Including Hungary and Transylvania

Hanbook for travellers


MONEY TABLE. - Approximate Equivalents
American MoneyEnglish MoneyFrench MoneyGerman MoneyAustrian Money
--1 1/4----5/8--6 1/4--5--2 1/2
--2 1/2----1 1/4--12 1/2--10--5
--5---- 2 1/2--25--20--10
--12 1/2----6--62 1/2--50--25


TRANSYLVANIA, called Erdely-Orszdy by the Magyars, and Ar­dealu by the Rumanians (both meaning `forest-land'), is a moun­tainous district of about 21,000 sq. M. in extent, lying between Hungary on the W. and Rumania on the E. Its German name of Siebenbirgen has been variously derived from the first seven `burgs', or fortresses, built by the German colonists, from the seven once fortified towns of Hermannstadt, Klausenburg, Kronstadt, Bistritz, Mediasch, Muhlenbach, and Schassburg, or lastly, and most probably, from the Zibin Mts. and the River Zibin on its S. frontier. Hermannstadt, which lies on the Zibin, is still named Nagy Szeben by the Hungarians, and Sibiu by the Rumanians.

History. At the beginning of the Christian era the district now known as Transylvania formed part of the kingdom of Dacia, and in 107 A.D., on the subjugation by Trajan of Decebalus, the last Dacian sovereign, it was incorporated in the Roman province of the same name. It remained under Roman sway till 274 A. D., when the Emperor Aurelian withdrew his troops and the flower of the Roman colonists across the Danube, before the Gothic hordes from the N., which now poured into the country. From this date down to the beginning of the 12th cent. Transylvania formed the great theatre of battles between the Ostrogoths, Huns, Longobards, Bulgarians, Magyars, Kumans, and other Eastern races which kept pressing on towards Western Europe. During the reign of Ladislaus I., King of Hungary (1078-95), who conquered the Ku-mans, Transylvania was united to Hungary, and began for the first time to enjoy the blessings of peace and order. Geisa II. (1141-61), who distinctly perceived the importance of Transyl­vania as the key of Hungary on the E., summoned German colo­nists to re-people and cultivate the desolated territory (`deser­tum') and to protect the empire (`ad retinendam coronam'). These immigrants, chiefly Flemings and dwellers on the lower Rhine (Lower Saxons), were collectively known as Saxons, and they settled in the `Land unter dem Waldo', or district below the forest (Broos, Muhlenbach, and Reussmarkt), in the Altland (Hermannstadt, Leschkirch, Gross-Schenk, Reps), and in the Weinland (Mediasch and Schassburg), where they built towns and tilled the soil. Andreas I. (1204-35) made over the Burzenland (seep. 374)to the Teutonic Order, which had been founded shortly


before (in 1191), but had to recall this privilege and expel the knights of the Order in 1225, on their attempt to lay the conquered country at the feet of Pope Honorius III. as the property of the apostolic see. The same monarch, however, granted a charter (the `Golden Bull') to the other German settlers, on which the rights and privileges of the Germans in Transylvania have rested for cen­turies, and which was solemnly confirmed by several of his suc­cessors. During the following centuries Transylvania shared the for-tunes of the kingdom of Hungary. Swarms of Mongolians (from 1241 onwards) and Turks (from 1391) invaded and ravaged the country, not, however, without meeting a heroic resistance (as from Hunyady Janos, d. 1456), and compelled the three privileged 'Nations' of Transylvania, the Hungarians, Szeklers, and Germans, to form in 1437 a 'fraternal union' for mutual protection. After Lewis II.of Hungary had lost his life and crown, and Hungary her independence, at the battle of Mohács in 1526, the victorious Turks made Transyl­vania an independent principality under Turkish protection, and it was thenceforth governed by princes elected by the people and approved by the Sultan. Of these the most eminent was Bethlen Gabor (Gabriel), who reigned from 1613 to 1629. The fluctuating policy of Turkey and of Austria, which possessed a hereditary claim to Transylvania, involved the country in numerous conflicts, but the Turks were at length decisively defeated at Vienna in 1683, and after the Peace of Karlowitz in 1699 they abandoned their claim to the principality. On 4th Dec., 1699, Emp. Leopold I., by the 'Leo­poldine Diploma', ratified the public and private laws of Transyl­vania, guaranteed religious toleration, and annexed the country to Austria. The population consisted at that period of Germans, who had been Lutherans since 1540, Hungarians and Szeklers, who had embraced the Calvinistic doctrines in 1557, and also of Socinians or Unitarians (a sect established in 1568) and of Roman Catholics. An insurrection under Francis II. Rakoczy in 1704-10, known as the 'Kurutzen War', was quelled by the Austrians, and in 1 718 the Turks were again defeated, and compelled by the Peace of Passa­rovitz to recognise the supremacy of Austria. Since that period Transylvania, which was erected into a 'grand principality' by Maria Theresa, has shared the fortunes of Austria and Hungary. The rebellion of Nicoluus Urss (Horjah) in 1784 and the revolution­ary years 1848 and 1849 were attended by many evils. Since 1868 Transylvania has been in legislative and administrative re­spects completely incorporated with Hungary.

Inhabitants. The Hungarians, or Magyar conquerors.

The Szeklers, who occupy the eastern borders of the country, are Magyars, who were settled in E. Transylvania in the 11th cent., in order to act as 'Szekler', or guardians of the frontier. They regard themselves, however, as descendants of the Huns. The Hungarians and Szeklers together number 611,581 souls.


The Saxons, 211,490 in number, the descendants of the Ger­man immigrants invited by Geisa II. (p. 363) from Flanders and the Lower Rhine, were at first called Teutones, Teutonici Hospites, and Flandrenses, but from 1217 onwards have been known as Saxones or Saxons (Nieder-Sachsen). The Germans of the Nosner Land (p. 378) are also called Saxons.

These three races have from an early period shared the govern­ment of the country among them, as being, in virtue of the rights of conquest and colonisation, the sole `privileged nations'. Tran­sylvania, however, is peopled by various other races. Indeed the principal part of the population consists of Rumanians or Wallachians, of whom there are no fewer than 1,161,647. They regard themselves as the lineal descendants of the Roman colonists, but are in reality a heterogeneous race, made up of Dacian, Ro­man, Teutonic, Slavonian, and Bulgarian elements, which was formerly settled on the Balkans. Driven thence by the Greek Emperor Isaac Angelus, they migrated to the left bank of the Da­nube, and, after the power of the Kumans had been broken by the Teutonic Order, crossed the mountains and entered Transylvania. They named themselves Rumanians as members of the E. Roman Empire (Rum), and had adopted the Greek form of Christianity during their long subjection to the Greek emperors. According to other authorities the Rumanians were settled on the left bank of the Danube long before the advent of the Magyars, but were from the very first treated by their conquerors and the foreign colonists as people possessed of no political rights.

Another element in the population is formed by the Armenians, 4344 in number, who first settled in Transylvania about the year 1660. They are almost entirely confined to the towns of Szamos Ujvar, Elisabethstadt, and Gyergyo Szt. Miklos. There are nearly 90,000 Gipsies in Transylvania, where they are heard of as early as 1417, when they were governed by a Woiwode of their own. At Haromszek, Torda, Ober-Weissenburg, and Innerszolnok many of them have become industrious husbandmen. The other races repre­sented are Jews (24,864), Bulgarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Ruthenians, and Greeks. — The total population is 2,115,024.

