so good (and some sake wouldn’t hurt). If anyone has other recipes for ascidians, please send them to us.
update from Gretchen Lambert: I continue to receive reports of new
sightings of this highly invasive species. We now know of 3 sites in
This information is unpublished, is for readers of Ascidian News only, and must not be cited in any publications!!! This is an ongoing investigation as people around the world struggle to cope with and understand this species.
1. Yureiboya Comparative Genomics.
(Yureiboya means "ghost ascidian" in Japanese, the common term for
the Ciona genus.) Dave Johnson, Dept. of Genetics,
We use the ascidians Ciona savignyi and Ciona intestinalis, as model systems to investigate current issues in comparative genomics. First, we develop genomics resources for Ciona savignyi, including a genome sequencing effort. We then characterize the relationship between noncoding sequence constraint and function. We find that the high level of sequence divergence, coupled with virtually identical embryology, makes noncoding sequence comparisons between the Ciona species uniquely sensitive. We then use computational and functional methods to characterize the Ciona muscle-specific regulatory module. We find that conserved clusters of muscle-specific motifs are sensitive predictors of function. We search the C. savignyi genome for conserved motif clusters and find new enhancers with complex expression patterns. Finally, we use five exemplary gene families to examine evolutionary trends of 5¹ regions and their corresponding proteins (paralogues and orthologues). We find that constraint in 5¹ regions and proteins sequences are highly correlated. This work demonstrates that Ciona has strong potential to solve problems that are of interest to the greater genomics community.
Ascidians Associated With Coral Reef in
Studies on the different habitats of
ascidians in the Tuticorin sea has not been carried out earlier. Hence a preliminary attempt has been made to
study the ascidians associated with the coral reef of Tuticorin coast. This survey carried out for a period of one
year showed the presence of 34 species of ascidians belonging to 9 families and
20 genera. The number of genera of
ascidians reported from
studies of the genus Cystodytes (Ascidiacea): from molecules to
species. Susanna López-Legentil, Fac. of Biol.,
Intraspecies variability is
widespread in marine invertebrates. Previous reports of Cystodytes (Ascidiacea,
Polycitoridae) in the
1. Benthic Ecology
of settlement have been documented for numerous species, however, few studies
have examined fine-scale patterns of settlement. We used automated in situ sampling devices to monitor diurnal, lunar, and tidal patterns of settlement by invertebrate larvae
Didemnum sp. is a rapidly spreading invasive
colonial ascidian that has recently become established on the east and west
3. 108th annual meeting of Texas Academy of Science, Univ. of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, Texas, 3-5 March 2005.
Oxidative stress affects late, but not early, embryogenesis in Ascidia interrupta. Anna Stwora, Zen Faulkes,* Univ. of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, TX, and Virginia L. Scofield, Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Sci. Park Research Division, Smithville, TX
Ascidians are classic model organisms for the study of development, and sensitive bioindicators of habitat degradation. Oxidative stress is a common source of cell damage that can be caused by many environmental agents. To identify toxic effects of environmental oxidants on ascidian embryogenesis, we examined the effects of the oxidant hydrogen peroxide on the development of tadpole larvae of Ascidia interrupta. A. interrupta were collected from the waters around South Padre Island, Texas. Gametes were fertilized in vitro. After first cleavage, embryos were subjected to oxidative stress by bath applying hydrogen peroxide in concentrations ranging from 0.002 µM to 2 mM. Hydrogen peroxide affected development in a dose dependent fashion: no gross defects or developmental delays were observed at concentrations < 20 µM, whereas embryos in concentrations > 20 µM developed normally until they reached gastrulation, at which point development halted. These data are consistent with recent research indicating that there are potent defense mechanisms that protect embryos’ DNA from external stresses during very early development.
