Gretchen Lambert 

12001 11th Ave. NW, Seattle, WA 98177


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Number 71                                                                                                                                                                                 May 2013


This issue is a month earlier than usual because I will be in Singapore from mid-May to mid-June participating in a major biodiversity survey. There will be many ascidians to identify!

   There are 91 new publications listed at the end of this newsletter, abstracts from recent meetings, announcements of upcoming meetings, and more. I hope to see many of you at the Tunicata meeting in Naples in July.


*Ascidian News is not part of the scientific literature and should not be cited as such.




1. The 7th International Tunicata meeting will be held in Naples, Italy July 22-26. Please see the website for more information, registration, etc. It is sure to be an exciting and interesting meeting!


2. The 8th International Conference on Marine Bioinvasions will be held 20-22 August at the Biodiversity Research Centre at the University of British Columbia (UBC) in Vancouver, Canada.  Abstract deadline is May 24.


3. From Teruaki Nishikawa, Lab. of Taxonomy, Dept. of Biol., Faculty of Sci., Toho Univ.,

Funabashi, Chiba, Japan

     Zoological Nomenclature at a financial crossroads: An urgent fundraising effort to save the International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature.

  (published in Taxa: Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology 34: 67–70 (2013). In Japanese with English abstract: The current financial crisis at the International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature (ITZN) is reported here in the hope of inspiring widespread participation in an urgent, earnest, and ultimately successful fund-raising effort to save it. The organization, purpose, and history of ITZN are recounted here in brief, and evidently for the first time in Japanese, to foster a wider and better understanding of its signifi cance. ITZN financially supports the entire operation of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) and its Secretariat, whose activities are indispensable for stability in the scientific names of animals. The Commission is responding innovatively to new technical opportunities by developing tools to make nomenclature more accessible and reliable, as shown by the 2012 amendment to the Code to allow valid electric publication and the relaunch of ZooBank, the Official Registry for Zoological Nomenclature, in a new architecture and better interface, both giving rise to an impressive increase in registrations. Establishing ZooBank as a goldstandard archive of scientific names is as important a task as the related endeavors of keeping archives of type specimens (the core role of Natural History Collections) and archives of published information (the core role of libraries and online data archives). ITZNs financial underpinnings must be restored quickly, with an assurance of steady and adequate future income. The risk is such that it could fail and be dissolved as soon as 2013. If ITZN founders, ICZNs ability to function will be severely compromised. A new subscriptioncampaign to encourage annual pledges of funds to ITZN from stakeholder institutions and organizations around the world (museums, learned societies, businesses, etc.), including in Japan, is outlined.


4. From Noa Shenkar, Zoology Department, Tel-Aviv University, Israel:

     The new ascidian research lab at Tel-Aviv University is being established. Our research focuses on ascidian biodiversity along the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts of Israel, with special emphasize on the arrival of non-indigenous species via the Suez Canal. For more information visit:

    The “Ascidiacea World Database” is being updated and revised constantly. Please e-mail PDF files of new species publications to . Any comments and corrections to the database are greatly appreciated. 




1.  Sulfur in the blood cells of Ascidia ceratodes. Patrick Frank, Dept. of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA

    We have been using our K-edge XAS spectral library of sulfur-containing molecules to analyze the sulfur within whole blood cells and cell-free blood plasma from the tunicate Ascidia ceratodes. In early work we found that sulfur is dominated by thiol/disulfide and sulfonate/sulfate. However, that work depended on Gaussian fits, which are far less specific.  Fitting blood cell XAS spectra using the XAS of functional group model compounds brings structural details into focus. In general, we have found an amazing array of secondary sulfur metabolites. These range from the expected cysteine and cystine, to unusual molecules that include aromatic sulfur, such as in benzothiophene, and even an episulfide. A big surprise was the evidence for large concentrations of sulfate esters, including mono-esters and cyclic diesters. The free sulfate dianion and bisulfate can be distinguished, which will allow an independent determination of average intracellular pH. The cysteine/cystine ratio will allow us to estimate the average cell electromotive force. Cell-free blood plasma is dominated by sulfate, as was expected. Tiny amounts of reduced proteinaceous sulfur are discernable, however, which we model as glutathione. As usual, the closer one looks at ascidians, the more surprises one finds. I hope for further contributions as the project continues. We have lots more data under analysis that will come out later.




