Publications (73)

Villalobos, S.M., Lambert, G., Shenkar, N. and López-Legentil, S. 2017. Distribution and population dynamics of key ascidians in North Carolina harbors and marinas. Aquatic Invasions 12 (4): 447–458.


Tracy, B.M., Larson, K.J., Ashton, G.V., Lambert, G., Chang, A.L., and Ruiz, G. M. 2017. Northward range expansion of three non-native ascidians on the west coast of North America. BioInvasions Records 6: 1-7.


Simkanin, C., Fofonoff, P., Larson, K., Lambert, G., Dijkstra, J. A. and Ruiz, G. M. 2016. Spatial and temporal dynamics of ascidian invasions in the continental United States and Alaska. Mar. Biol. 163 (7): 1-16.


Lee, S. S.-C., Chan, J. Y.-H., Teo, S. L.-M., and Lambert, G. 2016. State of knowledge of ascidian diversity in South China Sea and new records for Singapore. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement No. 34: 718–743.


Lambert, G., Carney, R. C., Rhee, W. Y., and Carman, M. R. 2016. Wild and cultured edible tunicates: a review. Management of Biological Invasions 7 (1): 59-66.


Lee, S. S. C., Teo, S. L. M. and Lambert, G. 2013. New records of solitary ascidians on artificial structures in Singapore waters. Mar. Biodiversity Rec. 6: 1-18.


Tagliapietra, D., Keppel, E, Sigovini, M, and Lambert, G. 2012. First record of the colonial ascidian Didemnum vexillum in the Mediterranean: Lagoon of Venice (Italy). BioInvasions Records 1: 247–254.


Appeltans, W. et al. 2012. The magnitude of global marine species diversity. Current Biology 22 (23): 2189-2202.


Shenkar, N., Gittenberger, A., Lambert, G., Rius, M., Moreira da Rocha, R., Swalla, B. J., Turon, X. 2012. World Ascidiacea database. Available online at

Lambert, G. 2011. In Memoriam: Charles C. Lambert: (April 10, 1935–June 1, 2011). Molecular Reproduction and Development 78 (10-11): Fm-v.

Carman, M. R., Bullard, S. G., Rocha, R. M., Lambert, G., Dijkstra, J. A., Roper, J. J., Goodwin, A., Carman, M. M. and Vail, E. M. 2011. Ascidians at the Pacific and Atlantic entrances to the Panama Canal. Aquatic Invasions 6 (4): 371-380.

Lambert, G., Shenkar, N. and Swalla, B. J. 2010. First Pacific record of the north Atlantic ascidian Molgula citrina – bioinvasion or circumpolar distribution? Aquatic Invasions 5 (4): 369-378.

Griffith, K.,  Mowat, S., Holt, R. H. F., Ramsay, K., Bishop, J. D. D., Lambert, G. and Jenkins, S. R. 2009. First records in Great Britain of the invasive colonial ascidian Didemnum vexillum Kott, 2002. Aquatic Invasions 4 (4): 581-590. 

Cole, L. and Lambert, G. 2009. Tunicata (Urochordata) of the Gulf of Mexico. Chapt. 73, pp. 1209-1216 in: Gulf of Mexico: Origin, Waters, and Biota. Vol. 1, Biodiversity. Ed. By D. L. Felder and D. K. Camp. Texas A&M Univ. Press.

Lambert, G. 2009. Adventures of a sea squirt sleuth: unraveling the identity of Didemnum vexillum, a global ascidian invader. Aquatic Invasions 4: 5-28.

Stefaniak, L., Lambert, G., Gittenberger, A., Zhang, H., Lin, S. and Whitlatch, R. B. 2009. Genetic conspecificity of the worldwide populations of Didemnum vexillum Kott, 2002. Aquatic Invasions 4: 29-45.

Abbott, D. P., Lambert, C. C., Lambert, G. and Newberry, A. T. 2007. Chordata: Ascidiacea. In: Carlton, J. T. (ed.), The Light & Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon. Berkeley, California, University of California Press, chapter 35: 918-933.

Lambert, G. 2007. The nonindigenous ascidian Molgula ficus in California. Cah. Biol. Marine 48: 95-102.

 Lambert, G. 2007. Invasive sea squirts: A growing global problem. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342 (1): 3-4.