4. VIIth scientific meeting of the
Italian Association for Developmental and Comparative Immunology (IADCI), 10-11
February 2005, Consorzio Universitario Provincia di Trapani, Trapani,
A. Morula cells and non-fusion reaction in the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri
L. Ballarin, F. Parisotto, F. Cima, Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Padova,
Morula cells (MC) are a common haemocyte-type in the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, their frequency ranging between 40 and 60% of the circulating blood cells. They are the effector cells of the non-fusion reaction, characterised by the appearance of necrotic foci along the contact border, which occurs when genetically incompatible colonies contact each other. We previously demonstrated that, in the course of this reaction, MC acquire immunopositivity to anti-cytokine (IL-1-and TNF-) antibodies, degranulate and release the enzyme phenoloxidase which is responsible of the cytotoxicity observed both in vitro (when haemocytes are incubated with blood plasma (BP) from incompatible colonies) and in vivo (non-fusion reaction). Subsequently, MC leave the facing marginal ampullae (sausage-like, blind endings of the colonial marginal vessels to reach the tunic, apparently attracted by soluble, diffusing factors, where they degenerate and contribute to the formation of the cytotoxic spots. In the present work, we focussed on the chemotactic recruitment of MC in the course of the nonfusion reaction. As a first approach, we studied the distribution of MC inside the facing marginal ampullae of both contacting colonies (either non-fusible or fusible) and solitary ones. Results clearly indicates a significantly higher concentration of MC inside facing marginal ampullae of incompatible colonies with respect to compatible colonies; the latter concentration is, however, significantly higher than that inside ampullae from solitary colonies. In addition, we used Transwell chambers to evaluate whether incompatible BP has chemotactic properties. We put haemocyte suspensions in filtered sea water (FSW) in the upper wells and BP from either incompatible or compatible colonies in the lower wells. We observed a significant increase migration of haemocytes, and of MC in particular, in the presence of incompatible BP. This migration was significantly decreased by the addition of anti-cytokine (IL-1- α, TNF- α or IL-8) antibodies, suggesting that molecules recognised by these antibodies can be responsible for the chemotaxis observed.
B. Responses of Botryllus
schlosseri immunocytes to exogenous cytokines: results and perspectives. A. Menin,
L. Ballarin. Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di
We studied the effects of recombinant TNF-α, IL-1-α and IL-8 and of antibodies raised against mammalian cytokines (polyclonal anti- TNF-α and anti- IL-1-α, monoclonal anti-IL-8 and anti-IL-12) on phagocytes of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. In particular, we analysed the ability of phagocytes to assume an amoeboid shape (expressed as amoebocytic index) and to phagocyte yeast cells (expressed as phagocytic index). rTNF- α and rIL-1- α have no effects on both the amoebocytic and the phagocytic index, whereas rIL-8 significantly increases both the indexes. The observed increase in the phagocytic index was absent in the presence of calphostin C 0.1 µM, an inhibitor of PKC, and of H89 1 µM, an inhibitor of PKA, indicating the involvement of both the cAMP and IP3 pathways in signal transduction required for phagocytosis to occur. The IL-8- induced increase in amoebocytic and phagocytic index was not observed when haemocytes were pre-incubated in the presence of suramin 0.7 mM, a protein G inhibitor. Anti- TNF-α, anti-IL-1-α and anti-IL-8 antibodies significantly reduce the above indexes; no effects were observed in the presence of anti-IL-12. Our results suggest the presence of molecules able to cross-react with mammalian antibodies, involved in the regulation of phagocyte behaviour.
International Symposium of Marine Natural Products.