1. XI SCAR Biology Symposium. 15 - 19 July 2013, Barcelona, Spain. Life in Antarctica: Boundaries and Gradients in a Changing Environment.


a. Consequences of the glacier retreat on the trophic ecology of filter feeders and the bentho-pelagic coupling in an Antarctic coastal ecosystem. Alurralde, G.; Movilla, J.; Orejas, C.; Olariaga, A.; Schloss, I.;  Fuentes, V.L.;  Tatián, M.

    Deep changes have been registered in the structure of macrobenthic and planktonic communities inhabiting Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetland Islands), related to the retreatment of the Fourcade Glacier. The input of melting water leads to an increment in suspended particulate material, mainly inorganic, into the marine environment, which causes alterations in the filtration and respiration rates of filter feeders. Moreover, increases in the inorganic fraction could limit the intake of organic particles, reducing the assimilation effectiveness of the filtering organisms and even produce high mortality levels. Aiming to understand the energy flow between the pelagic and benthic system in Potter Cove, the trophic ecology of filtering species has been assessed under the ECLIPSE project, during the last 2013 Antarctic summer campaign. The feces production rate, assimilation efficiency, biodeposition rate and seston depletion rate of the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and a sea squirt (Cnemidocarpa verrucosa), both considered key for benthic-pelagic coupling and food webs, were studied under different diets and sediment concentrations.  In this contribution preliminary results of this work and the first conclusions obtained are communicated.


b. Epibiosis on three ascidian species living on soft substrates at Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands. Rimondino C; Sahade R; Torre L; Tatián M.

    In the last two decades, it was reported at Potter Cove an evident retreat of the surrounding glaciers that produces an increase of suspended particulate matter and salinity lowering affecting the structure of benthic communities. The inner Potter Cove (characterized by muddy bottoms), showed a high density and species richness, particularly of ascidians, which support a community of epibiont organisms. These organisms were reported to be responsible for the tridimensional structure observed in benthic communities, contributing to the benthic diversity in other Antarctic areas.  Intensity of epibiosis may depend on epibiont/basibiont species. It has been observed a high degree of specialization in epibiotic communities, according to physicochemical and morphological characteristics of the basibiont bodies where they develop, i.e. texture, shape and stability. In spite of its relevance, epibiotic communities were not still studied at Potter Cove. In this study, a total of 21 macroepibiont taxa were identified on the ascidians Corella antarctica Sluiter, 1905, Cnemidocarpa verrucosa (Lesson, 1830) and Molgula pedunculata Herdman, 1881, species characterized by a different tunic texture and pH values. Between these macroepibionts,  Bryozoa was the most diverse taxa found. There were differences between the three ascidian species in terms of richness and percentage cover of macroepibionts. Besides chemical, physical and structural factors, the influence of the available area for settlement and their relation with the age of the basibiont individuals would produce the observed differences. The present results will allow to evaluating future changes in the macrobenthic community and, particularly, macroepibiotic ones at Potter Cove and other nearby Antarctic coastal areas. This work is supported by Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Técnica (ANPCyT)  Dirección Nacional del Antártico (DNA), Argentina and ECLIPSE , a three years project supported by the TOTAL foundation (France).


2. 2nd Intll. Workshop on Tunicate Information System (iwTIS), Kyoto, Japan; 26-27 Nov. 2012


a. Botryllus schlosseri blastogenetic cycle: gene expression analysis using SOLiD sequencing technology.

Fabio Gasparini, Davide Campagna, Nicola Franchi, Giorgio Valle, Lucia Manni, Loriano Ballarin.  Dipartimento di Biologia, Univ. degli Studi di Padova.