Plan of Tour. The most interesting parts of Transylvania are in the W. and S. The two principal approaches to the country are afforded by the railway by Grosswardein and Klausenburg to Kron­stadt (for travellers from the Tatra and Kuschau) and the rail-way by Arad and Herrnannstadt to Kronstadt (for those coming from Pest). The return-route may be made by Bucharest, Giurgevo, and the Danube. The excursions mentioned at pp. 376, 377 are re-commended to those who are interested in the Szeklers. In districts to which neither trains nor diligences have as yet penetrated, very fair carriages may be hired for 6-7 fl. a day. Where the roads are impracticable for these vehicles, ox-carts and riding-horses are

368 Route71. DEVA. From Arad


used. The saddles are generally very poor, and require shawls or rugs to make them comfortable. — Guides are necessary for moun­tain-excursions, and may be obtained in the neighbouring villages.

Hotels. The hotels in the towns, generally owned by Hun­garians, are as a rule comfortable and moderate. The country-inns, especially in the purely Rumanian districts, are apt to be very poorly provided with food, so that the traveller should make himself independent of them by carrying a supply for his own use.

Money is the same as in Austria. At Bucharest and throughout Rumania French money is used, the francs being called Lei and the centimes Bani.

Passports are not necessary in Transylvania, but are indispen­sable for entering Rumania. A visa is not requisite.

Language. The official language is Hungarian, which is also the popular tongue in the W. part of the country. German is un­derstood by almost everyone with whom the tourist is likely to come in contact. At Bucharest the prevailing language is French.

71. From Arad to Hermannstadt.

203 M. RAILWAY (Siebenburger Bahn and Ungarische Staatsbahn) in 17 hrs.; fares 17 fl. 40, 12 fl. 73, 8 fl. 68 kr. — From Grosswardein to Klausenburg, see R. 62; from Klausenburg to Hermannstadt, see It. 73.

Arad, see p. 339. The Temesvar line (see p. 340) diverges to the right as the station is quitted. The Transylvanian railway fol­lows the Marosthal; on the left rise the vine-clad Arad Mts., with the ruined castle and village of Világos (p. 340).

Stations Gyorok, Paulis. 22 M. Radna, or Maria-Radna, with a much-frequented pilgrimage-church with two towers, containing a wonder-working image of the Virgin. On the opposite bank of the Maros lies Lippa, with 6800 inhab., the principal depot of the salt of Transylvania. On the left stands the ruin of Solymos.

The train follows the right bank of the Maros. Stations Konop, Berzava, Soborsin. At (64 M.) Zrtm it crosses the frontier of Transylvania. To the right of stat. Guraszdda, Dobra, with its ruined castle, is visible in the distance. 771/2 M. Maros Illye, the birthplace of Bethlen Gabor (1580-1629), prince of Transylvania. Near (84 M.) Branyicska, with the small chateau of the Hunga­rian novelist Nicolaus Josika, who died in exile at Dresden in 1865, the train crosses to the left bank of the Maros. On the right is Veczel, with the ruins of a Roman fortress.

92 M. Diva (Hôtel Bauer; Hardt), a market-town with 3280 Rumanian inhab. , is the seat of the authorities of the district of Hunyad. About 2 M. to the W. rises a trachyte rock, 610 ft. high, crowned by a ruined castle, whence a fine view is obtained of the val‑ leys of the Cserna, the Strel, and the Maros, and of the Hatszeg Mts., of which the Retjezat (8190 ft.) is the most conspicuous. The Gold Mines of Nagyaq are reached from Ddva in 4 hrs. (carriage

to Hermannstadt.  BROOS. 71. Route. 369

to Csertés in 2 hrs., 1-11/2 fl.; thence by ox-cart or on horseback). The gold is found in the greenstone and trachyte rock, in conjunction with tellurium. Beautiful view.

FROM DEVA TO VAJDA HDNYAD (Carr. in 2 hrs., 21/2-3 ft.; also post-conveyance). At Vajda Hunyad (Ger. Eisenmarkt), which lies at the confluence of the Cserna and Zalasd, is the castle of Hunyady Janos (1387-1456), the celebrated conqueror of the Turks. The Gothic structure to the right of the entrance was built by Hunyady himself, the rest by Matthew Corvinus (1486) and Bethlen Gabor (1619-24). In the neighbour-hood are the iron-works of Gyaldr, Telek, and Govasdia. A miserable road leads in 1 hr. from Vajda Hunyad to Kaldn, a station on the Piski and Petrozseny railway (see below).

The train crosses the Csernabach, affording a view of the Transylvanian Erzgebirge on the left, and reaches (96 M.) Piski (Railway Restaurant), at the confluence of the Strel with the Maros. The bridge over the Strel here was defended against the Austrians in 1849 by General Bem.

FROM PISKI TO THE HATSZEO VALLEY AND TO PETROZSENY, 49 N., railway in 4 3/4 hrs. (fares 4 fl. 18, 3 fl. 13, 2 fl. 9 kr.). — The line traverses the valley of the Strel. 9 M. Stat. Zeykfalva-Kalán. At the village of Kalán, 2 M. to the N., are extensive foundries and a small bath-establishment; Zeykfalva, to the S., possesses an ancient church, said to have been built by the Romans. Stat. Russ. Then (181/2 N.) Váralja-Hátszeg, where we obtain a fine view of the valley of the Hátszeg.

[The VALLEY OF THE HÁTSZEG, the chief attraction of which lies in the peculiar costume and manners of its Rumanian inhabitants, may be explored hence by carriage in about 8 hours. The route leads by Farka­din and Demsus to Vdrhely (the Dacian Sasmizegetusa, the Roman Ulpia Trajana), with numerous Roman antiquities, whence we return either direct, or via Malomviz (whence the Retjezat, 8190 ft., may be ascended), Malajesd, and Száláspatak, to stat. P&uacte;j.]

Beyond stat. Páj the line quits the valley of the Strel and ascends that of the Banyicza. At stat. Krivádia is a Roman watch-tower. The train then proceeds in long windings, passing the village of Merisoe far below in the valley to the right, to stat. Banyicza, the culminating point of the line, 680 ft. above the level of the Maros valley.

49 M. Petrozseny (Railway Hotel), a town with 10,000 inhab., in a beautiful valley, is for the present the terminus of the railway, the pro­longation of which to Rumania is contemplated. The neighbouring valley of the Byl contains a large coal-bed, 80 sq. M. in area, and 3-25 ft. in thick­ness. The Vulcan Pass and the Csetatye Bole, a cavern with an entrance 65 ft. high and 50 ft. wide, are within easy reach of Petrozseny.

108 M. Broos, Hungar. Szászváros (*Hôtel Széchényi), with 5450 inhab., chiefly Saxons (see p. 365), lies in the Saxon 'Königsboden', or royalty, in the `Land unter dem Walde'. A walk may be taken to the top of the Holump, which commands an ex­tensive view. On the Gy6gy, which here empties itself into the Maros, lie the small baths of Feredö Gyógy, 3 M. to the N.

ExCURSrONS. To the iron-works of Schebeschhely, 1 hr.; on a spur of the hills lies an old ruined castle. A pleasant drive may be taken into the mountains, passing several villages, to (31/z hrs.) Gredistye (inn kept by the forester). Thence we may ride in 3 hrs. to the ancient ruins of a Roman (Dacian) castle.

