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CHAPTER XVI.

KRONSTADT.

SOME distance after leaving Reps, the good high-road suddenly ends, and is exchanged for a mere track through a beautiful wooded valley, watered by a stream. There is no describing the places we went over. About twenty times we crossed the stony bed of the brook, down one steep bank and up the other; now over rocks which were a way for a foot passenger only, and then again over the green herbage or the smooth sandy ground. It went on like this for hours; and as the merchants and other travellers come this way from Kronstadt, it is astonishing that a road is not made here. We met a waggon with six horses that had broken down : the wheel had given way, and a young tree, felled on the spot, supplied its place, and dragged along the ground behind. How the travellers were in this fashion to get over the rough spots we had passed was to me a riddle. Beech and birch are here in abundance, and further on, the slopes for miles are covered with fine oaks, which, when the railway comes in the neighbourhood, will fetch a good price.

The site of Kronstadt is strikingly picturesque. The present town lies in a sort of defile. On one side a mountain rises precipitately from the walls of the houses, and on the other is hilly ground, but less high and steep. A rich background of foliage, through which grey rocks show themselves here and there, is thus formed on the north side, reminding one of the slopes behind Heidelberg. But here they rise higher and are more abrupt. The view over the town from the promenade that winds some distance up the mountain, it is quite a pleasure to be- hold ; and in summer, when all the fruit-trees, which now fill the space formerly applied to moats and ramparts, are in full bloom, the sight, I am told, is truly lovely. The high walls, with their strong gates, still surround the town, and on the slopes to the south, are watch-towers and other defences. These were doubly necessary when the forays of the Turks began. The whole of the Burzenland helped to build them, and so faithful were the Kronstädter, and so ready to sacrifice everything in defence of their country and the crown, that King Sigis- mund, in 1422, granted them and their land the same privileges and immunities as the Hermannstadt district possessed.

The red brick and grey and yellow stone of the fortifications have acquired a sober tinge, and amalgamate thoroughly with the autumn tints around. Then the towers of the bastion, round and square, some with windows and green shutters, being now turned into summer-houses, the flower-gardens in the moat, the quaint outworks like bits out of some old Flemish picture, with the background of hanging wood, altogether made a most pleasing sight. Nothing can be prettier than the view from the balconies of some houses on the north side. They look upon a wilderness of verdure, and here or there some little turret, or the venerable old wall peeps out from among ivy and creepers. The church, which is the finest in Saxon land, dates from 1385 to 1425, and contains an organ that ranks among the largest in Europe. In the sacristy are some of the most beautiful priests' vestments I have seen anywhere,-specimens of old embroidery and rich stuffs that are of great rarity and interest. They date from the time before the Reformation, and were, no doubt, presents from princes and mighty potentates. They ought to be preserved carefully in a museum instead of lying about as they do, not estimated, and accordingly taken small account of. At Hermannstadt, also, are others very curious and valuable; and at certain parts of the (Protestant) service they are worn by the officiating clergyman. It is a strange contradiction to the spirit of Lutheranism; and the rich, almost regal robe ill accords with the studied plainness of the other parts of the dress, in which is not a trace of colour, of flowing lines, or beauty. But the dissonance to the feelings was greater; for one could not but feel it as such, to see the magnificent chasuble which the priest had worn at the altar--so highly prized as only to be used on the most festive occasions- now employed for some everyday purpose unconnected with any holy mystery.

The town itself is very neatly built, and has a well-todo look. It is nicely paved, even in many of the side streets, and there is a good foot-pavement also. Though the houses are narrow, they go back to an immense depth. The number of shops of every sort, the busy life of the streets, the quantity of merchandise, the great amount of produce brought in on a market-day, all betokens activity, and shows that much business is here carried on. The population is somewhat more than 25,000 souls. Among the Germans I found many well- informed, intelligent men with whom it was a pleasure to converse. A great many Szekler girls are here in service : a sturdy-built, plain race, rather short than otherwise ; they wear their hair in one long plait behind, to which, on holidays,, a bow of bright ribbon is attached. They leave home early to get places as household servants, and, as such, are found in nearly every house in the town. Later on, passing through the Csik, I was surprised to see so few young women, indeed I scarcely met one all along my route, and this early emigration from home was, it seems, the cause. They return to the native village when they have saved a little, and make good wives, even though their moral life, up to the time of their marriage, is usually not exactly exemplary. The Hungarians are much liked as servants, on account of their aptitude to learn whatever service they have to do. They are-so the Saxon inhabitants all told me-more tractable, honester, and more cleanly than the Roumains. The Saxons, on the contrary, are slow to acquire the routine of service, and are always awkward. As household servants it is rare to see a Szekler man,-he cannot be prevailed on to wear livery, and his hatred of a hat is intense.