rapid chemotyping of minute samples from tunicates, marine sponges and
associated bacteria with MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry. Dieckmann, R.,
López-Legentil, S., Turon, X., von Döhren, H. Fac. of Biol.,
Sessile marine animals
coexisting with and harboring specific microbial populations show variable
morphologies and compositions depending on colony structure, environmental
conditions and genotypes. Probing chemical composition with minimal invasive
techniques with respect to both
metabolites and macromolecules can be accomplished with several highly sensitive techniques including MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In addition to the characterization of minute environmental samples from different sources, this technique permits also the rapid dereplication of large numbers of bacteria with respect to diversity and biosynthetic activities. We have used a mass spectrometric approach for rapid characterization of metabolites in ascidians and sponges. In ascidians, we have determined the presence of e.g. didemnines in Trididemnum solidum and Aplidium albicans,
rubrolides in Synoicum blochmanni and Ecteinascidins in Ecteinascidia turbinata. For the species Cystodytes dellechiajei, we have detected the existence of two chemotypes containing the sulfur-containing pyridoacridines shermilamine B, kuanoniamine D and their deacetylated forms, or the C9-unsubstituted pyridoacridines ascididemine and 11-hydroxyascididemin.
In sponges, chemotype determination of the sponges Axinella damicornis and A. verrucosa yielded identical Maldi-tof spectra, which suggests the presence of similar microbial populations or a lack of chemical differentiation of these two species. In an analysis of complex populations of boreal sponges from the European Lophelia reefs prominent metabolites have been directly identified e.g. from Geodia baretti (barettin) and Spongosorites (topsentins). Intact-Cell mass spectrometric profiles (ICM-MS) of metabolites and macromolecules in the range up to 20 kDa also provide rapid essential information to dereplicate bacterial isolates from marine sources with respect to phylogenetic differences and biosynthetic activities. The ease and speed of the method makes the mass spectral analysis the method of choice for the screening of large numbers of isolates and to identify new or rare groups.
variability in the pyridoacridine composition of the ascidian Cystodytes
dellechiajei. Bontemps-Subiélos, N., López-Legentil, S., Jamme,
F., Long, C., Banaigs, B. Fac. of Biol.,
Intraspecies variability has been a long-standing source of taxonomic and biological controversy. Species having a large range of distribution (or cosmopolitans) usually show some morphological differences, usually related to their geographical or bathymetric distribution. Color variation is perhaps the difference most frequently reported, but texture, general shape and other morphological characters may also change from one individual to another. However, the possible implications of these variations in secondary chemistry remain unknown. Cystodytes dellechiajei (Della Valle, 1877) (Aplousobranchiata, Polycitoridae) is a colonial soft-bodied ascidian widely distributed around the world in tropical and temperate waters. Although some spicular and color differences exist, so far there is little basis to split C. dellechiajei into several species mainly because the morphology of zooids is remarkably uniform. Several pyridoacridines, a group of highly colored polycyclic aromatic alkaloids, were reported in C. dellechiajei, among these ascididemin, 11-hydroxyascididemin, cystodytins A-I, shermilamine B, kuanoniamine D and sebastianines A and B.
To determine the relationship between secondary
chemistry and morphotype variation, the pyridoacridine distribution in 4 color
morphs (green, blue, purple and brown) of C.
dellechiajei from the western
Besides, two major chemotypes were found: the first presented the sulfur-containing pyridoacridines shermilamine B and kuanoniamine D, corresponding to the purple morph. The second, presented the C10-unsubstituted pyridoacridines: ascididemin and 11-hydroxyascididemin, corresponding to the blue and green morphs. No alkaloid was observed in the brown form. The pyridoacridine alkaloids identified in this study were characterized by a combination of mass spectrometry and one and two-dimensional NMR techniques on purified compounds. The structure elucidation of the 3 new compounds, deacetylshermilamine B from the purple morph and cystodimines A and B from the blue-green morphs is described together with the 2 chemotypes characterized by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection or mass spectrometry.
Iberian Symposium on Marine Benthos.
variability is widespread in marine invertebrates. Size, colour, texture,
general shape and secondary chemistry can differ quite drastically from one
individual or population to another. We chose as case study the colonial ascidian
Cystodytes dellechiajei (Polycitoridae), which presents several
morphotypes differing mainly in color and spicular composition. New molecular
and chemical tools enable us to assess the taxonomic status of these
morphotypes. To determine whether variation observed in Mediterranean C.
dellechiajei has a genetic basis, we sequenced 45 specimens from eight
locations of the western
Titles of all the papers in the special Protochordate issue of the Canadian Journal of Zoology are marked with an asterisk *.
