Bunchgrass Ridge

Ecology and restoration of conifer-invaded meadows:
Research and adaptive management

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Related research in Oregon's central Cascades
Related research


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At other sites in the central Cascades, recent research has addressed the ecology and dynamics of forest-meadow mosaics, changes in the aerial extent of meadow openings, the history of human use of meadows, and the influence of volcanic deposits in forest and meadow soils of the western Cascades.
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Forest encroachment
Human use
Geology & soils
Forest encroachment

New resultsZald, H. S. J., T.A. Spies, M. Huso, and D. Gatziolis. 2012. Climatic, landform, microtopographic, and overstory canopy controls of tree invasion in a subalpine meadow landscape, Oregon Cascades, USA. Landscape Ecology 27:1197–1212. Link to  PDF

Zald, H. S. J. 2010. Patterns of tree establishment and vegetation composition in relation to climate and topography of a subalpine meadow landscape, Jefferson Park, Oregon, USA. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 180 p. Link to PDF

Takaoka, S., and F. Swanson. 2008. Change in extent of meadows and shrub fields in the central western Cascade Range, Oregon. The Professional Geographer 60:1-14. Link to  PDF

Dailey, M.M. 2007. Meadow classification in the Willamette National Forest and conifer encroachment patterns in the Chucksney-Grasshopper meadow complex, Western Cascade Range, Oregon. M.S. thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 196 p. Link to PDF

Miller, E.A., and C.B. Halpern. 1998. Effects of environment and grazing disturbance on tree establishment in meadows of the central Cascade Range, Oregon, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science 9:265-282. Request reprint


New resultsMcCain, C., C. B. Halpern, and S. Lovtang. 2014. Non-forested plant communities of the northern Oregon Cascades. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Technical Paper R6-ECOL-TP-01-14. Link to  PDF

Haugo, R. D., C. B. Halpern, and J. D. Bakker. 2011. Landscape context and long-term tree influences shape the dynamics of forest-meadow ecotones in mountain ecosystems. Ecosphere 2(8):art91. doi:10.1890/ES11-00110.1. Link to PDF

Highland, S. 2011. The historic and contemporary ecology of western Cascade meadows: archeology, vegetation, and macromoth ecology. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 354 p. Link to PDF

Nutrient Network: A Global Research Cooperative. Bunchgrass Ridge is a NutNet Participating Site—one of a global network of grassland sites devoted to understanding the effects of soil resources and herbivory on ecosystem structure and processes.
Publications inclusive of Bunchgrass Ridge Other recent publications
  Borer, E. T., et al. 2014. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via limit limitation. Nature (2014) doi:10.1038/nature13144.
  Hautier, Y., et al. 2014. Eutrophication weakens stabilizing effects of diversity in natural grasslands. Nature, doi:10.1038/nature13014.
  Seabloom, E. W., et al. 2013. Predicting invasion in grassland ecosystems: is exotic dominance the real embarrassment of richness? Global Change Biology 19:3677–3687, doi: 10.1111/gcb.12370
  Firn, J., et al. 2011. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities. Ecology Letters 14:274-281.
  Adler, P., et al. 2011. Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness. Science 333(6050):1750-1753.

Halpern, C. B., B. G. Smith, and J. F. Franklin. 1984. Composition, structure, and distribution of the ecosystems of the Three Sisters Biosphere Reserve/Wilderness Area. A Final Report to the United States Department of Agriculture. 356 p. Download PDF

Human use  

Highland, S. 2011. The historic and contemporary ecology of western Cascade meadows: archeology, vegetation, and macromoth ecology. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 354 p. Link to PDF

Miller, E. A. 1994. Summary of grazing for the South Fork McKenzie drainage. Appendix Report VEG 1.Link to PDF

Kuhns, J. C. 1917. Grazing reconnaissance - Cascade (1916). Letter and report to Mr. Seits, Supervisor, Cascade Forest, Eugene, OR. 25 p. Download PDF

Geology and soils  

New resultsMcKay, D. 2012. Recent mafic eruptions at Newberry Volcano and in the central Oregon Cascades: physical volcanology and implications for hazards. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene. Link to PDF

Cashman, K. V., N. I. Deligne, M. W. Gannett, G. E. Grant and A. Jefferson. 2009. Fire and water: Volcanology, geomorphology, and hydrogeology of the Cascade Range, central Oregon. GSA Field Guides 15:539-582. Link to abstract

Kimsey, M., B. Gardner, and A. Busacca. 2007. Ecological and topographic features of volcanic ash-influenced forest soils. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-44. Download PDF

Marcott, S. A., A. G. Fountain, J. E. O'Connor, P. J. Sniffen, and D. P. Dethier. 2009. A latest Pleistocene and Holocene glacial history and paleoclimate reconstruction at Three Sisters and Broken Top Volcanoes, Oregon, U.S.A. Quaternary Research 71:181–189. Link to abstract Also see Oregon Encyclopedia: Glaciers in Oregon

Scott, W. 1977. Quaternary glaciation and volcanism, Metolius River area, Oregon. Geological Society of America Bulletin 88(1):113-124. Link to PDF

Johnston, D. A., and J. Donnelly-Nolan (eds.) 1981. Guides to some volcanic terranes in Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and Northern California. Geological Survey Circular 838. Link to PDF

Williams, H. 1944. Volcanoes of the Three Sisters region, Oregon Cascades. University of California Press, Bulletin of the Department of Geological Sciences v. 27, no. 3. Link to PDF

Hodge, E. 1925. Mount Multnomah, ancient ancestor of the Three Sisters. University of Oregon Press.Link to PDF