It is strange that neither the Szekler nor the Wal lack, both of whom stand in need of the Saxons, learns German, but each expects the Germans to speak his lan guage. And, which is so thoroughly characteristic, they do so. Many learn both languages in their infancy from their nursemaids, and household or farm servants.

In Kronstadt, as indeed in the other Transylvanian towns, the guilds, with their customs and arbitrary laws, continued to flourish until very lately. The different bastions are still called after certain handicrafts, to the followers of which their defence was allotted ; and the space within the wall is now turned into a garden, where the members of the guild recreate themselves in summer. As was everywhere the case, the citizens were jealous of their privileges. No one, not a Kronstadt burgher, was allowed to buy wool or tallow until after ten o'clock, so that the choice of the market might be theirs. The socalled Kronstadt wares, ropes, boots, woollens, coming to Kronstadt from any other town, were immediately confiscated. No competition was tolerated. How great the export trade of such articles, especially to Wallachia, once was, is shown by the fact that whole streets were filled with them, all of them bearing the name given above of Kronstädter Waaren. At present, the trade with Wallachia and further eastward has passed entirely out of the hands of the Saxons, and into those of the Wallachian merchants of Kronstadt. They understand their countrymen, and get on with them better than the Germans. And for this reason they are not so easily cheated by them as the German merchants invariably were, who always lost by such trade. What business is done with Greece and the border-lands is also entirely transacted by the Wallachian population. There is a greater similarity of character between them and the people of the East, and as each knows the tricks of the other, the difficulties in intercourse are fewer, being foreseen. Indeed all the principal trade of the town is, I believe, carried on by non-German merchants. The Saxon, when constantly menacing danger no longer-kept him mentally and bodily active, seems to have relapsed into the original nature which was his characteristic at home, and have become apathetic. The necessity for the stirring life, to which in reality he owed his wealth and his position, having ceased, he allowed others more energetic to usurp his place.

The Hungarian and Saxon do not intermarry. The Saxons, like the Jews, wed among themselves, and often in the same family; and this circumstance may perhaps have an influence on the decrease of the population.

Up to 1791, no one who was not a Saxon was allowed to possess a house in Kronstadt, and none but a Catholic, Protestant, or Socinian could possibly hold office there. Indeed, in all their institutions the Saxons were most exclusive,-originally they were forced to be so in self-protection,-and hardly acknowledged the right of any higher power to meddle in their affairs. They chose their own law officers, and preferred to have the law badly administered by those deputed by themselves, to a better state of things offered them by Government authority. On this one point there was a resemblance between them and the Hungarians ; for they also care more to have a government they can call their own, than one which, if even better, emanates from another.

It is all very well to cherish old customs and privileges, and to cling to them with a reverential attachment ; but it betokens a thorough misapprehension of the march of events, and of the revolutions thereby caused, when the antiquated state and the narrower views which characterize it are preferred to a change that puts an end to party interest, and which, proclaiming equal laws and rights, and imposing equal duties on all, unites those hitherto separated, into one great whole. By it, of course each loses something which was exclusively his own; something, however, that most often is ill-suited to the time. But it is just in comprehending this, and in forming a correct estimate of what is given up, that sound judgment is shown. When a new order of things was proposed for Transylvania, that should put an end to a system which, however excellent in itself originally, had now grown antiquated, the Saxons, with few exceptions, acquiesced in the proposition of Government. The Hun garian party hoped they would not do so, but would go with them, and by this union give additional strength to each. In the period of despotism in Austria, the Saxons and Hungarians united in opposing the system. Then came the Diploma of October, and each went his own separate way. But the Saxons knew by experience that, if they acted with the Hungarians it could only be in a subordinate rank; and they preferred, and I think they were right, to cling to the German government in Vienna, to putting themselves under Magyar authority, whose seat was at Pesth-Ofen. Magnanimous as the Hungarian kings showed themselves towards these immigrants, and politically wise as they were in the protection they accorded them, Saxon history bears record that the nobles, or in other words, the Hungarians generally,*16_1 had always been ready to attack them in their privileges, and to possess themselves of whatever advantages these burghers had won by industry or secured to themselves by charter. And such facts were now remembered. With all possible admiration for many noble qualities inherent in and brightly adorning the Hungarian character, the Saxons were also well aware of the incompatibility of the two natures which, nominally, were to go together to help to found a new order of things; but which, in reality, would have been united only by the bond which joins a dominant and a domineered race. They knew this so surely that they refused the proffered hand, even at the cost of many an advantage which such energetic, fearless, and skilful political partisanship would have brought them. And this refusal the Hungarians cannot forget, nor will they ever forgive it. Never did I hear them allude to the circumstance otherwise than with the greatest bitterness. It is a rankling wound, and, like all such, diseases the otherwise healthy parts. They always