    Colonies of the cosmopolitan ascidian Botryllus schlosseri are formed by zooids arranged in star-shaped systems, of 6-12 individuals around a common cloacal opening. They undergo cyclical generation change or take-over, during which tissues of adult zooids undergo massive apoptosis, are progressively resorbed and replaced by their buds which reach functional maturity and start filtering. The interest towards the Botryllus blastogenetic cycle has recently increased as it represents a reliable model for the study of natural apoptosis during the generation change and asexual reproduction by continuous budding.

The recent development of high-throughput sequencing technologies allow the expanding of the range of the studied organisms and was applied to many model organisms for the discovery of splice variants, RNA editing sites and new microRNA. The production of a de novo transcriptome assembly is often the preferred method for the study of non-model organisms, since it is cheaper and easier than constructing a genome.

    We have sequenced several SOLiD RNA-seq libraries coming from 3 stages of the colonial blastogenetic cycle: i) the phase immediately preceding the take-over, when the colony is preparing to the generation change; ii) the take-over, when adult zooids are resorbed and replaced by new ones, and iii), the mid-cycle phase, when buds and zooids coexist together and no generation change occurs. RNA-seq data has allowed the production of a de novo transcriptome assembly for B. schlosseri and all information has been included in an ad hoc database which interacts with a Web based interface. As resulting by gene expression analysis we have found several differentially expressed genes putatively responsible of the morphological and biochemical changes during blastogenesis.  This result opens new research perspectives for the study of the interplay between death and life during the generation change as well as the regulation of asexual reproduction in B. schlosseri.


b. Anatomical developmental ontology of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri.   Fabio Gasparini and Lucia Manni, Dipartimento di Biologia, Univ. degli Studi di Padova, Italy.

    A working group, joining together researchers from University of Padova (Italy), Keio University (Japan), Université Pierre et Marie Curie and CNRS (France), and Stanford University (USA), was founded during the 1st International Workshop on Tunicate Information Systems (Nice, France, November 11-13, 2010), with the aim to build up the anatomical developmental ontology of the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri. The team comprises experts in B. schlosseri biology, a biocurators, the coordinators of the web-based ascidian anatomical atlas FABA, and of the integrated ascidian website ANISEED. The scientific community working on tunicates considers urgent to open available databases to tunicate species, and the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri is considered for its peculiarities: it reproduces both sexually and asexually, regenerates extensively, possesses an allorecognition system, is characterized by toti- and pluri-potenti adult stem cells persisting in the colony, is a reliable model for in vivo studies of apoptosis, its genome will be released shortly. We present here preliminar results on the anatomical and developmental ontology of blastogenesis. Data, collected using as base scheme the ontology of Ciona intestinalis, defines a vocabulary of various anatomical entities (colony as a whole, adult zooids and buds), related to stages of bud development. The ontology is built up with particular regards to the staging methods proposed by Sabbadin (1955), but taking into account other staging methods currently used. We think that the ontology will represents an important tool to share results and experimental protocols within the tunicate scientific community.




Abitua, P. B., Wagner, E., Navarrete, I. A. and Levine, M. 2012. Identification of a rudimentary neural crest in a non-vertebrate chordate. Nature 492: 104-107.

Afkhami, M., Ehsanpour, M., Forouzan, F., Bastami, K. D., Bahri, A. H. and Daryaei, A. 2012. Distribution of ascidians Phallusia nigra (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) on the north coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran. Mar. Biodiversity Rec. 5: e95.

Aihara, H., Katikala, L., Zeller, R. W., Di Gregorio, A. and Nibu, Y. 2013. Optimization of a method for chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in the marine invertebrate chordate Ciona. Mar. Biotechnol. epub:

Akasaka, M., Kato, K. H., Kitajima, K. and Sawada, H. 2013. Identification of novel isoforms of vitellogenin expressed in ascidian eggs. J. Exp. Zool. B 320: 118-128.

Alurralde, G., Torre, T., Schwindt, E., Castilla, J. C. and Tatian, M. 2013. A re-evaluation of morphological characters of the invasive ascidian Corella eumyota reveals two different species at the tip of South America and in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Polar Biol. epub:

Ballarin, L., Cammarata, M., Franchi, N. and Parrinello, N. 2013. Routes in innate immunity evolution: galectins and rhamnose-binding lectins in ascidians. In: Marine proteins and peptides. Biological activities and application. Kim, S.-K, ed. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK. Pp. 185-206.