Bullard, S. G., Lambert, G., Carman, M. R., Byrnes, J., Whitlatch, R. B., Ruiz, G., Miller, R. J., Harris, L., Valentine, P. C., Collie, J. S., Pederson, J., McNaught, D. C., Cohen, A. N., Asch, R. G., Dijkstra, J. and Heinonen, K. 2007. The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342 (1): 99-108.

Arenas, F., Bishop, J. D. D., Carlton, J. T., Dyrynda, P. J., Farnham, W. F., Gonzales, D. J., Jacobs, M. W., Lambert, C., Lambert, G., Nielsen, S. E., Pederson, J. A., Porter, J. S., Ward, S. and Wood, C. A. 2006. Alien species and other notable records from a rapid assessment survey of marinas on the south coast of England. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 86: 1329-1337.

Lambert, G. 2005. Ecology and natural history of the protochordates. Can. J. Zool. 83 (1): 34-50.

Lambert, G. 2005. First North American record of the ascidian Perophora japonica. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 85: 1011-1012.

Cohen, A. N., Harris, L. H., Bingham, B. L., Carlton, J. T., Chapman, J. W., Lambert, C. C., Lambert, G., Ljubenkov, J. C., Murray, S. N., Rao, L. C., Reardon, K. and Schwindt, E. 2005. Rapid Assessment Survey for exotic organisms in southern California bays and harbors, and abundance in port and non-port areas. Biol. Invasions 7: 995-1002.

Lambert, G., Faulkes, Z., Lambert, C. C., and Scofield, V. L. 2005. Ascidians of South Padre Island, Texas, with a key to species. Texas J. Sci. 57 (3): 251-262.

Lambert, G. 2004.  The south temperate and antarctic ascidian Corella eumyota reported in two harbours in northwestern France.  J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 84 (1): 239-241.

Appleton, D. R., Page, M. J., Lambert, G. and Copp, B. R. 2004. 1,3-dimethyl-8-oxoisoguanine, a new purine from the New Zealand ascidian Pseudodistoma cereum. Nat. Prod. Res. 18: 39-42.

Lambert, G. 2003. New records of ascidians from the NE Pacific: a new species of Trididemnum, range extension and redescription of Aplidiopsis pannosum (Ritter, 1899) including its larva, and several nonindigenous species. Zoosystema 25 (4): 665-679.

Lambert, C. C. and Lambert, G. 2003. Persistence and differential distribution of nonindigenous ascidians in harbors of the Southern California Bight. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 259: 145-161.

Lambert, G. 2003. Marine biodiversity of Guam: the Ascidiacea. Micronesica 35-36: 588-597.

Paulay, G., Kirkendale, L., Lambert, G. and Meyer, C. 2002. Anthropogenic biotic interchange in a coral reef ecosystem: a case study from Guam. Pac. Sci. 56: 403-422.

Lambert, G. 2002.  Nonindigenous ascidians in tropical waters: a review. Pacific Sci. 56: 291-298.

Appleton, D. R., Page, M. J., Lambert, G., Berridge, M. J. and Copp, B. R. 2002. Kottamides A-D: novel bioactive imidazolone-containing alkaloids from the New Zealand ascidian Pycnoclavella kottae. J. Org. Chem. 67: 5402-5404.

Aizenberg, J., Lambert, G., Weiner, S. and Addadi, L. 2002. Factors involved in the formation of amorphous and crystalline calcium carbonate: a study of an ascidian skeleton. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 124: 32-39.

Pearce, A. N., Babcock, R. C., Battershill, C. N., Lambert, G. and Copp, B. R. 2001. Enantiomeric 1,2,3-trithiane-containing alkaloids and two new 1,3-dithiane alkaloids from New Zealand ascidians. J. Org. Chem. 66: 8257-8259.

Pearce, A. N., Babcock, R. C., Lambert, G. and Copp, B. R. 2001. N2,N2,7-trimethylguanine, a new trimethylated guanine natural product from the New Zealand ascidian, Lissoclinum notti. Nat. Prod. Lett. 15: 237-241.

Lambert, G. 2001. A global overview of ascidian introductions and their possible impact on the endemic fauna. In: Sawada, H., Yokosawa, H. and Lambert , C. C. (ed.), The Biology of Ascidians. Tokyo, Springer-Verlag, pp. 249-257.