16_1 * For, Ls was said, it was the nobility only that made the nation. No one else had an opinion or a voice.

speak of the conduct of the Saxons as an act of the "blackest ingratitude." "They came here," they say, " and we protected them. Never were their rights attacked; never was their position endangered; but on all occasions our authority lent them protection." This is one of the many errors of exaggeration to which the Hungarians are continually being led by the predominance of the imaginative faculty. They are so accustomed to take what they fancy to be fact, and wish should be so, for truth, that it is necessary to test carefully all statements in which national or political feeling is likely to bias them. Herein, as in numerous other cases, they are the very opposite of the German. He is slow to assert, and scrupulous in examining : the Hungarian, borne away by imagination and his hot passions, boldly asserts as fact the promptings of his ardent temperament ; and he will often launch forth assertions as recklessly as he has always hurled defiance against an opponent. This assertion of the Saxon never having had cause to complain of Hungarian ascendancy, which is a standing clause in the Hungarian list of grievances, is one of many of their overhasty statements.

The Saxons have undoubtedly lost, and are still losing, much, by standing alone as they do in the representative assembly of the country. Every measure, almost, brought forward by the Saxons or by the Government, however good it may be for the general welfare, is opposed by the Roumains if a single personal advantage is likely to be lost by the change. They fain would keep the influence of the law-courts, as well as of office generally, in their hands ; for they are actually averse to courts of justice, before whom all are equal, and where it is impossible for a judge or president to show one of their nation that favour ,which, under the present organization, is always obtained.

The difference between the culture of the Roumains and that of the Germans and Hungarians is so great, that if either of the latter stand alone, they are virtually delivered over, bound hand and foot, to the enemy. In other lands, the members of delegated assemblies also defend the views of their respective party and their separate interests ; but though there is a difference-a wide difference perhaps-between their political creeds, there is none, on the average, in their development as civilized people. As educated men, as regards their views of law, justice, right, moral worth, they are on an equality. There are certain fundamental notions of right and wrong, of social and political existence, which they all have in common. There is consequently no vital danger when one party succumbs to the other; because, though the loser sees views carried out to which he is opposed, yet, on what forms the basis of society, of moral, intellectual, and political progress, both are agreed. Herein, at least, is unanimity of opinion. All stand on the same undebatable ground. Hence there are certain interests which all have equally at heart, and which each one knows that the other would as little think of attacking as of committing matricide. Thus, having, as it were, the same starting-point-one and the same basis for an ordered existence,-there is an equality among them, and they are, in this one sense, on an equal footing. But such is not the case in the Transylvanian parliament. Here the two parties are in no wise equal. The one has all to win, and the other everything to lose. And as the startingpoint-that firm neutral ground, about which there can be no controversy-is also different, the inequality thus occasioned becomes a fearful disparity. Elsewhere, parties in the senate-house meet in a common aim-the common weal. Here the sole aim of the one party is to rise; to obtain place, power, friends, preponderance, authority,-and this, too, irrespective of other considera tions. From what has been said, the difficulties of the Saxon minority will be understood. On certain questions they are always out-voted. The Hungarians look on, and watch, with an inward chuckle, the defeat which their presence would have prevented. The position of the Saxons is, they say, the just retribution for their defection. Had the Hungarians appeared in the assem bly, they, with the Germans, would have been able to maintain their ground against the numerically strong Roumains. A proper balance would have been pre served, as it was intended should be the case. By the absence of the one party, this balance has been destroyed.