Bishop, J. D. D., Roby, C., Yunnie, A. L. E., Wood, C. A., Lévêque, L., Turon, X. and Viard, F. 2013. The Southern Hemisphere ascidian Asterocarpa humilis is unrecognised but widely established in NW France and Great Britain. Biol. Invasions 15: 253-260.

Cahill, P. L., Heasman, K., Hickey, A., Mountfort, D., Jeffs, A. and Kuhajek, J. 2013. Screening for negative effects of candidate ascidian antifoulant compounds on a target aquaculture species, Perna canaliculus Gmelin. Biofouling 29: 29-37.

Caicci, F., Gasparini, F., Rigon, F., Zaniolo, G., Burighel, P. and Manni, L. 2013. The oral sensory structures of Thaliacea (Tunicata) and consideration of the evolution of hair cells in Chordata. J. Comp. Neurol. : epub.

Chenevert, J., Pruliere, G., Ishii, H., Sardet, C. and Nishikata, T. 2013. Purification of mitochondrial proteins HSP60 and ATP synthase from ascidian eggs: implications for antibody specificity. Plos One 8: e52996.

Choi, C. H., Scardino, A. J., Dylejko, G., Fletcher, E. and Juniper, R. 2013. The effect of vibration frequency and amplitude on biofouling deterrence. Biofouling 29: 195-202.

Cockrell, M. L. and Sorte, C. J. B. 2013. Predicting climate-induced changes in population dynamics of invasive species in a marine epibenthic community. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 440: 42-48.

Cordell, J. R., Levy, C. and Toft, J. D. 2012. Ecological implications of invasive tunicates associated with artificial structures in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Biol. Invasions epub: 1-15.

Dias, G. M., Rocha, R. M., Lotufo, T. M. C. and Kremer, L. P. 2012. Fifty years of ascidian biodiversity research in São Sebastia˜o, Brazil. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. epub: 1-10.

Dijkstra, J. A., Lambert, W. J. and Harris, L. G. 2013. Introduced species provide a novel temporal resource that facilitates native predator population growth. Biol. Invasions 15: 911–919.

Erwin, P. M., Pineda, M. C., Webster, N., Turon, X. and Lopez-Legentil, S. 2013. Small core communities and high variability in bacteria associated with the introduced ascidian Styela plicata. Symbiosis 59: 35-46.

Ettensohn, C. A. 2012. Encoding anatomy: developmental gene regulatory networks and morphogenesis. Genesis epub: 1-27.

Franchi, N. and Ballarin, L. 2013. Influence of cadmium on the morphology and functionality of haemocytes in the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C in press:

Franchi , N., Schiavon, F., Betti, M., Canesi, L. and Ballarin, L. 2013. Insight on signal transduction pathways involved in phagocytosis in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. J. Invert. Pathol. 112: 260-266.

Gallo, A., Russo, G. L. and Tosti, E. 2013. T-Type Ca2+ current activity during oocyte growth and maturation in the ascidian Styela plicata. Plos One 8: 1-11.

Gasparini, F., Degasperi, V., Shimeld, S. M., Burighel, P. and Manni, L. 2013. Evolutionary conservation of the placodal transcriptional network during sexual and asexual development in chordates. Dev. Dyn. epub:

Giacomelli, S., Melillo, D., Lambris, J. D. and Pinto, M. R. 2012. Immune competence of the Ciona intestinalis pharynx: complement system-mediated activity. Fish & Shellfish Immunol. 33: 946-952.

Hackley, C., Mulholland, E., Kim, G. J., Newman-Smith, E. and Smith, W. C. 2013. A transiently expressed connexin is essential for anterior neural plate development in Ciona intestinalis. Development 140: 147-155.

Hasunuma, I. and Terakado, K. 2013. Two novel gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) from the urochordate ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi: implications for the origin of vertebrate GnRH isoforms. Zool. Sci. 30: 311-318.