Aiello, A., Fattorusso, E., Luciano, P., Macho, A., Menna, M. and Munoz, E. 2005. Antitumor effects of two novel naturally occurring terpene qinones isolated from the Mediterranean ascidian Aplidium conicum. J. Med. Chem. 48: 3410-3416.
Ballarin, L., Menin, A., Franchi, N., Bertoloni, G. and Cima, F. 2005. Morula cells and non-self recognition in the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Invert. Survival J. 2: 1-5.
Barenbrock, J. S. and
Kock, M. 2005. Screening enzyme-inhibitory activity in several ascidian species
*Bates, W. R. 2005.
Environmental factors affecting reproduction and development in ascidians and
Bellas, J., Beiras, R., Marino-Balsa, J. and Fernández, N. 2005. Toxicity of organic compounds to marine invertebrate embryos and larvae: A comparison between the sea urchin embryogenesis bioassay and alternative test species. Ecotoxicology 14: 337-353.
Bennett, C. E. and Marshall, D. J. 2005. The relative energetic costs of the larval period, larval swimming and metamorphosis for the ascidian Diplosoma listerianum. Mar. Freshw. Behav. Physiol. 38: 21-29.
Blunt, J. W., Copp, B. R., Munro, M. H., Northcote, P. T. and Prinsep, M. R. 2005. Marine natural products. Nat. Prod. Rep. 22: 15-61.
Braithwaite, R. A. and McEvoy, L. A. 2005. Marine biofouling on fish farms and its remediation. Adv. Mar. Biol. 47: 215-252.
Bullard, S. G. and Whitlatch, R. B. 2004. A guide to the larval and juvenile stages of common Long Island Sound ascidians and bryozoans. Connecticut Sea Grant Communications Office, Univ. of CT, 1080 Shennecossett Road, Groton, CT 06340, Groton, CT.
*Cameron, C. B. 2005.
A phylogeny of the hemichordates based on morphological characters.
Castilla, J. C.,
Uribe, M., Bahamonde, N., Clarke, M., Desqueyroux-Faúndez, R., Kong,
Christiaen, L., Bourrat, F. and Joly, J. S. 2005. A modular cis-regulatory system controls isoform-specific pitx expression in ascidian stomodaeum. Dev. Biol. 277: 557-566.
*Cone, A. C. and
Zeller, R. W. 2005. Using ascidian embryos to study the evolution of
developmental gene regulatory networks.
Davis, H. H. and Davis, M. E. 2004. The distribution limits of Styela clava (Tunicata, Ascidiacea) in European waters. Porcupine Mar. Nat. Hist. Soc. Newsletter 15: 35-43.
Davis, M. H. and
Davis, M. E. 2005. Styela clava (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) -- a new addition
to the fauna of the Portuguese coast. J. Mar. Biol. Ass.
Dolcemascolo, G., Gianguzza, P., Pellerito, C., Pellerito, L. and Gianguzza, M. 2005. Effects of tri-n-butyltin(IV) chloride on neurulation of Ciona intestinalis (Tunicata, Ascidiacea): an ultrastructural study. Applied Organometal. Chem. 19: 11-22.
Du Pasquier, L. 2004. Speculations on the origin of the vertebrate immune system. Immunol. Lett. 92: 3-9.
Duckworth, A. R., Samples, G. A., Wright, A. E. et al. 2004. In vitro culture of the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata to supply the antitumor compounds ecteinascidins. Aquaculture 241: 427-439.
Edvardsen, R. B., Lerat, E., Maeland, A. D., Flat, M., Tewari, R., Jensen, M. F., Lehrach, H., Reinhardt, R., Seo, H. C. and Chourrout, D. 2004. Hypervariable and highly divergent intron-exon organizations in the chordate Oikopleura dioica. J. Molec. Evol. 59: 448-457.