It would have been far wiser if the Hungarians, instead of each one laying down his mandate, had entered the assembly, and there fought their battle with that unflinching boldness and power of oratory which are natural to them. They would have found among the German members, faithful allies, who would have voted with them in every measure contributing to the common good, and to establish things on a firm constitutional basis. The Saxons are well aware how much they lose by the absence of the Hungarian members; not merely as regards their votes, but on account of the influence which their example would have exercised; the undaunted front they always present, their skill in political tactics, their burning eloquence, kindling as it does the hearts of listeners, being always mentioned by every German who spoke to me on the subject, as qualities which were all the more valuable, as they-the Germans-were without them. Had the Hungarians taken their place in the assembly, or gone to the Reichsrath, their eminent qualifications for political life would soon have given them the ascendancy. During my stay in Transylvania, I never once met a Saxon who did not express this opinion. The superiority of the Hungarians in the qualities above mentioned was invariably acknowledged.

However much there might be to be changed in the laws first laid down for the guidance of the representative assembly in its routine of business, it should be remembered these laws were only formed as a preparatory step.*16_2 The session itself was merely a preparatory one, to consider the mode of operation, what clauses were to be retained, and what new regulations introduced ; and many an arrangement decidedly unconstitutional would have fallen away before the opposition of the two people, who for centuries had known the value of free institutions. They had, it is true, not carried them out equally; but that arose from the difference in the elements of each; one being composed wholly of simple citizens and husbandmen, all on an equality, the other of nobility and serfs, with the exelusiveness and prerogative which such conditions inevitably bring. Both people, however, understood how priceless a thing is liberty, and would have gone hand in hand in removing undue restrictions. The Government, even had it opposed just measures, would have been forced to give way. Moreover, the spirit of the time would have proved a strong, an irresistible ally to those who were fighting for progress; and it would have been no more possible for a minister at Vienna to have with

16_2* The Emperor, Nov. 5, 1861, declares in a letter that the differences are only to be cleared up "in a constitutional manner;" and further, "I find myself called upon to declare anew that as regards the concessions made to Hungary respecting the constitution, its rights and liberties, its representative assembly and its municipal regulations, I am irrevocably deter- mined to uphold them for the future undiminished and inviolably." As the state of things which these words introduced was a provisional one only, the Hungarians should have taken part in the proceedings, to watch that the decisions come to were really constitutional.

5 held it-supposing it had been his wish-than to have prevented the sun from rising the morning after it had set.

I cannot but deeply regret the determination of the Hungarians to have nothing to do with the legislative assembly, or office, or public political life. They, after all, are the greatest sufferers by it. I think, too, they perceive their error, for there can be no doubt that it was one, brought about by an over-estimate of themselves and contempt of their adversary. Some would have been willing to show themselves less unbendingly opposed to conciliation, but fear of the others deterred them,-so well organized is the Hungarian opposition, so great is the terrorism. In this respect the Hungarians exercise a greater tyranny than any Government, for they morally stigmatize a man, and brand him ruthlessly should he not act with them. It is just as with the Catholic Church, that arrogates to itself the power to wither a man's soul within him, should he not obey, while a lay power can touch only the body, can hang or fine, but not destroy the character.

I remember well, on coming to Transylvania, my first meeting with one of the Hungarian magnates, and was glad to hear other opinions of the Crovermnent, and of the state of the country, than those held by the Saxons. After the usual courtesies, the conversation turned on politics. My new acquaintance became at once an orator. He eloquently described the "abominable" behaviour of the Government, the wrongs of his party, and the absolute impossibility of being otherwise than passive. Austria, he said, wanted to make Europe believe she had become constitutional ; but it was no such thing ; the whole was a sham. She had allied herself with the Roumains to destroy the Hungarian element, and it was therefore quite useless for them to raise their voice in the Reichsrath.

"But would it not have been better," I said, "if, in stead of refusing to appear, you had gone and openly stated what you consider your grievances ? Free speech is allowed, and not only could you make your sentiments known, but what you said would resound throughout Europe. Surely the opportunity was too good to be thrown away."

" Yes, and I had formed a party, a strong party, which would have fought our battle even against odds. But when the news came that the Emperor refused to take the oath by which alone he is a prince in Transylvania,when he thus took away all ground for himself to stand on, and showed that the holiest rights were no longer regarded,-then we said, No, we can't go, and we refused to appear. I will tell you later how we have been treated,will show you that the so-called constitution is a delusion. What is aimed at is centralization : we are to be governed from Vienna, and as they like."