Hernandez, J. E., Bolanos, J. A., Palazon, J. L., Hernandez, G., Lira, C. and Baeza, J. A. 2012. The enigmatic life history of the symbiotic crab Tunicotheres moseri (Crustacea, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae): implications for its mating system and population structure. Biol. Bull. 223: 278-290.

Holland, L. Z. 2013. Evolution of new characters after whole genome duplications: Insights from amphioxus. Seminars in Cell & Dev. Biol. 24: 101-109.

Hozumi, A., Yoshida, R., Horie, T., Sakuma, T., Yamamoto, T. and Sasakura, Y. 2013. Enhancer activity sensitive to the orientation of the gene it regulates in the chordate genome. Dev. Biol. 375: 79-91.

Hudson, C., Kawai, N., Negishi, T. and Yasuo, H. 2013. Beta-catenin-driven binary fate specification segregates germ layers in ascidian embryos. Curr. Biol. 23: 491-495.

Imperatore, C., Aiello, A., D'Aniello, F., Luciano, P., Vitalone, R., Meli, R., Raso, G. M. and Menna, M. 2012. New bioactive alkyl sulfates from Mediterranean tunicates. Molecules 17: 12642-12650.

Izzi, S. A., Colantuono, B. J., Sullivan, K., Khare, P. and Meedel, T. H. 2013. Functional studies of the Ciona intestinalis myogenic regulatory factor reveal conserved features of chordate myogenesis. Dev. Biol. 376: 213-223.

Jackson, H. A., Hegle, A., Nazzari, H., Jegla, T. and Accili, E. A. 2012. Asymmetric divergence in structure and function of HCN channel duplicates in Ciona intestinalis. Plos One 7: e47590.

Jang, H. B., Kim, Y. K., Del Castillo, C. S., Nho, S. W., Cha, I. S., Park, S. B., Ha, M. A., Hikima, J., Hong, S. J., Aoki, T. and Jung, T. S. 2012. RNA-seq-based metatranscriptomic and microscopic investigation reveals novel metalloproteases of Neobodo sp. as potential virulence factors for soft tunic syndrome in Halocynthia roretzi. Plos One 7: e52379.

Jimenez, P. C., Ferreira, E. G., Araújo, L. A., Guimarães, L. A., Sousa, T. S., Pessoa, O. D. L., Lotufo, T. M. C. and Costa-Lotufo, L. V. 2013. Cytotoxicity of actinomycetes associated with the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei (Millar, 1977), endemic of northeastern coast of Brazil. Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res. 41: 335-343.

Jimenez, P. C., Wilke, D. V., Ferreira, E. G., Takeara, R., de Moraes, M. O., Silveira, E. R., Lotufo, T. M. C., Lopes, N. P. and Costa-Lotufo, L. V. 2012. Structure elucidation and anticancer activity of 7-oxostaurosporine derivatives from the Brazilian endemic tunicate Eudistoma vannamei. Mar. Drugs 10: 1092-1102.

Jose’-Edwards, D. S., Oda-Ishii, I., Nibu, Y. and Di Gregorio, A. 2013. Tbx2/3 is an essential mediator within the Brachyury gene network during Ciona notochord development. Development in press:

Joyce Tang, W., Chen, J. S. and Zeller, R. W. 2013. Transcriptional regulation of the peripheral nervous system in Ciona intestinalis. Dev. Biol. epub:

Kanda, M., Ikeda, T. and Fujiwara, S. 2013. Identification of a retinoic acid-responsive neural enhancer in the Ciona intestinalis Hox1 gene. Dev. Growth Differ. 55: 260-269.

Katsumoto, S., Hatta, K. and Nakagawa, M. 2013. Brief hypo-osmotic shock causes test cell death, prevents neurula rotation, and disrupts left-right asymmetry in Ciona intestinalis. Zool. Sci. 30: 352-359.