Lambert, G. and K. Sanamyan 2001. Distaplia alaskensis sp. nov. (Ascidiacea, Aplousobranchia) and other new ascidian records from south-central Alaska, with a redescription of Ascidia columbiana (Huntsman, 1912). Canadian J. Zool. 79: 1766-1781.

Paulay, G., L. Kirkendale, G. Lambert, and J. Starmer 2001. The marine invertebrate biodiversity of Apra Harbor: significant areas and introduced species, with focus on sponges, echinoderms and ascidians. Prepared for Naval Activities Guam, under Cooperative Agreement N68711-97-LT-70001.

Mills, C., Cohen, A. N., Berry, H. K., Wonham, M. J., Bingham, B., Bookheim, B., Carlton, J. T., Chapman, J. W., Cordell, J., Harris, L. H., Klinger, T., Kohn, A. J., Lambert, C., Lambert, G., Li, K., Secord, D. L. and Toft, J. 2000. The 1998 Puget Sound Expedition: a shallow-water rapid assessment survey for nonindigenous species, with comparisons to San Francisco Bay. In: Pederson, J. (ed.), Marine Bioinvasions - Proceedings of a Conference January 24-27, 1999. Cambridge, MA, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology Sea Grant College Program, pp. 130-138.

Copp, B.R., C.M. Wassvik, G. Lambert and M.J. Page 2000. Isolation and characterization of the new purine 1,3, 7- trimethylisoguanine from the New Zealand ascidian Pseudodistoma cereum. J. Nat. Prod. 63: 1168-1169.

Godwin, L.S. and G. Lambert 2000. New records of Ascidiacea (Urochordata) in the marine invertebrate fouling community of O'ahu, Hawai'i. Bishop Mus. Occas. Pap. #64: 59-61.

Lambert, G. 2000. Chapt. 9C10. Focal taxonomic collections: ascidians. In: Hines A.H. and Ruiz, G.M. (eds), Biological invasions of cold-water coastal ecosystems: ballast-mediated introductions in Port Valdez/ Prince William Sound, Alaska.  Smithsonian Env Res Center, Edgewater, MD.

Cohen, A., C. Mills, H. Berry, M. Wonham, B. Bingham, B. Bookheim, J. Carlton, J. Chapman, J. Cordell, L. Harris, T. Klinger, A. Kohn, C. Lambert, G. Lambert, K. Li, D. Secord, J. Toft 1998.  Report of the Puget Sound Expedition Sept. 8-16, 1998; A Rapid Assessment Survey of Non-indigenous Species in the Shallow Waters of Puget Sound.  Wash. State Dept. Nat. Res., Olympia, WA, 37 pp.

Lambert, C.C., G. Lambert, G. Crundwell and K. Kantardjieff 1998. Uric acid accumulation in the solitary ascidian Corella inflata. J. Exp. Zool. 282: 323-331.

Lambert, C.C. and G. Lambert 1998. Non-indigenous ascidians in southern California harbors and marinas. Marine Biology 130: 675-688.

Lambert, G. 1998.  Spicule formation in the solitary ascidian Bathypera feminalba (Ascidiacea, Pyuridae).  Invertebrate Biol. 117: 341-349.

Hirose, E., G. Lambert, T. Kusakabe and T. Nishikawa 1997. Tunic cuticular protrusions in ascidians (Chordata, Tunicata): a perspective of their character-state distribution. Zool. Sci. 14: 683-689.

Lambert, C.C., H. Goudeau, C. Franchet, G. Lambert and M. Goudeau 1997. Ascidian eggs block polyspermy by two independent mechanisms, one at the egg plasma membrane, the other involving the follicle cells. Molec. Repro. & Dev. 48: 137-143.

Lambert, G. and C.C. Lambert 1997. Extracellular formation of body and tunic spicules in the New Zealand solitary ascidian Pyura pachydermatina (Urochordata, Ascidiacea). Acta Zoologica 78: 51-60.

Lambert, G. (ed.) 1997. Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii, section 6B: Ascidians (Urochordata). By D.P. Abbott, A. T. Newberry and K.M. Morris. Bishop Mus. Special Publ. 64 (6B). 64 pp. Bishop Mus. Press, Honolulu.

Lambert, G. 1996. Chapter 11. Phylum Chordata: Subphylum Urochordata, Class Ascidiacea. Taxonomic Atlas of the Santa Maria Basin and Western Santa Barbara Channel. 14: 261-293. Santa Barbara Mus. of Nat. Hist., Santa Barbara, CA.