He was most enthusiastic, and consequently most eloquent on the subject of his wrongs, and every -word was uttered with the tone and manner of one who speaks from the most profound conviction, and with a sense that he himself stands on a commanding height ; a tall, firm rock, rising grandly amid the frantic buffeting waves. I never had such a conversation without thinking how fine a nation these Hungarians form, and what an innate turn they all have for political life; but I always felt that a sense of their own superiority carried them away, and made them intolerant of any other standing beside them on an equal footing. This is more than they can bear.

While they protest against centralization, they would themselves have had it in the strictest form at Buda-Pesth. The Saxons said, " We would rather not have centralization; we were formerly immediately under the King, and had to do directly with him : let us have him again with our old self-government, and, call him as you may, we are satisfied. But if there must be centralization, we prefer the central point to be Vienna, rather than Pesth ; the one a centre of civilization and in connection with the West, the other on the borders of civilization." If at Vienna were only despotism, and on the other hand a guarantee for freedom of the subject at Pesth, then the Saxons would have been willing to sacrifice other advantages-all indeed-for liberty.

Kronstadt is an essentially Saxon town, and neither here nor in Hermannstadt, nor the other German settle ments, are Hungarian gentry to be found. They either remain on their estates, or congregate in Klausenburg, keeping apart from the other nationalities.

Having heard there were bears in the mountains near Rosenau, a Saxon market-town near Kronstadt, I drove over to inquire about them and to see the village, which is pretty and prettily situated. It lies at the foot of a steep hill, crowned with a most romantic ruin,-one of those burgher strongholds already described ; in front is a broad plain; on the left rises the mountain-chain, and the imposing Butschetsch, 7951 feet high, and opposite it the sturdy Königstein, 7101 feet in height. The view from the fortress is particularly fine. You wind your way upwards through a deep ravine cut in the hillside, overhung with birch and beech, hawthorn and wild fruit-trees. Here and there, the outer wall is seen sloping downwards to the north. On this side are low hills covered with beechwood, and between them and the foot of the castle-mound are green dells and glades. High up behind the bright slopes are sombre pine-forests, spreading away to an indefinable distance. As you come round towards the south you see a strong round tower with a large doorway planted on a mound, but before this is reached you enter another gate, and are at once within the walls. On the slope where the castle stands, the bare grey rock appears above the sward, shooting out in great groynes or buttresses, and at one point directly above the village it is so steep as to be inaccessible. Here the walls and a postern gate stand on the very edge of the precipice. The buildings within the fortress are now a heap of ruins, all having been burnt down; but the spiral road that once led -upwards may still be traced among the rubbish. A well is here hewn through the rock, 76 fathoms deep. Everywhere among the dilapidated buildings, in cellars, and excavations in the rocks, places for storing corn have been formed. A few sheep were grazing over the ruin. A cold autumn wind was whistling through the embrasures and the long grass on the walls. In front were the Carpathians, now obscured by sad, colourless mists, and now suddenly opening and disclosing the blue sky and the highest peaks of the Butschetsch, encircled by wreaths of snow-white cloud. On the edge of the plain on my right rose the sombre Königstein, wrapped in shade. It was a peculiar scene,- dreary, desolate, and yet wildly grand.

On the 27th March, 1612, the castle was besieged by the Hungarian Bathori, and after seven days' resistance, the peasant garrison surrendered. He then went to Terzburg, and took it. This place was deemed impregnable, and the magistrates of Kronstadt, in their great wrath, had the captains who delivered it up impaled on the castle walls, the right hand and left foot of the more criminal of the two having been first cut off.

In Zernest, not far from K¨nigstein, bears are often shot; and one of the priests of the Greek Church there obligingly offered me to come and hunt in their forest, promising me every assistance. For several days past, men from Rosenau had been out looking for tracks, and also watching for the bears at night; but nothing definite was as yet to be learned. The week after, however, a letter reached me at Kronstadt, to say that there were certain evidences of six different bears being in the forest. I was therefore to come as soon as possible. Accordingly I drove over to Rosenau, and took up my lodging in the house of the notary, or, as we should say, the town-clerk. I was as comfortable here as possible; and nothing could exceed the neatness and cleanness of my large commodious room. My friendly host was-as indeed most of the Rosenauers are-a famous bee-keeper ; and the virgin honey he gave me, on learning my taste for this delicious food, was something quite exquisite.* 16_3 Here, too, mulberries are planted in the courtyards and gardens, and let for so much a year to the silkworm breeders.