1151/2 M. Siboth lies in the fertile plain called the Brodfeld (Hungar. Kenyermezo), where Stephan Bathory defeated the Turks under Ali Beg in 1479. On the left is Uj-Vinez. — 125 M. Al­vincz, with the castle in which Cardinal Martinuzzi was assassinat‑

BAEDEKER'S S. Germany. 5th Edit.                            24

370 Route 71.           KARLSBURG.                   From Arad

ed in 1551. On the opposite bank of the Maros lies Borberek, cel­ebrated for its wine. — Mühlenbach (Hungar. Szász Sebes), a Saxon town with 6244 inhab., 4 M. to the S.E. of this point, con­tains an interesting Protestant church of the 13th cent., and the house in which John Zapolya died in 1540.

The train crosses the Maros near Maros Porto and reaches —

131 M. Karlsburg, formerly called Weissenburg, Hungar, Gyula Fehérvár (*Hôtel Römer; Procop; Railway Restaurant), the Roman Apulum, containing 7338 Hungarian, Rumanian, and Jewish inhab., and once the capital of the princes of Transylvania. Nume­rous Roman relics have been found in the vicinity. All that will interest visitors to the town is comprised within the limits of the Citadel. Here rises the *Cathedral of St. Michael, containing the sarcophagi of John Hunyady (d. 1456), his son Ladislaus (beheaded 1457), and his brothers, Queen Isabella (d. 1556), and her son John Sigismund (d. 1571), and also remains of the monument of Prince George I. Rakoczy (d. 1648). Here also are the Church of the Jesuits, the resting-place of Christof Báthory ((I. 1581), now a military magazine ; the Academy, built by Bethlen Gabor as a Pro­testant grammar-school, and now a barrack, where the poet Martin Opitz was professor of philosophy and belles-lettres in 1622-23; and, lastly, the Battyaneum, founded by Bishop Count Battyani in 1794, with geological and archeological collections and a library.

FROM KARLSBURGTO ABRUDBÁNYA IN THE TRANSYLVANIAN ERZGEBIRGE, post-omnibus in 12 hrs., allowing 21/2 hrs. for the inspection of the mines at Zalathna. It is, however, better to hire a carriage. The excursion occupies three days in all, one day being spent at Abrudbánya.

The road traverses the Ompoly Valley and passes the villages of Tótfalu (with the castle of Szt. Mihalykö, situated on a rock, and erected by Bela IV. in 1268), Pressaka, Petroszán, and Zalathna (with several gold-mines; in the neighbourhood are the gold-mine of Dum hretra and the cinnabar-deposits of Babója). We next pass a monument commemorating the construction of the road (1836), and reach the village of Bucsum and the small town of Abrudbánya, with 4200 inhab. (Ruman. and Hungar.). The road to the famous Gold Mines leads past the base of the Detunata Gola, a basaltic rock 360 ft. in height, crowning a neighbouring hill. Several of its columns, which rise in a number of different sections, have been overthrown by lightning, whence the epithet `detunata' Beyond it we come to Cetate Mare and Mike, a huge isolated mass of rock, which has been hollowed out in the form of a crater by Roman miners in their search for gold. Farther on is Verespatak, the Roman Alburnus Major. By the brook are seen a number of gold-washers, chiefly gipsies. From this point we may now return to Abrudbánya.

A good road leads from Abrudbánya, by Topanfalva in the Aranyos Valley, to Lupsa, and through the romantic Borrév Pass to Torda (p. 379).

Beyond Karlsburg the line traverses a small plain, the scene of the battle of Szt. Imre, where Hunyady Janos routed the Turks under Mezet Beg in 1442. On the left rise the spurs of the Tran­sylvanian Erzgebirge; the tower-shaped peak is named Kecskekö (Wallachian Piatra Capri, `goat's rock').

143 M. Tövis (Railway Restaurant), where the line unites with the Hungarian Government Railway (Klausenburg to Kron‑

to Hermannstadt. HERMANNSTADT.             71. Route. 371

stadt, R. 73). The train turns to the E. and crosses the Maros near the influx of the Kokel, the valley of which it then follows. Beyond stat. Kardcsonfalva it crosses the Kleine Kokel to (158 M.) Blasendorf (Hungar. Balas falva), with 1385 Rumanian inhab., the hot-bed of the agitation against the Hungarians in 1849. Stations Hoszúaszó (Ger. Langenthal), Mikeszásza.

1751/2 M. Klein-Kopisch, Hungar. Kis-Kapus (Railway Restau­rant), where the branch-line to Hermannstadt diverges to the right. (Route to Kronstadt, see p. 373.)

The RAILWAY TO HEBMANNBTADT turns southwards into the valley of the Weissbach, or Viza. Stations Markt-Schelken (Hangar. Nagy Selyk). Ladamos. 197 M. Salzburg, Hungar. Vizakna (Hôtel Nendwich; Fronius), with salt-mines and ten salt-water ponds, formed by the falling in of the shafts which had been driven into the rock-salt. The `Tokoly' is a saline spring used for bathing; the water is so saturated with salt that the body does not sink. Good echo in one of the disused salt-mines.

203 M. Hermannstadt. — Hotels. °NEURIHRER; RÖMISCHER KAISER; MEDIASCHER Hoe and NEUMÜLLER, unpretending. — Cafes:Albrecht; Klaus; Bazar. — Beer: Quandt; Novara; Grosse Bierhalle (Hermannstadt beer). — Wine: Schüler's wine-rooms. — Baths: Frühbeck's, with warm and vapourbaths; Military Swimming Bath, 10 kr.; River Baths by the Heidenmühle.

Hermannstadt, Hungar. Nagy Szeben, Ruman. Sibiu, Latin Cibinium, a royal free town, formerly the capital of Transylvania, and one of the earliest Saxon colonies (1160), lies upon a hill on the river Zibin. It is now the capital of the district of the same name and seat of the Saxon `Count' and the National University (Universitas Nationis). Of its 19,446 inhab. , two-thirds are Saxons. The central point of business and traffic is the Grosse Ring (P1. C, 4).

The Protestant Church (P1. 4), built at three different periods between 1431 and the beginning of the 16th cent., contains a beautiful cup-shaped font, cast by Meister Leonhardus in 1438. On the N. wall of the choir is a large mural painting of the Cru­cifixion, with numerous figures, executed by Johannes of Rosenau in 1445, and one of the most successful specimens of Transylvanian art. In the sacristy are several valuable chalices and ciboria of the 17th cent., and ecclesiastical vestments adorned with gold em­broidery. The so-called `New Church', an addition of the 16th cent., contains an interesting Mausoleum, with the tombstones of the old Saxon counts , burgomasters , etc. — The Sacristan lives at Huet­platz 19.

The Church of the Ursuline Nuns (Pl. 6), the Roman Catholic Church (Pl. 8), and the Chapel by the Elisabeth-Thor, with a huge crucifix carved from a single block of stone by Landregen of Ra­tisbon (1417), are destitute of artistic interest.

The architecture of the Rathhaus (Pl. 9), originally the fortified dwelling of a patrician, or wealthy citizen, exhibits many inter­esting details. In the court is the Record Office of the ` Saxon


Nation', above which is a well-arranged armoury. The door leading to the staircase is a handsome piece of 16th cent. work.