Faasse, M. and H., D. B. 2002. De exotische samengestelde zakpijp Botrylloides violaceus Oka, 1927 in Nederland (Ascidiacea: Pleurogona: Styelidae). Het Zeepaard 62: 136-141.
Faasse, M. A. 2004. De Aziatische zakpijp Perophora japonica Oka, 1927 in Nederland. Het Zeepaard 64: 179-182.
Fujiwara, S. 2005. Promoter activity of the retinoic acid receptor gene in the Ciona intestinalis embryo. Dev. Dyn. 232: 1124-1130.
Fusetani, N. 2004. Search for drug leads from Japanese marine invertebrates. J. Synthetic Org. Chem. Japan 62: 1073-1079.
Granato, A. C., de Oliveira, J. H. H. L., Seleghim, M. H. R., Berlinck, R. G. S., Macedo, M. L., Ferreira, A. G., Rocha, R. M., Hajdu, E. M., Peixinho, S., Pessoa, C. O., Moraes, M. O. and Cavalcanti, B. C. 2005. Natural products from the ascidian Botrylloides giganteum, from the sponges Verongula gigantea, Ircinia felix, Cliona delitrix and from the nudibranch Tambja eliora, from the Brazilian coastline. Quím. Nova 28: 192-198.
Hamada, T., Asanuma, M., Ueki, T., Hayashi, F., Kobayashi, N., Yokoyama, S., Michibata, H. and Hirota, H. 2005. Solution structure of Vanabin2, a vanadium(IV)-binding protein from the vanadium-rich ascidian, Ascidia sydneiensis samea. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 127: 4216-4222.
Hirose, E., Akahori,
Hirose, E., Oka, A. T. and Akahori, M. 2005. Sexual reproduction of the photosymbiotic ascidian Diplosoma virens in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan: vertical transmission, seasonal change, and possible impact of parasitic copepods. Mar. Biol. 146: 677-682.
Hiruta, J., Mazet, F., Yasui, K., Zhang, P. and Ogasawara, M. 2005. Comparative expression analysis of transcription factor genes in the endostyle of invertebrate chordates. Dev. Dyn. 233 (3, July).
Holland, L. Z. 2005. Non-neural ectoderm is really neural: evolution of developmental patterning mechanisms in the non-neural ectoderm of chordates and the problem of sensory cell homologies. J. Exp. Zool. B: Mol. Dev. Evol. April: 304B.
Hudson, C. and Yasuo, H. 2005. Patterning across the ascidian neural plate by lateral Nodal signalling sources. Development 132: 1199-1210.
Ikuta, T. and Saiga, H. 2005. Organization of Hox genes in ascidians: Present, past, and future. Dev. Dyn.
Iwanaga, S. and Lee, B. L. 2005. Recent advances in the innate immunity of invertebrate animals. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 38: 128-150.
Iwasaki, K., Kimura,
T., Kinoshita, K., Yamaguchi, T., Nishikawa, T., Nishi, E., Yamanishi, R.,
Jiang, D., Munro, E. M. and Smith, W. C. 2005. Ascidian prickle regulates both mediolateral and anterior-posterior cell polarity of notochord cells. Curr. Biol. 15: 79-85.
Jiang, D., Tresser, J. W., Horie, T., Tsuda, M. and Smith, W. C. 2005. Pigmentation in the sensory organs of the ascidian larva is essential for normal behavior. J. Exp. Biol. 208: 433-438.
Katsuyama, Y., Okada, T., Matsumoto, J., Ohtsuka, Y., Terashima, T. and Okamura, Y. 2005. Early specification of ascidian larval motor neurons. Dev. Biol. 278: 310-322.
Kavanaugh, S. I., Root, A. R. and Sower, S. A. 2005. Distribution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by in situ hybridization in the tunicate Ciona intestinalis. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 141: 76-83.