Lambert, G. and C.C. Lambert 1996. Spicule formation in the New Zealand solitary ascidian Pyura pachydermatina (Chordata, Ascidiacea). Proc. 5th Intl. Conf. on the Chem. & Biol. of Mineralized Tissues. Connective Tissue Res. 34: 263-269.

Lambert, G., and C.C. Lambert 1996. Antibodies to echinoid larval spicule proteins cross react with the spicular complex in the ascidian Herdmania momus. In: Biomineralization 93, 7th Intl. Symp. on Biomineralization. Bull. de l'Institut Oceanogr. Monaco, numero special 14 (4): 253-261.

Lambert, G., C.C. Lambert and J.R. Waaland 1996. Algal symbionts in the tunics of six New Zealand ascidians (Chordata, Ascidiacea). Invertebrate Biol. 115: 67-78.

Aizenberg, J., G. Lambert, L. Addadi and S. Weiner 1996. Stabilization of amorphous calcium carbonate by specialized macromolecules in biological and synthetic precipitates. Advanced Materials 8: 222-226.

Lambert, C.C., I.M. Lambert and G. Lambert 1995. Brooding strategies in solitary ascidians: Corella species from north and south temperate waters. Canad. J. Zool. 73: 1666-1671.

Pavao, M.S.G., C.C. Lambert, G. Lambert and P.A.S. Mourao 1994. Comparison between the sulfated polysaccharides from larval and adult ascidians. J. Exp. Zool. 269: 89-94.

Lambert, G. 1993. Three new species of solitary stolidobranch ascidians (Chordata: Ascidiacea) from the California continental shelf. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 48: 109-118.

Lambert, G. 1992. Ultrastructural aspects of spicule formation in the solitary ascidian Herdmania momus. Acta Zool. 73: 237-245.

Lambert, G., Lambert, C.C. and Lowenstam, H.A. 1990. Protochordate biomineralization. In: Carter, J. G. (ed.), Skeletal Biomineralization: Patterns, Processes and Evolutionary Trends. NY, Van Nostrand Reinhold, pp. 461-469.

Lambert, C., F. Lafargue and G. Lambert 1990. Preliminary note on the genetic isolation of Ciona species (Ascidiacea, Urochordata). Vie Milieu 40: 293-295.

Lambert, G. 1989. A new species of the compound ascidian Eudistoma (Ascidiacea, Polycitoridae) from the northeastern Pacific. Canad. J. Zool. 67: 2700-2703.

Lambert, C. C., Lambert, G. and Kozloff, E. N. 1987. Chapt. 23: Phylum Urochordata. In: Kozloff, E. N. (ed.), Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, Univ. of Washington Press, pp. 467-479.

Lambert, G. and Lambert, C. C. 1987. Spicule formation in the solitary ascidian, Herdmania momus. J. Morph. 192: 145-159.

Lambert, C. C. and Lambert, G. 1984. The role of actin and myosin in ascidian sperm mitochondrial translocation. Dev. Biol. l06: 307-3l4.40.

Lambert, C. C. and Lambert, G. 1983. Mitochondrial movement during the ascidian sperm reaction. Gamete Res. 8: 295-307.

Lambert, G., Lambert, C. C. and Abbott, D. P. 1981. Corella species in the American Pacific Northwest: distinction of C. inflata Huntsman, 1912 from C. willmeriana Herdman, 1898 (Ascidiacea, Phlebobranchia). Canad. J. Zool. 59: 1493-1504.

Lambert, C. C. and Lambert, G. 1981. Formation of the block to polyspermy in ascidian eggs: time course, ion requirements, and role of the accessory cells. J. Exp. Zool. 217: 261-270.

Lambert, C. C. and Lambert, G. 1981. The ascidian sperm reaction: Ca2+ uptake in relation to H+ efflux. Dev. Biol. 88: 312-317.

Lambert, G. 1980. Predation by the prosobranch mollusk Lamellaria diegoensis on Cystodytes lobatus, a colonial ascidian. Veliger 22: 340-344.

Lambert, G. 1979. Early post-metamorphic growth, budding and spicule formation in the compound ascidian Cystodytes lobatus. Biol. Bull. 157: 464-477.

Lambert, G. 1968. The general ecology and growth of a solitary ascidian, Corella willmeriana. Biol. Bull. 135: 296-307.