The Brukenthal Palace (P1. 1), built by Baron Brukenthal, governor of Transylvania under Maria Theresa, contains (on the first floor) the Natural History Collection of the Society of Natural­ists, with specimens of the entire fauna and flora of Transylvania, a well-arranged geological cabinet, and a number of objects from Africa and Japan. In the court are a Library with 500 Incunabula (Codex Altenberger, richly illuminated missals); a Cabinet of Minerals, with beautiful specimens from the Erzgebirge ; and an Archaeological Collection, with numerous Transylvanian coins. On the second floor is a Picture Gallery (chiefly copies).

The fashionable promenades are the old ramparts (music on Tues.in summer), and the so-called `Erlenwald' and `Junge Wald', com­manding fine views of the mountains.

Among the numerous pleasant Excunsroxs which the environs afford, the following are the most interesting.

To HELTAU AND MICHELSBERG (2 hrs.; carr. 3-4 fl. ; private post-conveyance from the Mediascher Hof, affording a good view of the scenery, 30 kr. each person). — Heltau (Hungar. Nagy Disznód, Ruman. Cisnedia) is a large Saxon village, picturesquely situated above the Kaltbach, on the N.E. slope of the wooded Gotzenberg (4196 ft.). The church contains a fine cross and mon­strance, masterpieces of the goldsmith's art among the Saxons in the 15th century. — Michelsberg, Hungar. Kis Disznód, Ruman. Cisnidiora (Kloos), which lies 2 M. to the S.W. , is the only one of the Saxon settlements situated among the mountains. Close to the village rises a wooded hill with a ruined castle and a tolerably well preserved Romanesque church.

The Odtzenberg (4320 ft.), an admirable point of view, may be as­cended without difficulty from Michaelsberg on foot or on horseback in 4 hrs. (at the top a chalet).

To STOLZBNBUNG (2 hrs.), with the picturesque ruins of an old castle built by the Saxon peasants.

To THB ROTHBNTHURM PASS (5 hrs.). The high-road follows the valley of the Zibin to Schellenberg, where Andreas Bathory was defeated in 1599 by the Wallachian Woiwode Michael, and to Talmesh, Hungar. Talmács. Above Talmesh is the ruined castle of Landskrone, built in 1370 and razed in 1453 (fine view). The road then traverses the valley of the Alt or Oltu to Boicza, where stands the `red tower' (65 ft. high, 32 ft. in diameter), which has given name to the Rothenthurm Pass (1200 ft.), an opening in the hills formed by the action of the Alt. Beyond the pass we reach the Custom House and the Rumanian frontier. (The Surat, 7506 ft., may be ascended from this point.) The diligence runs in 33 hrs. by Rozia, Rimnik, and Kurtea de Argis to Pitesti, on the railway to Bucharest (p. 341).

Map of Hermannstadt/Sibiu
Map of Hermannstadt/Sibiu

Map of Kronstadt/Braşov
Map of Kronstadt/Braşov

FROM HERMANNSTADT BY FOGARAS TO KRONSTADT, 85 M., diligence in 18 hrs. (10 fl. 36 kr.). The road leads to Schellenberg and Westen, where it crosses the Zibin, and then follows the valley of theAlt to Girlsau, Freck, and (20 M.) Porumbak. On the S. the view is bounded by the lofty chain of theFogaras Mts., among which the Surul (7506 ft.), Budislav (7940 ft.), Negoi (8320 ft.), and Buteanu (8235 ft.) are conspicuous. To the left stand the picturesque ruins of the Cistercian abbey of Kerz, suppressed by Matthew Corvinus in 1474 on account of the immorality of the monks. The next places reached are Als6-Utsa and Voila, where a road diverges on the left to Gross-Schenk and Agnethlen (Hungar. Szt. Agotha). Then (46 M.) Fogaras, capital of the district of that name, with 4714 inhabitants. From (54 M.) Sarkany a road diverges on the left to Reps (railway-station, p. 374). The Kronstadt road ascends past Persany to the saddle of the Geisterwald (2000 ft.), separating the valley of the Alt from the plain of Burzen, and then descends by Vledeny to Zeiden, at the base of the Zeidnerberg (4245 ft.), the scene of the bloody contests between Kronstadt and Prince Gabriel Bathory in 1612. At Weidenbach we enjoy a glimpse of the beautiful Rosenau Valley on the right (p. 375). 85 M. Kronstadt (see p. 374).

72. From Hermannstadt to Kronstadt.

138 M. RAILWAY in 1i hrs. ; fares 12 fl. 26, 8 fl. 59, 5 fl. 14 kr.

To (28 M.) Klein-Kopisch (Rail. Restaurant), see R. 71. The train then follows the valley of the Grosse Kokel to (34 M.) Medias, Hungar. Szász Megyes (Schütze; Traube), a royal free town with 6489 inhab., the central point of the wine-trade of Transylvania, and the earliest Saxon settlement (1146) in the vine-growing re­gion. It possesses a fortified church. About 3 M. to the N.W. lie the small baths of Basseu, Hung. Bázna; 11/2 M. to the E., on the left of the railway, is Darlócz, or Durles, the Protestant church of which contains some interesting mural paintings.

41 M. Eczel, Ger. Hetzeldorf; 45 M. Elisabethstadt, Hungar. Ersébetváros (formerly called Ebesfalva), a royal free town, seat of the authorities of the district of Kis-Kukolo, with 2550 inhab., most of whom are Armenians.

About 6 M. to the S.W. lies Birthelm, a wine-producing place with an imposing château and a handsome church. The latter contains a reredos and choir-stalls executed at the beginning of the 16th cent. and tombstones of the 17th century.

52 M. Dunnesdorf, Hungar. Dános. On the left lies Gross-Alisch,or Nagy Szólös, where Prince Kemeny fell in 1662 in a battle with Michael II. Apafi.

58 M. Schässburg, Hungar. Segesvár (Goldner Stern; Zwei Lowen; Rail. Restaurant), a royal free town and capital of the district of Nagy Kukölö, founded by the Saxons in 1198, with 8788 Saxon, Hungarian, and Rumanian inhabitants. A beautiful view is enjoyed from the Schulberg, a hill with a small church containing a fine *Ciborium and choir-stalls ascribed to the sons of Veit Stoss of Nuremberg.

At stat. Héj&aacue;sfalva the line quits the Kokel Valley and turns to the S.E. into the valley of the Erked. Beyond Erked, a Saxon settlement, the train penetrates the hill between the valleys of

374 Route 72.                 KRONSTADT.                   Rathhaus.                                     

the Erked and Kaczabach by means of a long tunnel. Stations Mehburg, Katzendorf. The Homoród Valley is now followed to (88 M.) Reps, Hung. Köhalom, a Saxon market-town on the Kos-der Bach, with 2700 inhab., commanded by a picturesque castle on a basaltic hill, at the base of which lies a small sulphur-bath.

The train enters the valley of the Alt. On the left bank lies the village of Heviz, where the Romans had a fortified bridge. On the opposite bank is Galt, a Saxon castle of the 13th century. Stations Also Rakos and (107 M.) Agostonfalva.

A visit may be paid from Agostonfalva to the wild Vargyas Valley to the N., with the rocky defile of Kocsur and the caverns of Homoród Almas and Kocsur.

