Bunchgrass Ridge

Ecology and restoration of conifer-invaded meadows:
Research and adaptive management

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Related research in Oregon's central Cascades
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At other sites in the central Cascades, recent research has addressed the ecology and dynamics of forest-meadow mosaics, changes in the aerial extent of meadow openings, the history of human use of meadows, the influence of volcanic deposits in forest and meadow soils of the western Cascades, and biogeochemical changes in soil properties across forest-meadow boundaries.
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Forest encroachment
Human use
Forest encroachment and its consequences

New resultsJones, K. E. 2016. Spatio-temporal patterns of tree establishment in the M1 Meadow of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest. M.S. thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 102 p. Link

New resultsHighland, S. A., and J. A. Jones. 2014. Extinction debt in naturally contracting mountain meadows in the Pacific Northwest, USA: Varying responses of plants and feeding guilds of nocturnal moths. Biodivers. Conserv. 23:2529-2544. doi: 10.1007/s10531-014-0737-z

Zald, H. S. J., T. A. Spies, M. Huso, and D. Gatziolis. 2012. Climatic, landform, microtopographic, and overstory canopy controls of tree invasion in a subalpine meadow landscape, Oregon Cascades, USA. Landscape Ecology 27:1197-1212. Link

Zald, H. S. J. 2010. Patterns of tree establishment and vegetation composition in relation to climate and topography of a subalpine meadow landscape, Jefferson Park, Oregon, USA. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 180 p. Link

Takaoka, S., and F. Swanson. 2008. Change in extent of meadows and shrub fields in the
central western Cascade Range, Oregon. The Professional Geographer 60:1-14.
doi: 10.1080/00330120802212099

Dailey, M. M. 2007. Meadow classification in the Willamette National Forest and conifer encroachment patterns in the Chucksney-Grasshopper meadow complex, Western Cascade Range, Oregon. M.S. thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 196 p. Link

Miller, E. A., and C. B. Halpern. 1998. Effects of environment and grazing disturbance on tree establishment in meadows of the central Cascade Range, Oregon, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science 9:265-282. Request reprint

Vale, T. R. 1981. Tree invasion of montane meadows in Oregon. The American Midland Naturalist 105:61-69. doi: 10.2307/2425010


New resultsMcCain, C., C. B. Halpern, and S. Lovtang. 2014. Non-forested plant communities of the northern Oregon Cascades. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Technical Paper R6-ECOL-TP-01-14. PDF [55 MB]

Haugo, R. D., C. B. Halpern, and J. D. Bakker. 2011. Landscape context and long-term tree influences shape the dynamics of forest-meadow ecotones in mountain ecosystems. Ecosphere 2(8):art91. doi: 10.1890/ES11-00110.1

Highland, S. 2011. The historic and contemporary ecology of western Cascade meadows: archeology, vegetation, and macromoth ecology. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 354 p. Link

Nutrient Network: A Global Research Cooperative. Bunchgrass Ridge is a Participating Site of NutNet—one of a global network of grassland sites devoted to understanding the effects of soil resources and herbivory on ecosystem structure and processes. Publications

Halpern, C. B., B. G. Smith, and J. F. Franklin. 1984. Composition, structure, and distribution of the ecosystems of the Three Sisters Biosphere Reserve/Wilderness Area. A Final Report to the United States Department of Agriculture. 356 p. PDF

Human use  

Highland, S. 2011. The historic and contemporary ecology of western Cascade meadows: archeology, vegetation, and macromoth ecology. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 354 p. Link

Miller, E. A. 1994. Summary of grazing for the South Fork McKenzie drainage. Appendix Report VEG 1. PDF

Kuhns, J. C. 1917. Grazing reconnaissance - Cascade (1916). Letter and report to Mr. Seits, Supervisor, Cascade Forest, Eugene, OR. 25 p. PDF


McKay, D. 2012. Recent mafic eruptions at Newberry Volcano and in the central Oregon Cascades: physical volcanology and implications for hazards. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene. 165 p. Link

Cashman, K. V., N. I. Deligne, M. W. Gannett, G. E. Grant and A. Jefferson. 2009. Fire and water: Volcanology, geomorphology, and hydrogeology of the Cascade Range, central Oregon. GSA Field Guides 15:539-582. doi: 10.1130/2009.fld015(26)