After waiting for nearly two hours for the men, first one man came, then another, and so on till all were as sembled. It was no use sending for any of them. This one had to fetch a cow, a second to cook his mamaliga, and neither entreaty nor command could make them ap pear sooner.

We went a good distance into the forest, high up the hills. We found the slott of a bear on one side of a hollow way. It was quite fresh; the earth was still crumbling from the recent disturbance. He had crossed the road and gone into the deep ravine below us. Further on, we followed all along the road, which was wet and soft, the slot of a she-bear and her cub. We saw

16_3* It is calculated there are 172,000 bee-hives kept in Transylvania. A taxis paid of 3 kreutzers per hive up to the tenth ; all beyond this are tax• free. In some Russian provinces millions are annually gained by bees, the I wax being exported.

besides, other tracks; and on a meadow, where a large crab-apple stood, evidences of the bears' presence were numerous. At last we reached the spot for our opera tions. I was posted on a slope that led down in a valley. Before me was a gully, where fragments of rock and mouldering trees lay. Here I was told the bear would certainly come, if he were in the woods. A long time passed before a sound was heard; for the beaters had made a large circuit, and were far off. They advanced, too, very quietly ; for the five or six men who went through the forest were all experienced sportsmen, and did their work admirably. I presently heard a pattering over the dead leaves advancing down the slope in front, but the branches made it impossible for me to see any- thing. Indeed, I should not be able to fire at an animal coming thence until he had emerged from the wood, and was in the gully immediately before me. The animal stopped from time to time, and then came on again with a heavy step, at a hand-gallop. Just as I thought he must emerge from the wood, a shot was fired a little below me, and was followed by a low growl. The bearfor it was one-rushed down the steep, making the stones fly and the brambles crackle in his flight. On looking to see who had fired, I found that a publican of the village, who had joined our party, had squatted himself down behind the roots of a tree in the gully and thus, from his position, had been able to see the animal as he came from the opposite slope. The man had no business there, and his conduct greatly annoyed me. But the animal was only wounded; and following the red tracks, over the snow, and through the densest bushes, the men kept behind him like so many bloodhounds. It was hardly possible to keep up with them. Their passion for the chase was now seen in all its fere-our; they were quite beside themselves with excitement. The bear was sighted at last, and shot after shot fired at him, but, as usual, with no result. The noise only sufficed to make him start off anew. It was perfectly useless to order the men to wait till I came up with my rifle.. The bear then plunged into a large valley where there was water, but being hard pressed by his pursuers, made for the steep hillside. Here he fell exhausted from the result of the first shot of slugs and bullets, which had struck him in the chest. It was a fine brown animal, of three years old.

This long pursuit showed me how such a beast tramples and destroys everything in his flight. His broad feet cover a large superficies, and his weight is such as to press everything to the earth. The beaters told me they had seen him in the wood, and kept back purposely in order not to scare him, as they saw he was making directly for the spot where I stood. Every now and then he would stop, sit on his haunches like a dog, put his nose in the air and sniff a few times, to learn if there were danger in advancing ; then listen, and as the men came on, set off at a gallop, stop, and again listen. But for my neighbour, the prize would have been mine ; for I had resolved to let hiii come to me within ten paces before firing. Indeed, the ground was such that I should have been unable to see him much further off.

The little publican lay down upon the bear, patted his sides, put his arms round his neck, then enthroned him- self upon the animal, and almost screamed with joy. When cleaned, a young tree was cut down and the beast was bound to it and carried out of the wood. But it was hard work, and the men had to change often ; for there was no path, and they scrambled through the stony bed of a torrent, and over steep places where no footing was to begot. It was nearly dark when we reached Rosenau, and there was no end to the shouting and firing off of guns. Some days after, I went out again, but the several drives were all unsuccessful. One was just over, and I was going up a steep slope alone; two Wallacks were before me higher up. Out of breath, they had flung themselves on the ground, but were chattering as usual at a good rate. I gazed at the magnificent view that lay before me over the Burzenland,-for we were now pretty high,-and was just turning to go on, when on the crest of the hill, between a beech-tree and a fragment of rock, I observed a black mass whisk by. I did not see distinctly what it was, nor at the moment did it occur to me that it might be a bear. But a second after, the thought flashed upon me, and off I set to reach the wood, for which the bear was evidently making, before him. The two Wallacks instantly comprehended what was the matter, and dashed off with me. We had a good run, but the bear was quicker than we. It was a very large animal, considerably more so than the ono shot a few days before.