The railway and the river both turn to the S. 115 M. Apacza, Ger. Geist; 120 M. Nussdorf; 125M. Marienburg, Hungar. Fhldvar, a Saxon market-town situated on a hill, at the E. end of which lie the ruins of a castle built during the dominion of the knights of the Teutonic Order.

The popular baths of Elopatak lie in an unattractive district, 5 M. to the N.E. (road by Hidwig and Arapataka; Carn in 11/4 hr., 2 fl.). Stat. Brenndorf, Hungar. Batfalu. Then —

138 M. Kronstadt. — Hotels. ''NUMERO: EIINS; STADT BUKAREST; *GRÜNER BAUM; GOLDNE SONNE; WEISS; KRONE. — Good Wine at Hass­heimer's and Hdtto's in the Rossmarkt, and at the Hauptquartier Ver­sailles, in the Spitalsneugasse. Beer at Hajek's (suburb of Blumenau), and at the Town Brewery, Burzengasse. — Bathing Establishment in the upper suburb; cold bathe at the Swimming Baths in Blumenaut and at theVa­silakische Garten in the upper suburb. — The station is 21/4 M. from the town. Hotel-omnibuses meet the trains. Cab into the town 1 fl.

Kronstadt, Hungar. Brassó, Ruman. Braszi, a royal free town and capital of a district of the same name, with 29,584 inhab., of whom about 10,000 are Saxons, is the most important commercial and manufacturing town in Transylvania, and lies on the Burzen­bach, in a valley entirely shut in by mountains, except where it opens on the Burzenland, an extensive plain. The town consists of four different quarters : 1. The Inner Town, surrounded with walls, the centre of business; 2. The Altstadt, or 0 Brassd, the oldest part of the town, founded by the knights of the Teutonic Order in 1222, the buildings in which, however, are nearly all new and insignificant, owing to the repeated destruction it has sustained; 3. Blumenau, Hungar. Bolonya, the quarter next to the station, principally inhabited by manufacturers (between Blu­menau and the Inner Town is a small colony of Gipsies); 4. The Upper or Rumanian Suburb, resembling a village, chiefly occupied by Rumanians, and founded in 1392 by the Bulgarian labourers (hence called also Bolgárszeg) who built the `Black Church'.

In the centre of the principal square in the Inner Town stands the RATHHAUS (P1. 15), built in 1420 (the tower earlier), and restored in 1770 in the tawdry style of the period. In the same square, to the S., is the KAUFHAUS (Pl. 5), erected in 1545, the first floor of which is used on market-days by small dealers

Excursions.                 KRONSTADT 72. Route. 375 .1.                   .

in various kinds of wares ; on the ground-floor are vaults and store-rooms. The PROTESTANT CHURCH (Pl. 8), in the Kirchhof­platz (PI. B, 3),popularly called the `Black Church', on account of its walls having been blackened by fire, is a Gothic edifice of 1385-1425, with traces of Romanesque influence. On the exterior of the choir-wall are statues of the twelve Apostles, surrounded with foliage , once gilded, but now perfectly black. The altar was designed by Bartesch of Kronstadt, and carved by Schonthaler of Vienna in 1866; the altar-piece, representing Christ among the `weary and heavy-laden', is by Martersteig of Weimar. The carved choir-stalls and the seats of the guilds, hung with beautifully embroidered Oriental tapestry, also deserve attention. Johannes Honterus (1498 -1549), the reformer , or `Apostle' of Kronstadt, is buried in this church. A fee of 5 ft. is charged for a performance on the large organ. The Sacristy con­tains finely-worked ecclesiastical vessels and vestments.

The CHURCH of ST. BARTHOLOMEW (Pl. 6), at the end of the Altstadt, is the oldest church in the town. The Oriental-Greek CHURCH of ST. NICHOLAS (Pl. 10), in the Upper Suburb, originally built of wood in 1392, was replaced in 1495 by a stone edifice, which was restored in 1751, with the aid of the Empress Elizabeth of Russia. To the right of the entrance is a very ancient chapel of wood, embellished with painting.

WALKS. The environs of Kronstadt afford a great variety of pleasant excursions. To the (10 min.) top of the Schlossberg, the citadel on which was built by the Austrian general Count Arco in 1553 as a defence against the Wallachian Woiwode Peter; fine view. — To the (1 hr.) *Kapellenberg, or Zinnenberg (3153 ft.; 1276 ft. above the town), the best point of view in the neigh­bourhood, affording a good survey of the town, the Burzenland, the Haromszek plain and the Ranson Mts. on the N.E., the valley of the Alt and Marienburg (p. 374) on the N., the Konigsstein and Zeidnerberg on the S.W., and the Csukasberg on the S.E. — To the (3/4 hr.) Salomonsfelsen, or Solomon's Rock, with the cascades of the Teufelsbach, and caverns in which the Hungarian King So­lomon (d. 1087) is said to have lived as a hermit.

LONGER Excunsroxs. 1. By the Saxon Neustadt (Hungar. Ke­resztenyfalva) to *Roseman, with its castle, and to the fortress and pass of *Törzburg. On this excursion a visit may be paid to the Kalibas, a Rumanian race of gipsy blood, living in miserable hovels in the straggling villages of Predjal, Szóhodol, and Poarta. From Törzburg the Butshetsh (8264 ft.) and the Konigsstein, Hun-gar. Kiraly-kb (7360 ft.), may be ascended by steady-headed moun­taineers (fatiguing but interesting). The route to the top of the former passes the rock-monastery of Skitta-Jalomicza, while the Konigsstein is ascended via Tohan and Zernyest, where the Aus­trian general Heissler was defeated by Emerich Tök¨ly in 1690.

376Route 72. KRONSTADT                    .

2. To the Tömös Pass (p. 380), turning to the right on the way back at Batshendorf, and passing through the Siebendorfer ('seven villages') inhabited by Hungarians and Wallachians, who were posted here to guard the frontier-passes. The sixth village is the watering-place of Zajzon. Hence back to Kronstadt via Tartlau, with an interesting church and Saxon castle.

Those who wish to become acquainted with the land of the Szeklers (p. 366), and visit the principal baths of a region remarkable for its numerous mineral springs, are recommended to choose the following routes.

FROM KRONSTADT BY SEPSI SZENT GYÖRGY TO KÉZDI VASARHELY AND TUSNAD (diligence to Kezdi Vasarhely in 81/2 hrs., 5 fl. 4 kr.). The road leads through the plain of Burzen, passing Honigberg, Hungar. Szdsz Hermdny, and Illyefalva, to (21 M.) Sepai Szent Gyargy, on the Alt, capital of the Szekler district of Haromszek, with 5268 Szekler inhabitants. Here the road turns to the E. into the valley of the Fekete i'Igy. 43'/s M. Kezdi Vasarhely, a royal free town with 5183 Szekler inhab., almost all of the Reformed faith.

Excursionss from Vásárhely. By Imecsfalva and Zabola to the baths of Kovdszna (4000 inhab.), 7 M. to the S.E., the waters of which, called Pokdlsdr, are of an ash-gray hue and strongly impregnated with car­bonic acid. One of the modes in which they are used is the `Gaze, or vapour-bath formed by the exhalation in the cellars of the houses. On the neighbouring Kopaszberg are some iron-works.

By Oroszfalu, Szaszfalu, Nyujód, Lemheny, and Bereezk to the Ojtoaz Pass (1922 ft.) noted for its defence by the HInveds against the Russian invaders in 1819.