Marcott, S. A., A. G. Fountain, J. E. O'Connor, P. J. Sniffen, and D. P. Dethier. 2009. A latest Pleistocene and Holocene glacial history and paleoclimate reconstruction at Three Sisters and Broken Top Volcanoes, Oregon, U.S.A. Quaternary Research 71:181-189. doi: 10.1016/j.yqres.2008.09.002. Also see Oregon Encyclopedia: Glaciers in Oregon

Kimsey, M., B. Gardner, and A. Busacca. 2007. Ecological and topographic features of volcanic ash-influenced forest soils. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-44. PDF

Sherrod, D. R., Taylor, E. M., Ferns, M. L., Scott, W. E., Conrey, R. M., and Smith, G. A. 2004.Geologic map of the Bend 30- x 60- Minute Quadrangle, Central Oregon: Reston, Va., U.S. Geological Survey Interpretive Map I-2683, Sheet 1of 2, scale 1:100,000. Link

Scott, W. 1977. Quaternary glaciation and volcanism, Metolius River area, Oregon. Geological Society of America Bulletin 88(1):113-124.
doi: 10.1130/0016-7606(1977)88<113:QGAVMR>2.0.CO;2. Link

Johnston, D. A., and J. Donnelly-Nolan (eds.) 1981. Guides to some volcanic terranes in Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and Northern California. Geological Survey Circular 838. Google Book

Williams, H. 1944. Volcanoes of the Three Sisters region, Oregon Cascades. University of California Press, Bulletin of the Department of Geological Sciences v. 27, no. 3. Link

Hodge, E. 1925. Mount Multnomah, ancient ancestor of the Three Sisters. University of Oregon Press. Link


Kageyama, S. A., N. R. Posavatz, S. S. Jones, K. E. Waterstripe, P. J. Bottomley, K. Cromack, Jr., and D. D. Myrold. 2013. Effects of disturbance scale on microbial communities in the Western Cascades of Oregon. Plant Soil 372:459-471. doi: 10.1007/s11104-013-1760-7

Kageyama, S. A., N. R. Posavatz, K. E. Waterstripe, S. J. Jones, P. J. Bottomley, K. Cromack, Jr. and D. D. Myrold. 2008. Fungal and bacterial communities across meadow-forest ecotones in the western Cascades of Oregon. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38:1053-1060. doi: 10.1139/X07-221

Bottomley, P. J., R. R. Yarwood, S. A. Kageyama, K. E. Waterstripe, M. A. Williams, K. Cromack, Jr., and D. D. Myrold. 2006. Responses of soil bacterial and fungal communities to reciprocal transfers of soil between adjacent coniferous forest and meadow vegetation in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Plant and Soil 289:35-45. doi: 10.1007/s11104-006-9095-2

Boyle, S. A., J. J. Rich, P. J. Bottomley, K. Cromack, Jr., and D. D. Myrold. 2006. Reciprocal transfer effects on denitrifying community composition and activity at forest and meadow sites in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38:870-878. doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.08.003

Griffiths, R., M. Madritch, and A. Swanson. 2005. Conifer invasion of forest meadows transforms soil characteristics in the Pacific Northwest. Forest Ecology and Management 208:347-358. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2005.01.015

Bottomley, P. J., A. E. Taylor, S. A. Boyle, S. K. McMahon, J. J. Rich, K. Cromack, Jr., and D. D. Myrold. 2004. Responses of nitrification and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria to reciprocal transfers of soil between adjacent coniferous forest and meadow vegetation in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Microbial Ecology 48:500-508. doi: 10.1007/s00248-004-0215-3

Mintie, A. T., R. S. Heichen, K. Cromack, Jr., D. D. Myrold, and P. J. Bottomley. 2003. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria along meadow-to-forest transects in the Oregon Cascade Mountains. Applied Environmental Microbiology 69:3129-3136. doi: 10.1128/AEM.69.6.3129-3136.2003

Rich, J. J., R. S. Heichen, P. J. Bottomley, K. Cromack, Jr., and D. D. Myrold. 2003. Community composition and functioning of denitrifying bacteria from adjacent meadow and forest soils. Applied Environmental Microbiology 69:5974-5982. doi: 10.1128/AEM.69.10.5974-5982.2003