Kawashima, T., Satou, Y., Murakami , S. D. and Satoh, N. 2005. Dynamic changes in developmental gene expression in the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis. Dev. Growth & Differ. 47: 187-199.
Kelaher, B. P. and
Castilla, J. C. 2005. Habitat characteristics influence macrofaunal communities
in coralline turf more than mesoscale coastal upwelling on the coast of
Keys, D. N., Lee, B. I., Di Gregorio, A., Harafuji, N., Detter, J. C., Wang, M., Kahsai, O., Ahn, S., Zhang, C., Doyle, S. A., Satoh, N., Satou, Y., Saiga, H., Christian, A. T., Rokhsar, D. S., Hawkins, T. L., Levine, M. and Richardson, P. M. 2005. A saturation screen for cis-acting regulatory DNA in the Hox genes of Ciona intestinalis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102: 679-683.
Kimura, S. and Itoh, T. 2004. Cellulose synthesizing terminal complexes in the ascidians. Cellulose 11: 377-383.
Knott, N. A., Davis, A. R. and Buttemer, W. A. 2004. Passive flow through an unstalked intertidal ascidian: orientation and morphology enhance suspension feeding in Pyura stolonifera. Biol. Bull. 207: 217-224.
Knott, N. A.,
Underwood, A. J., Chapman, M. G. and Glasby, T. M. 2004. Epibiota on vertical
and on horizontal surfaces on natural reefs and on artificial structures. J.
Mar. Biol. Ass.
Kott, P. 2004.
Ascidiacea (Tunicata) in Australian waters of the
Kusakabe, T. 2005. Decoding cis-regulatory systems in ascidians. Zool. Sci. 22: 129-146.
Lacalli, T. C. 2004. Light on ancient photoreceptors. Nature 432: 454-455.
*Lacalli, T. C. 2005.
Protochordate body plan and the evolutionary role of larvae: old controversies
*Lambert, C. C. 2005.
Historical introduction, overview, and reproductive biology of the
Lambert , C. C. 2005. Signaling pathways in ascidian oocyte maturation: Effects of various inhibitors and activators on germinal vesicle breakdown. Develop. Growth Differ. 47: 265–272.
Lambert, G. 2005.
First North American record of the ascidian Perophora japonica. J. Mar.
*Lambert, G. 2005.
Ecology and natural history of the protochordates.
*Mackie, G. O. and
Burighel, P. 2005. The nervous system in adult tunicates: current research
Marshall, D. J. and Keough, M. J. 2005. Offspring size effects in the marine environment: A field test for a colonial invertebrate. Austral Ecol. 30: 275–280.
Marshall, K. M. and Barrows, L. R. 2004. Biological activities of pyridoacridines. Nat. Prod. Rep. 21: 731-751.
Matsuoka, T., Awazu, S., Shoguchi, E., Satoh, N. and Sasakura, Y. 2005. Germline transgenesis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis by electroporation. Genesis 41: 67-72.
*McHenry, M. J. 2005.
The morphology, behavior, and biomechanics of swimming in ascidian larvae.
Meenakshi, V. K. 2004.
New records of five species of colonial ascidians of the genus Ecteinascidia
Herdman, 1880 from the
Meenakshi, V. K. 2004.
Addition to the ascidian fauna of
Meenakshi, V. K. 2004. Conservation strategies and action plan for the prochordates. 17 – 30.
Meenakshi, V. K. and
Senthamarai, S. 2004. First report of a simple ascidian – Phallusia arabica
Savigny, 1816 from Tuticorin coast of
Meenakshi, V. K. and
Senthamarai, S. 2004. Styela plicata (Lesueur, 1823) – A simple ascidian
new to Indian waters from Tuticorin coast. J.
Meenakshi, V. K. and Senthamarai, S. 2004. Ascidians associated with coral reefs in Tuticorin.
Moody, W. J. 2004. Subtype-specific mechanisms for regulating K+ channel density during development. Focus on "The carboxyl tail region of the Kv2.2 subunit mediates novel developments of channel density". J. Neurophysiol. 92: 3169-3170.