To the Baths of Kászon, at the foot of the Kdszon Mts., 3 M. to the N.

To Tumid (see below) by the road via Sri. Ldlek and Kdszon Uffalu (18 M.). It may also be reached by a rough footpath crossing the volcanic Biidasberg, on which are some mineral springs and a cavern filled to a height of 1 ft. above the floor with carbonic acid gas mixed with a small percentage of hydrosulphuric acid gas (used as a vapour-bath). Hence to Tusnad, either direct by Biikszdd, or with a detour to the Szent Anna Lake and the Csomalbery.

FROM KRONSTADT TO THE BATHS OF BORSZÉK, through the Upper Valley of the Alt and the Gyergd Plain, and back by Szekely Udvarhely to Schassburg (to Borszek about 105 M., a drive of 2-21/2 days).

The road ascends the valley of the Alt from Sepsi Szent Gyargy (see above) to Bodok, with its mineral springs, the baths of Mdlnds, and Bilk­szdd. It then leads through the narrow defile of the Tusnadi Szoros, or Tusnad Pass, to the favourite baths of Tusnad, romantically situated about 45 iii. from Kronstadt. We next traverse the district of Csik, passing its capital Csik Szereda, at the base of the Hargita (5712 ft.), and reach Csik Szent Domokos. (At Balanbdnya, near the source of the Alt, 9 M. to the N., are some iron and copper-works.) The road quits the valley of the Alt at this point, crosses the N. spur of the Hargita Mts., the watershed be­tween the Alt and the Maros, and leads over the high-lying Plain of Gyergy6, by Vaslab and Tekerapatak, to Gyergyo Szent Miklos, a town with 5645 inhab., mostly Armenians. Farther on is Szdrhegy, with a Franciscan monastery and a chateau belonging to Count Lazar, in which Prince Bethlen Gabor spent his youth, the latter destroyed during the Kurutz war, or Rakoczy rebellion, in 1705. Beyond Szarhegy the road leads by Ditro, the bill of Tilalmas, and a depression in the Kozresz (2124 ft.), to —

The Baths of Borszek (good hotels), the most popular watering-place in Transylvania. The chief spring, called the Fokut, yields the Borszdk Water, well known in Germany, which has a ,pleasant acidulous and somewhat pungent flavour. The Lobog6 Springs (0 and Elf Lobog6) are strongly impregnated with carbonic acid gas. — We now return to Gyer­gy6 Szent Miklos, where we may turn to the S.W. and proceed by Gyer­gyd Alfalu and Csoma Fall's' to Parafd (see below) and Scikely Udvar-

hely. It is better, however, to return to Csik Szereda (see above), and thence take the diligence (service to Schassburg, p. 373, for three per-sons, in 12 hrs. ; fare 7 fl. 20 kr.) by 0lahfalu, the baths of Homordd, where the Unitarians or Socinians of the surrounding region celebrate the 16th Aug. as an annual festival, the Czekend (which commands an imposing view of the massive Hargita Mts.), Máréfalva, Fenyéd, and Belhlenfalva to —

Szekely Udvarhely, in the valley of the Grosse Kokel, seat of the authorities of the district of Udvarhely, with 5000 inhab., chiefly Szeklers. Attila is said to have once held his court here (Udvarhely meaning the site of a court), and during past centuries it has several times been the scene of great national assemblies.

A digression may be made hence to the imposing SALT ROCKS OF PARAJD. The route leads by the Minorite monastery of Aresa, and past the Rakodohegy, a party-coloured hill formed by the limestone deposits of a spring which rises on its summit, to the village of S6falva (about 6 hrs. from Udvarhely) and to (1 hr.) Parajd.

Beyond Székely Udvarhely the road follows the valley of the Grosse Kokel, passing Bikafalva, Bogoz, Galambfalva, Betfalva, and Sxikely or Szitds Keresztur (so named from its manufacture of sieves, `szitas' mean­ing `sieve-maker'), to (18 M.) U.) Szdkety, where it crosses the Kokel and quits the territory of the Szeklers. The road crosses the railway at He­jasfalva, and then leads by Fegi egyhdza, with the chateau of Count Haller, to (12 M.) Schassburg (p. 373).

73. From Klansenbnrg to Hermannstadt and Kronstadt.

RAILWAY (Hungarian E. Railway) to (123 M.) Hermannstadt in 61/2-81/z hrs. (fares 11 fl. 40, 7 fl. 90, 4 fl. 30 kr.); to (206 M.) Kronstadt in 8-12 hrs. (fares 19 fl. 80, 13 fl. 60, 9 fl. 70 kr.).

Klausenburg, Hungar. Kolozsvár (Hôtel National; Hungaria; Pannonia; König Matthias; Biasini), a town with 29,923 inhab., situated on the Kleine Szamos, was founded by the Saxons in 1272 and is the seat of the authorities of the district of Kolozs, of a Reformed and a Unitarian superintendent, and of a Magyar uni­versity (established in 1872). Being the headquarters of the numerous noblesse of Transylvania, the town is a very busy place. On the right bank of the Szamos lies the principal part of the town, with its five suburbs, now united with it, as the walls once enclosing the inner quarter have been removed. On the left bank is the `Bridge Suburb', with the Citadel, which was erected by General Steinville in 1715. The slope of the citadel-hill is studded with gipsies' huts. The oldest part of the town is the N.W. corner, called Ovdr, i.e. 'old castle', built by the Saxons in 1178. The Saxons of Klausenburg, however, having adopted the Socinian form of belief, and so separated themselves from their compatriots, have long since become completely identified with the Hungarian population. Ovar contains the houses in which King Matthew Corvinus (b. 1443) and Prince Bocskai were born. In the principal Platz is the Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Michael, begun by King Sigismund in 1414. At the S.E. corner of the town is the Reformed Church, built by Matthew Corvinus in 1486, and ceded to the Calvinists by Bethlen Gabor in 1622. In the W,

378 Route 73. BISTRITZ. From Klausenburg

suburb is a villa in the Italian style, presented to the town by Count Miko, containing the National Museum of Roman and other antiquities. Near the Museum is the village of Kolozs Monostor, with the ruins of an old monastery.


76 M. DILIGENCE (comfortable, for 12 pers.) daily in 12-13 hrs.; fare 9 fl. 15 kr.

The road runs near the railway as far as Apahida, where the Szamos is crossed. It then follows the left bank of that river, passing (17 M.) Vdlasztit (with a chateau belonging to Count Teleki), Nagy Ikldd,, and Dengeleg, and recrosses to (12 M. ; 29 M. from Klausenburg) Szamos Ujvar, a royal free town with 5317 inhab., chiefly Armenians, who are, however, completely `Magyarised'. The tasteless church contains an altar-piece presented by Emp. Joseph II., representing the Descent from the Cross, and erroneously ascribed to Rubens. — On the left bank of the Szamos, 3/s M. to the W., lie the small baths of Kero, with springs containing sulphur and Epsom,salts.

Beyond Szamos Ujvar the road follows the left bank of the Szamos to (8 M.; 37 M. from Klausenburg) Dees (Europa), a royal free town with 6191 inbab., capital of the district of Szolnok Doboka, situated at the con­fluence of the Grosse and Kleine Szamos. The Protestant church, a taste­ful Gothic edifice, dates from the 15th century. In the neighbourhood is an oblong stone, held in great reverence by the people, on which the seven Hungarian leaders are said to have once met in council before their invasion of Pannonia. — The village of Dedsakna, with its salt-works, lies 11/2 M. to the S. — From Dees a road leads to the N.W., on the right bank of the Szamos and across the Somkut Pass, to Nagy Banya in Hungary.