Rosenau is well built, and has an air of neatness. The Saxon population remains stationary ; the inhabitants in- termarry, and seldom take a wife from elsewhere. No Rosenauer would, for example, marry some one of Neu- stadt, which is the next village. The Wallacks greatly outnumber the Saxons, and their part of the town stretches away to a seemingly never-ending distance. In the main street their houses join on to those of their German townsmen, but the difference of architecture is so great that the demarcation is as distinct as though the two populations were separated by a wall. The neighbourhood of the frontier line makes this a good place for smuggling, and large quantities of gunpowder and tobacco are brought over from Wallachia. Since the revolution, powder cannot be bought without having a permission from the authorities. Even the large landed proprietors are only allowed to have a certain number of pounds.*16_4 It is time this vexatious law were abolished; for it is not only perfectly useless, but is a constant source of irritation to every one. There is no sense in the prohibition; for the few pounds of powder that might be bought would be insufficient for the purposes of a revo- lution. And if such quantities were obtained as to be of use in a revolt, the buyers would at once betray them- selves by the magnitude of their purchases. Strangely enough, all this smuggled powder is excellent English sporting powder, which is bought in the East, and thus finds its roundabout way to Transylvania.

Here there is one clergyman, who lives in the vicarage, two assistants called "Prediger," or preachers, who are not ordained, and are little more than our parish-clerks; and five school-teachers. In Zeiden, close by,-also a German town, with 3820 inhabitants,-there are six teachers: a proof how much is done by the Saxons for the instruction of their youth. Throughout the whole of the Burzenland,t -j-16_5-a district which takes its name from the river Burzen,-the village authorities are addressed as " Eure Weisheit" (Your Wisdom). Even the vicar would give them this title.

16_4 * One gentleman was allowed I lb. for the year. He had applied for the permission in July, and obtained it in November.

16_5-j-t The tract of land which bears this name extends from Kronstadt to the river Feketeügh on the east, where the Háromszek begins. It stretches away to the pass of Törzburg on the south, and reaches on the west and north to Zeiden and Marienburg. All this rich high-lying vale was in other days a broad lake, locked in by mountain-ridges. The river Alt, coming from its birthplace in the Upper Czik, flowed into it, after forcing its arduous way for miles among the rocks. Such is the story that still lives among the people of the district ; and the popular belief is, that a Saxon hero, with gigantic labour, hewed a passage through the mountains in the Geisterwald, and allowing thus the waters to drain off, left the fruitful Burzenland as we see it to-day. The course of the Alt is at first direct south; till, where the waters of the Feketeügh join it, the advancing walls of the Carpathians force it to seek another path. It fain would go westward, but obstacles again oppose -it; and so, turning northward once more, it retraces its steps, seeking a channel among woods and rocks, till at last-a thousand years ago -it forced a passage for itself through the limestone barriers which stopped its westward way. Again it turned southward through narrow valleys, and at last came rejoicing into the open land, that blooms like a garden, at the foot of the Fogaras mountain-chain.

In many places the fields are not manured for a number of years, and it is considered sufficient for a field to lie fallow for a year, and to have sheep driven upon it. In Rosenau, however, the soil being stony, it is necessary to employ manure annually. That this fact should have been pointed out to me, shows how rare such proceeding is.

Neustadt, a village between Kronstadt and Rosenau, has the reputation of containing the most enlightened rural population in all Transylvania. They have begun to improve their breed of cattle, and even to sow clover and turnips. Seeing the advantage of these as fodder, they adopted them accordingly. But we must not judge this act by the notions of Western Europe, where such husbandry is as much a matter of course as to make corn into bread. To sow clover and turnips is, in this part of the world, like having had a clear perception of the utility of railways when Stephenson first broached his project. In some parts people do not know what clover is, as it is only the large landed proprietors who sow it. That a peasantry, the most difficult class to induce to quit old systems, should of themselves have made this change, is so remarkable that it deserves notice. Throughout the province, the dislike of the people to machinery is great. They pretend the bread is not good ~where a threshing- machine is used; that it spoils the straw; but what makes them most averse to its employment is the noise. This prevents them from speaking, for to talk down the machine is, even for them, impossible. Except in Neustadt, and on the estates of Hungarian gentlemen who have no such prejudices, but, on the contrary, strenuously endeavour, by introducing improvements, to raise the system of husbandry, not a threshing-machine is to be found : no one will use it ; they say, too, if it were to break there is no one to repair it.