Moret, F., Christiaen, L., Deyts, C., Blin, M., Vernier, P. and Joly, J. S. 2005. Regulatory gene expressions in the ascidian ventral sensory vesicle: evolutionary relationships with the vertebrate hypothalamus. Dev. Biol. 277: 567-579.
Nakayama, A., Satoh, N. and Sasakura, Y. 2005. Tissue-specific profile of DNA replication in the swimming larvae of Ciona intestinalis. Zool. Sci. 22: 301-309.
Nishikawa, T. 2004. A
new deep-water lancelet (Cephalochordata) from off
Nishikawa, T. 2005. An
atrial membrane in the colonial ascidian, Ritterella tokioka Kott, 1992
(Urochordata: Ascidiacea) from
Pakhomov, E. A. 2004. Salp/krill interactions in the eastern Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Deep Sea Res. Part 2 Topical Studies in Oceanog. 51: 2645-2660.
Pakhomov, E. A. and Froneman, P. W. 2004. Zooplankton dynamics in the eastern Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during the austral summer 1997/1998 - Part 2: Grazing impact. Deep Sea Res. Part 2 Topical Studies in Oceanog. 51: 2617-2631.
Passamaneck, Y. J. and Di Gregorio, A. 2005. Ciona intestinalis: chordate development made simple. Dev. Dyn. 233: 1-19.
Philips, A. A., Blein, M. M., Robert, A. A., Philippe, J., Chambon, J. P., Baghdiguian, S. S., Weill, M. M. and Fort, P. P. 2003. Ascidians as a vertebrate-like model organism for physiological studies of Rho GTPase signaling. Biol. Cell 95: 295-302.
Prado, M. P., Berlinck, R. G. S., Torres, Y. R., Hajdu, E. M., Rocha, R. M. and Santelli, G. M. M. 2004. Effects of marine organisms extracts on microtubule integrity and cell cycle progression in cultured cells. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 313: 125-137.
Primo, C. and Vazquez, E. 2004. Zoogeography of the southern African ascidian fauna. J. Biogeog. 31: 1987-2009.
Rabinowitz, C. and Rinkevich, B. 2003. Epithelial cell cultures from Botryllus schlosseri palleal buds: accomplishments and challenges. Methods in Cell Sci. 25: 137-148.
Reas, P. G. and Ballaro, B. 2004. Reaction-diffusion equations for simulation of calcium signalling in cell systems. Riv. Biol. 97: 443-468.
*Rinkevich, B. 2005.
Rejection patterns in botryllid ascidian immunity: the first tier of
Rocha, R. M. and
Costa, L. V. G. 2005. Ascidians from Arraial do Cabo, RJ,
Rowley, A. F., Vogan, C. L., Taylor, G. W. and Clare, A. S. 2005. Prostaglandins in non-insectan invertebrates: recent insights and unsolved problems. J. Exp. Biol. 208: 3-14.
*Ruppert, E. E. 2005.
Key characters uniting hemichordates and chordates: homologies or homoplasies.
Russo, G. L., Tosto,
M., Mupo, A., Castellano,
Sardet, C., Dru, P. and Prodon, F. 2005. Cortical determinants and mRNAs in ascidian eggs and embryos. Biol. Cell 97: 35-49.
Satoh, G. 2005. Characterization of novel GPCR gene coding locus in amphioxus genome: gene structure, expression, and phylogenetic analysis with implications for its involvement in chemoreception. Genesis 41: 47-57.
Satoh, N. 2004. Genomic resources for ascidians: sequence/expression databases and genome projects. Methods Cell Biol. 74: 759-774.
Schubert , M., Yu , J.
Sherrard, K. M. and LaBarbera, M. 2005. Form and function in juvenile ascidians. II. Ontogenetic scaling of volumetric flow rates. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 287: 139–148.
Sherrard, K. M. and LaBarbera, M. 2005. Form and function in juvenile ascidians. I. Implications of early juvenile morphologies for performance. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 287: 127–138.