The road to Bistritz crosses the Szamos and leads on the left bank of the Grosse Szamos to Kozarvar, with the remains of a Roman fortress, Batza, Retteg, and (1V/2 N. ; 481/2 M. from Klausenburg) Csics6 Keresztddr. Among the hills, a little way to the left, are the picturesque ruins of the rocky fastness of Csics6, built in the 13th cent. and destroyed in 1544, which command a magnificent view. From Kudu, the next village, a road leads northwards to Naszod and Rodna (see below). The Bistritz road crosses the Szamos, and reaches Bethlen, the ancestral residence of the Bethlen family, situated at the influx of the Sajó into the Szamos. It then follows the valley of the Sajó to (101/2 M.) Somkerék. On the Sajó, 3 M. to the S., lie the villages of Kentelke and Kerlds, where Prince Ladislaus, afterwards King of Hungary, defeated the Rumanians in 1070. The strife was most holly contested on an oak-clad knoll, called Cserha­tom, now occupied by a chateau and park of the Bethlen family, and has been celebrated by the Hungarian poet Vorosmarthy in his poem of that name. The road now passes Baldsfalva and Zippendorf, and reaches —

76 M. Bistritz, Hungar. Bestercze (Town Hotel), a royal free town and capital of the district Bistritz-Naszod, with 8063 inhab., chiefly Germans of a different stock from the `Saxons', perhaps the relies of a still earlier immigration. It was formerly called NOsen, and gave its name to the Mooney Land (p. 367). The town, which lies on the river Bistritz, formerly carried on a considerable trade, particularly in the 15th and the begin­ning of the 16th cent., but has long since lost its commercial importance. The walls and towers, with which it is still surrounded, give the town a quaint and mediwval air, but it possesses no other attractions. The Gothic Protestant Church, finished in 1519, has lost almost the whole of its external embellishments in consequence of repeated conflagrations. The eBurgberg, above the town, with the castle of John Hunyady, affords a beautiful view of Bistritz, embedded among orchards and vineyards, and of the Carpathians on the frontier of the Bukowina.

FROM BISTRITZ TO SUCZAWA IN THE BUEOWINA, diligence in 23 hrs. (fare 13 fl. 75 kr.). The road crosses the Borgo Pass to Suczawa Itzkany, which is a station on the Lemberg, Czernowitz, and Bucharest railway.

to Kronstadt. KOCSARD. 73. Route. 379

FROM BISTRITZ TO NASZÓD AND RODNA. The road leads across the Stubenberg (1725 ft.) to Mettendoaf and to Nasz6d, a large village in the valley of the Szamos. It next reaches the baths of Oldh Szent Gyorgy, with a mineral spring called Borkett, containing muriatic acid and natron. At Dombhat is a similar spring, the deposits of which have formed a hill of some size. Alt-Rodna, Ger. Radenau, once contained a numerous German population, but since its destruction by the Mongols in 1241 it has been abandoned to the Rumanians. At the foot of the Kuhhornberg, Ruman. Ineu, Hungar. Unako (7484 ft.), 6 M. higher up, lead-mines are worked.

The RAILWAY TO HERMANNSTADT at first runs to the E. through the wide and monotonous valley of the Szamos, passing stations Szamosfalva and Apahida, and then diverges from it to the right. Be­yond (101/2 M.) Kolozs-Kara the line traverses a wooded and hilly district. Near (32 M.) Gyeres we cross the auriferous Aranyos, on the left bank of which lies the village of Egerbegy, Ger. Erlendorf.

BRANCH RAILWAY from Gyeres to Torda, Ger. Thorenburg, capital of the district of Torda-Aranyo, situated 5 M. to the W., at the N.W. end of the Kreuzfeld, or Keresztes MezS, and built on the ruins of the Roman Potaissa. Of its 9434 Hungarian inhab., the greater number profess the Unitarian form of belief. Diets have been held at Torda on several diffe­rent occasions, at one of which, held in 1544, the autonomy of Transylvania was declared, while universal religious liberty was proclaimed at another, three years later. There are extensive salt-mines in the vicinity. — About 3 M. distant is the Tordai Hasaddk, a defile eroded by the Hosdat, 1/2 M. long and 25-65 ft. wide, the rocky sides of which are honey-combed with caverns.

From Torda a road, traversing several romantic gorges, leads to To­roczko, an insignificant town with iron-works, inhabited by a peculiar and fine-looking race of Szeklers (Unitarians), and thence to the village of Gyertyamos, celebrated for the beauty of its women, and to the railway-station of Nagy Enyed (see below).

43 M. Kocsárd (Railway Restaurant), situated at the influx of the Aranyos into the Maros.

BRANCH RAILWAY in 3 hrs. 10 min. (fares 3 fl. 30, 2 fl. 31, 1 fl. 63 kr.) through the fertile valley of the Maros, passing stations Maros-Ludas, Csap6-Radndth, and Nyarddto, to (37 M.) Maros Vasarhely, Ger. Neumarkt (Hotel Transylvania; Bonne; Krone), capital of the district of Torda-Maros, with 12,883 Szekler inhab., one-half of whom belong to the Reformed church. The busiest part of the town is the Stadtplatz, with the adjacent Szdchdnyi and Teleki Promenades. The Protestant College possesses a valuable Library, but the Teleki Library, containing the Vasarhely Codex and a manuscript of Tacitus from the Bibliotheca Corvina, is more interesting. On the Postwiese stands a monument erected to the memory of Torok, Galfy, and Horvath, three Szeklers who were executed here in 1854 on suspicion of conspiring against the Austrian dynasty.

FROM MAROS VASARHELY To BISTRITZ, 55 M., diligence in 10 hrs. (6 fl. 44 kr.). The road leads by Maros Scent Gyorgy (also called Csigeni Szent Gyorgy, from the number of gipsies resident here), Nagy Ernye, (8 M.) Setromberke (with a chateau belonging to Count Teleki), Gernyeszeg, and Petele or Birk (Saxon), to (101/2 M.) Szasz Regen, a royal free town with 5652 inhab., chiefly Saxons. In the neighbourhood are the saline baths of Seakna, or Zsabenicza, situated at the entrance to the picturesque valley of the Gorgeny. The route then passes Oldh Ujfalu, (17 al.; 36 M. from Maros Vasarhely) Teke (Ger. Teckendorf), Nagy Ida, Durrbach (Saxon), Galatz, Monchsdovf, Szeretfalva on the Saji (on the hill to the right the ruin of Szent Laszl6vara), and Heidendorf, celebrated for its wine, and finally reaches (55 M.) Bistritz (p. 378).

Near stat. Maros Ujvar, on the left bank of the Maros, stands the Gothic chateau of Countess Miko. In the neighbourhood are extensive salt-works, a visit to which is extremely interesting and readily permitted on previous application. The salt-beds here were known to the Romans, but were afterwards forgotten and not re-discovered till 1791.

461/2 M. Felvincz. At the base of the hills, to the right, near (55 M.) Nagy Enyed, lies Miriszld, which produces excellent wine.