But in Neustadt, there is a peasant who has constructed a threshing-machine for himself, and as neatly and strongly as if it had been sent out to him from a London maker's. I saw it at work, and nothing could be better.

The inhabitants are wealthy, and. you perceive this as soon as you enter their dwellings. The houses are all solidly built of stone ; the rooms, as regards size, are quite luxurious, and the good furniture, the abundance of kitchen utensils, the neat beds with a clean white covering thrown over them,-all betokens easy independence. Even in the common room was sometimes a large lookingglass, and neatly framed prints, while the large gaily- painted lockers showed what a goodly store of linen and holiday apparel was there deposited. In many of the kitchens, the cooking-range was according to the most approved plan as in towns, with various conveniences for boiling and baking, and a compartment for hot water. And, as in the households, so in the arrangements of the farm; each house had a large yard at the back, that looked neatness itself. Everywhere order ; all was tidily kept, and gave proof of good household government. In many of the houses, there was no one at home,-the family being at work in the fields ; but, accompanied by the clergyman of the village, I walked into the farmyard and garden and stables, and inspected all. Large lofty barns, each one tiled, formed the background of every court, and their size gave evidence of the abundant crops which had annually to be stowed away.

Though the Saxon of to-day exhibits a certain want of activity, yet what comes immediately home to him, or militates with the accustomed usages of his household life, rouses him to action. The inhabitants of Neustadt have, of their own accord, built barracks for the cavalry, in order to be quit of the soldiers hitherto quartered in their houses. They stand at the end of the village, and were erected without architect or any foreign help. Each person had to supply his quantum of bricks, mortar, timber; a certain number took it by turns to do the building work, and thus the whole was carried out by the little community in the most creditable manner possible. Indeed, the Saxon towns and villages have been for seven hundred years so many damning facts against the opposers of self-government. When I was at Neustadt, the villagers were adding to the barracks a neat row of houses for officers' dwellings.

The church here is, as usual, a little fortress, surrounded by a moat and an outer wall about ten feet high, with here and there a most picturesque old watch-tower. Inside was a higher wall, full thirty feet in height. Within this stronghold, all round the wall, were the stores of the villagers. Each was numbered, and had the name of its possessor painted on the door. The whole place looked beautifully well ordered, and it was striking how even here the spirit of the Neustädter manifested itself in the arrangements. Close to the gateway was the dwelling of the old warder, as tidy and clean as any park-keeper's lodge in England.

The Neustädter practise a two-field rotation in their farming,-the Rosenauer three ; and the latter told me that their corn, sown on ground which has lain fallow, is much finer than that at Neustadt, which has never any rest.

An English company had undertaken to light Kronstadt with gas, and while I was there the gasometer was being built. English bricklayers were at work, and every one told me of the astonishment which their quickness occasioned. The Kronstädter used to go out on purpose to see the Englishmen at work; and one gentleman said he had counted that they laid six bricks while-the native workmen laid one ; but what gave rise to the greatest wonderment was the silence of these men while working. They did not talk together as the others do, who generally have a conversation or pinch of snuff between each manipulation. Neither did the Englishmen smoke while at work, which was again a matter of surprise. A hundred yards off, might be seen the line on the walls where the natives had ceased to build, and where the foreigners had begun,-so different was the style of work. Nothing could be more amusing than the patronizing air of one of the Englishmen towards the Wallack hodmen. " But you cannot speak their language," I said to my jovial, good- tempered countryman. "No," he replied, "but I keep on talking to them, and somehow they understand me : we get on quite well together. They don't know much, the poor creatures ; and as to work, Lord bless you, they have no notion of it; but they are a good set of fellows, and we hit it off very well together."

One of the men had died while there : the palatable wine of the country had been irresistible, and the essentially English vice had been his death. My informant told me he was well paid; he got, I believe, 10s. 6d. a day; but he said, cheap as it was in the country, he would not stay : "I'd much rather go back to my old woman." Lamp-posts, fittings, fireplaces, had been brought from England, and I heard, what however seems hardly credible, that the contractors had asserted, it would have been cheaper to have brought their own bricks than to have got them here.

The burgomaster died during my stay in Kronstadt. The great bell tolled for one hour, three times a day. Funerals here go from the house of the deceased, and not as in Germany, from the rooms in the cemetery, built for the reception of the corpse, which in Transylvania remains in the dwelling-house till the day of interment. The portal of the house, on this occasion, was hung with black cloth.




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