Kawamura, K., Kitamura, S., Sekida, S., Tsuda, M. and Sunanaga, T. 2012. Molecular anatomy of tunicate senescence: reversible function of mitochondrial and nuclear genes associated with budding cycles. Development 139: 4083-4093.

Khalaman, V. V. 2013. Regular and irregular events in fouling communities in the White Sea. Hydrobiologia 706: 205-219.

Kitayama, K., Yamamoto, S., Michibata, H. and Ueki, T. 2013. Metal ion selectivity of the vanadium(V)-reductase vanabin2. Dalton Trans. in press:

Kneer, D., Monniot, F., Stach, T. and Christianen, M. J. A. 2013. Ascidia subterranea sp. nov. (Phlebobranchia: Ascidiidae), a new tunicate belonging to the A. sydneiensis Stimpson, 1855 group, found as burrow associate of Axiopsis serratifrons A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 (Decapoda: Axiidae) on Derawan Island, Indonesia. Zootaxa 3616: 485–494.

Ko, S. C., Kim, D. G., Han, C. H., Lee, Y. J., Lee, J. K., Byun, H. G., Lee, S. C., Park, S. J., Lee, D. H. and Jeon, Y. J. 2012. Nitric oxide-mediated vasorelaxation effects of anti-angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) peptide from Styela clava flesh tissue and its anti-hypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Chemistry 134: 1141-1145.

Kühl, M., Behrendt, L., Trampe, E., Qvortrup, K., Schreiber, U., Borisov, S. M., Klimant, I. and Larkum, A. W. D. 2012. Microenvironmental ecology of the chlorophyll b-containing symbiotic cyanobacterium Prochloron in the didemnid ascidian Lissoclinum patella. Frontiers in Aquat. Microbiol. 3: 1-18.

Kwan, J. C., Donia, M. S., Han, A. W., Hirose, E., Haygood, M. G. and Schmidt, E. W. 2012. Genome streamlining and chemical defense in a coral reef symbiosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109: 20655-20660.

Lagger, C. and Tatián, M. 2012. Two new species of Distaplia (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) from the SW Atlantic, Argentina. Zootaxa 3620: 192-200.

Lauzon, R. J., Brown, C., Kerr, L. and Tiozzo, S. 2013. Phagocyte dynamics in a highly regenerative urochordate: Insights into development and host defense. Dev. Biol. 374: 357-373.

Leeuw, T., Newburg, S. O., Boss, E. S., Slade, W. H., Soroka, M. G., Pederson, J., Chryssostomidis, C. and Hover, F. S. 2013. Remote identification of the invasive tunicate Didemnum vexillum using reflectance spectroscopy. Applied Optics 52: 1758-1763.

Li, J. L., Xiao, B., Park, M., Yoo, E. S., Shin, S., Hong, J., Chung, H. Y., Kim, H. S. and Jung, J. H. 2012. PPAR-gamma agonistic metabolites from the ascidian Herdmania momus. J. Nat. Prod. 75: 2082-2087.

Li, J. L., Xiao, B., Park, M., Yoo, E. S., Shin, S., Hong, J., Chung, H. Y., Kim, H. S. and Jung, J. H. 2013. Correction to PPAR-gamma agonistic metabolites from the ascidian Herdmania momus. J. Nat. Prod. epub:

Lopez-Legentil, S., Erwin, P. M., Velasco, M. and Turon, X. 2013. Growing or reproducing in a temperate sea: optimization of resource allocation in a colonial ascidian. Invertebrate Biology 132: 69–80.

Maliska, M. E., Pennell, M. W. and Swalla, B. J. 2013. Developmental mode influences diversification in ascidians. Biol. Lett. 9: epub.

Matsumori, N., Hiradate, Y., Shibata, H., Oishi, T., Shimma, S., Toyoda, M., Hayashi, F., Yoshida, M., Murata, M. and Morisawa, M. 2013. A novel sperm-activating and attracting factor from the ascidian Ascidia sydneiensis. Org. Lett. 15: 294-297.

Matsushima, A., Ryan, K., Shimohigashi, Y. and Meinertzhagen, I. A. 2013. An endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A, affects development in the protochordate Ciona intestinalis: hatching rates and swimming behavior alter in a dose-dependent manner. Environ. Poll. 173: 257-263.