*Sherwood, N. M.,
Adams, B. A. and Tello, J. A. 2005. Endocrinology of protochordates.
*Shimeld, S. M. and
Shubina, L. K., Fedorov , S. N., Radchenko, O. S. and al., e. 2005. Desmethylubiquinone Q(2) from the Far-Eastern ascidian Aplidium glabrum: structure and synthesis. Tet. Lett. 46: 559-562.
Stach, T. 2005. Comparison of the serotonergic nervous system among Tunicata: implications for its evolution within Chordata. Organisms, Diversity & Evol. 5: 15-24.
Stach, T. and Turbeville, C. 2005. The role of appendicularians in chordate evolution – a phylogenetic analysis of molecular and morphological characters, with remarks on ‘neoteny scenarios’. Response of marine ecosystems to global change: ecological impact of appendicularians. Conference Proceedings 9-26.
Sturcova, A., Davies, G. R. and Eichhorn, S. J. 2005. Elastic modulus and stress-transfer properties of tunicate cellulose whiskers. Biomacromolecules 6: 1055-1061.
Sweet, H., Amemiya, S., Ransick, A., Minokawa, T., McClay, D. R., Wikramanayake, A., Kuraishi, R., Kiyomoto, M., Nishida, H. and Henry, J. 2004. Blastomere isolation and transplantation. Methods Cell Biol. 74: 243-.
Takahashi, H., Mitani, Y. and Satoh, N. 2005. Both the functional specificity and autoregulative activity of two ascidian T-box genes HrBra and HrTbx6 are likely to be mediated by the DNA-binding domain. Dev. Growth & Differ. 47: 173-185.
Tew, K. S. and Lo, W.
T. 2005. Distribution of Thaliacea in
Tiozzo, S., Christiaen, L., Deyts, C., Manni, L., Joly, J. S. and Burighel, P. 2005. Embryonic versus blastogenetic development in the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri: insights from Pitx expression patterns. Dev. Dyn. 232: 468-478.
Troedsson, C., Grahl-Nielsen, O. and Thompson, E. M. 2005. Variable fatty acid composition of the pelagic appendicularian Oikopleura dioica in response to dietary quality and quantity. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 289: 165-176.
Wakoh, T., Ikeda, M., Uchino, R., Azumi, K., Nonaka, M., Kohara, Y., Metoki, H., Satou, Y., Satoh, N. and Satake, M. 2004. Identification of transcripts expressed preferentially in hemocytes of Ciona intestinalis that can be used as molecular markers. DNA Res. 11: 345-352.
Weill, M., Philips, A., Chourrout, D. and Fort, P. 2005. The caspase family in urochordates: distinct evolutionary fates in ascidians and larvaceans. Biol. Cell
*Wicht, H. and
Lacalli, T. C. 2005. The nervous system of amphioxus: structure, development,
and evolutionary significance.
Wilt, F. H. 2005. Developmental biology meets materials science: Morphogenesis of biomineralized structures. Dev. Biol. 280: 15– 25.
Wyatt, A. S. J.,
Hewitt, C. L., Walker,
Yokobori, S., Oshima, T. and Wada, H. 2005. Complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Doliolum nationalis with implications for evolution of urochordates. Molec. Phylogen. & Evol. 34: 273-283.
Yoshizaki, F. Y., Ikawa, S., Satake, M., Satoh, N. and Nonaka, M. 2005. Structure and the evolutionary implication of the triplicated complement factor B genes of a urochordate ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. Immunogenetics 56: 930-942.
Zega, G., Pennati, R., Groppelli, S., Sotgia, C. and De Bernardi, F. 2005. Dopamine and serotonin modulate the onset of metamorphosis in the ascidian Phallusia mammillata. Dev. Biol. 282 (1): 246-256.
*Zeng, L. and Swalla, B. J. 2005. Molecular phylogeny
of the protochordates: chordate evolution.