63 M. Tovis (Railway Restaurant). From Tovis to Hermann­stadt, see p. 371 ; to Kronstadt, see p. 373.

74. From Kronstadt to Predeal and Bucharest.

109 M. RAILwAY to (181/2 DI.) Predeal in 1 hr. (fare 1(1.70, 111.20, 90 Its.); to Bucharest in 7 hrs. (fares 20 fr. 50, 15 fr., 10 fr.).

Kronstadt, see p. 374. The line describes a wide curve towards the S.E. On the left are Heldsdorf, Marienburg, Petersberg, and Honigberg; then, a little later, Tartlau and the seven Hungarian villages (p. 376), with the baths of Zajzon. On the right are the town and the hill of Schuller, after which in rapid succession come the Honterusplatz, the Rauberbrunnen, and the Tannenau, all favourite resorts of the townspeople. Beyond (4 M.) Derestye-Het­falu the train enters the valley of the Thralls; to the left rises the Pietra Mare, or great rock. It then passes the old customs-station of Vnter-Tiimos and two new forts, and reaches (101/2 M.) Tomos, whence a fine view is obtained of the Schuller (to the right).

The train then ascends in windings to the Tomos Pass (Szardsz-Tomos) which it penetrates by a tunnel 1030 yds. long. Several shorter tunnels are also traversed. Fine view to the right. — 181/2 M. Predeal (3346 ft.; Rail. Restaurant, dear; luggage and passports examined), the Rumanian frontier-station, whence a fine view is obtained of the Schuller and Grossfels behind us and of the Butshetsh in front.

The train now descends the valley of the Prahova, passing a convent on the left. 231/2 M. Intra-Prahova, at the junction of the two main sources of the Prahova, winch the train crosses several times. 26 M. Busteni; to the right rises the huge Butshetsh (p. 375). — 30 M. Sinaia, beautifully situated, with the summer-residence of the King of Rumania and an old monastery. — 40 M. Comarnik; 50 M. Campina (Hotel Bnkarest). To the left lie the extensive salt-mines of Telega. The picturesque part of the line now ends, and we enter the fertile plains of Wallachia. To the right of stat. Baicoiu is the large estate of Prince Cantacuzeno.

71 M. Ploesci (Moldavia; Victoria; Europa; Orient; Rail. Re­staurant, fair), the junction of the line to Bnzeu and Braila(p. 364 ; halt of 3/4hr. ; carriages changed). The town, of a semi-Oriental character, with 31,335 inhab., lies between the Prahova and Te­leajna, about 4 M. from the vine-clad spurs of the Carpathians. It possesses 29 churches, none of which are of any particular interest.

The rest of the journey is monotonous. Stations Crivina, Perisiu, Buftia, Chitilia. The train then reaches the N. railway-station (Ruman. Tirguvesti-Gara) of —


Restaurants. Cosmann, good wine; Labes (also cafe), Strada Ger­mana, beer.

Cab from the station into the town, 2 fr.

Tramway from the N. railway-station through the town and across the Theater-Platz.

Theatre, with performances of Italian Opera and French comedies (in winter, pieces in the Rumanian tongue).

English Diplomatic Agent, Mr. W. A. White, Casa Costaforn, Strada Scaunele 46 (office-hours 10-2). — American Charge d'Affaires, Mr. E. Schuyler.

English Church Service, 37 Strada Oltenii, at 10.45 a.m. Chaplain,Rev. F. G. Kleinhenn.

Bucharest (Ruman. Bukureshti), the capital of the kingdom of Rumania, with 221,000 inhab., lies in the midst of a mo­notonous plain, and is divided into two parts by the dirty river Dimbovitza, which is crossed by fifteen bridges. In spite of the fact that the streets have in recent years been paved or causewayed and that gas-lighting, tramways, and cabs have been introduced, the town, irregularly built and consisting of about 20,000 low, leaden-roofed houses, still retains its Oriental appearance. It is divided for administrative purposes into five districts, the Yellow (N.), Red (central), Green (W.), Black (E.), and Blue (S.). The principal business-streets are the Lipzeani Street (so called because the Bucharest merchants formerly always obtained their goods at the Leipsic Fair), and the Victoriei Street, which intersects the town from N. to S., along with two or three others immediately adjacent; these have quite a European character.

Among the most important buildings are the Palace (the re­sidence of Charles of Hohenzollern, created Prince of Rumania in 1866 and King in 1881), the Theatre, and War Office, all in the Victoriei Street. On the Boulevard stands the University, the fa­cade of which is embellished with pillars; above the entrance is a frieze representing Athene and the arts. Opposite to it stands an equestrian statue of Woiwode Michael III. (1592-1601), erected in 1871.

The huge square tower of the Hospital Coltza, near the Church of St. George, is said to have been built in 1715 by the soldiers of Charles XII. of Sweden (good view of the town and environs from the top). The courtyard of the hospital contains a marble monument, erected in 1870, to the memory of Michael Cantacuzenos, the Wallachian patriot, who was executed at Constantinople in 1716.

Bucharest contains no fewer than 127 churches (116 of the Greek denomination), besides chapels, etc., most of which are low cruciform structures. None of these possess any special inter­est for the visitor except the Antim Church and the Stavropolos

382 Route 74. GIURGEVO.

Chapel, the latter of which, built in 1724, is characterised by har­mony of proportions and rich plastic decoration. The Metropolitan Church, built in 1656 and restored in 1834 , stands upon a hill in the S. part of the town ; adjacent are the residence of the Arch-bishop and the House of the Estates. A short distance to the W. are the church and monastery of Radn Voda, built by Alexander II. in 1572 and restored in 1859; and to the N.E. is the church of St. Spiridion, with interesting campanile-towers. In the central por­tion of the town are the church of Curte Vecke, built by Mirza the Old (1387,1419) in 1387 and rebuilt after the fire of 1847, and the church of St. Giorgio, also rebuilt since 1847. The Sarindar Church on the Boulevard is a basilica of 1634. Bucharest also contains a Lutheran church (with a German school) and a Reformed Protestant church.

In the middle of the town lies the pretty but somewhat damp and unhealthy park of Cismediu. To the N. of the town, at the end of the Vietoriei Street, is the Chaussee , the `Rotten Row' of Bucharest and much frequented in the afternoon; on each side are pleasure-grounds and villas (two cafes).

FROM BUCHAREST TO GIURGEVO, 42 M., railway in 2 hrs. (fares 9 fr. 70, 7 fr. 20 c.). The train starts from the S. station (Ruman. Filaretgara), 2 at. from the town, leads through a monotonous district past Zilava and Vidra, crosses the Argi6u, and reaches Comana. A little to the W, is Calugareni, where the Woiwode Michael defeated a Turkish army of 140,000 men under Sinan Pasha on 15th Aug., 1594. Stations Banessa, Fratesti. Then (42 M.) Giurgevo, Ruman. Giurgiu (Hotel Isla Hane, R. 4-6 fr.; passengers for Giurgevo alight at the town-station, those who wish to proceed at once to Constantinople or to ascend the Danube keep their seats and are carried on to the quay), the principal commercial town of Rumania, with 15,000 inhabitants. It was the Theodoropolis of the Ro­mans, but was rebuilt and named Santo Giorgio in the 14th cent. by the Genovese, who were then in possession of the trade of the lower Danube. Giurgevo is connected by a bridge with the fort on the island of Slo­bodsia. On the opposite bank of the Danube rises the Bulgarian fortress of Rustshuk.


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