Miller, R. J. and Etter, R. J. 2011. Rock walls: small-scale diversity hotspots in the subtidal Gulf of Maine. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 425: 153-165.

Mita, K., Kawai, N., Rueckert, S. and Sasakura, Y. 2012. Large-scale infection of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis by the gregarine Lankesteria ascidiae in an inland culture system. Dis. Aquat. Organ. 101: 185-195.

Nagaya, K. and Hirose, E. 2013. Pattern of stigma numbers as a taxonomic character in some didemnid ascidians (Aplousobranchia: Didemnidae). Zootaxa 3608: 87–93.

Negishi, T., McDougall, A. and Yasuo, H. 2013. Practical tips for imaging ascidian embryos. Dev. Growth Differ. epub:

Norton, J., Cooley, J., Islam, A. F., Cota, C. D. and Davidson, B. 2013. Matrix adhesion polarizes heart progenitor induction in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis. Development 140: 1301-1311.

Nydam, M. L. and De Tomaso, A. W. 2012. The fester locus in Botryllus schlosseri experiences selection. BMC Evol. Biol. 12: 249.

Nydam, M. L., Hoang, T. A., Shanley, K. M. and De Tomaso, A. W. 2013. Molecular evolution of a polymorphic HSP40-like protein encoded in the histocompatibility locus of an invertebrate chordate. Dev. Comp. Immunol. in press:

Ohtsuka, I., Hada, N., Atsumi, T. and Kakiuchi, N. 2013. Synthesis of a new glycosphingolipid from the marine ascidian Microcosmus sulcatus using a one-pot glycosylation strategy. Tetrahedron 69: 1470-1475.

Oliveira, F. A., Colares, G. B., Hissa, D. C., Angelim, A. L., Melo, V. M. M. and Lotufo, T. M. C. 2013. Microbial epibionts of the colonial ascidians Didemnum galacteum and Cystodytes sp. Symbiosis 59: 57–63.

Ooishi, S. 2012. Two new species of Botryllophilus (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Ascidicolidae) living in compound ascidians from Madagascar. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 125: 122-144.

Ortiz, M., Campos, L., Berrios, F., Rodriguez, F., Hermosillo, B. and Gonzalez, J. 2013. Network properties and keystoneness assessment in different intertidal communities dominated by two ecosystem engineer species (SE Pacific coast): A comparative analysis. Ecol. Modelling 250: 307-318.

Pachelle, P. P. G., Paiva, S. V., Filho, R. R. O. and Anker, A. 2012. The ascidian-associated shrimp Ascidonia miserabilis (Caridea: Palaemonidae): first record for Brazil and additional records for the Caribbean Sea. Mar. Biodiversity Rec. 5: e83.

Panagiotou, M., Antoniadou, C., Krestenitis, Y. and Chintiroglou, C. 2007. Stock assessment of the dominant ascidians: Microcosmus savignyi, Styela plicata and Phallusia mammillata, in Thessaloniki Bay (Thermaikos Gulf). Fresenius Envir. Bull. 16: 1012-1019.

Pasini, A., Manenti, R., Rothbacher, U. and Lemaire, P. 2012. Antagonizing retinoic acid and FGF/MAPK pathways control posterior body patterning in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis. Plos One 7: e46193.

Pham, C. D., Weber, H., Hartmann, R., Wray, V., Lin, W., Lai, D. and Proksch, P. 2013. New cytotoxic 1,2,4-thiadiazole alkaloids from the ascidian Polycarpa aurata. Org. Lett. 15: 2230-2233.

Pool, T. K., Luis, S. and Olden, J. D. 2013. Assessing lethal dissolved oxygen tolerance for invasive tunicate Ciona savignyi in Puget Sound. Northwest Sci. 87: 106-113.

Reem, E., Douek, J., Katzir, G. and Rinkevich, B. 2013. Long-term population genetic structure of an invasive urochordate: the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Biol. Invasions 15: 225-241.

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