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CHAPTER XXI.

A COPPER-MINE.-BALAN.-DOWN THE MAROS.

ALL the part of the country called the Csik, is hig]4 table-land, with hills in the distance on both sides; the whole landscape is thickly studded with white-walled villages; handsome-looking churches, with tall towers, rise above them, and the scene before you looks cheerful, front the evident signs of populousness and fertility. It waa only regrettable to see so many fields lying fallow. Far off before me, rose two torn limestone rocks, which marked the place of my destination, for it is at their foot that Balan lies. The highway leads through a famous bathing-place, Tusn director of a mine, or other establishment, or on taking up my quarters at the parsonage of the Saxon clergyman, this feeling of intense satisfaction-almost of rejoicing was called forth.

CHURCH ON THE ROAD TO SZENT DOMOKOS
"CHURCH ON THE ROAD TO SZENT DOMOKOS"
GYERGYO SZENT MIKLOS
"GYERGYO SZENT MIKLOS"

I had the agreeable surprise of meeting, that evening, a Protestant clergyman, whose name was already familiar to me, and whom I had intended to, and did later, visit. He had come this distance from his parish to instal in office a young man who was to be both pastor and teacher to the little Protestant community here, in this gorge among the mountains. The following morning the mining population assembled, and my acquaintance delivered an address, which was clear, sensible, and, coming as it did from the heart, went at once to the hearts of his hearers. He laid great stress upon the education of the children, and the discipline to be maintained by the parents at home ; he enjoined all present to live on good terms with their Catholic neighbours, and iii no way whatever to show them less love than those of their own confession ; in short, neither in word, nor deed, nor feeling, was a difference to be made between them. He pointed out the duties and respect owing to their spiritual teacher; and then, turning to him, spoke of It-is duties towards his little, till now forlorn congregation. Nor were his relations to the Catholic priest forgotten. He was told to seek him out and live on good terms with him, without jealousy or feeling of superiority, and to remember that both were busied in the same office, and should therefore mutually assist each other. The whole was admirable. What, too, interested me, was to see how well the meeting got through the business part of the matter. The men rose, delivered their opinions as to the expediency of this or that arrangement, of the necessity of churchwardens being elected, and a clerk to manage the accounts, and then proceeded to consult among themselves, and to elect their officers, in as quiet, expeditious, straightforward a manner as any vestry in England might have done. This aptitude for public civic life seems literally inherent in the Saxon population of Transylvania.

The Catholic priest here did all he could to prevent a school for Protestant children being formed, and petitioned to have it forbidden. He refused also to bury the child of one of the miners, and all entreaties were vain until a sufficient fee was promised ; but this state of things only exists since the publication of the Concordat : till then, no man ever asked what was the religion of his neighbour, and various creeds lived together in the most perfect harmony. In Transylvania, religious feud was a thing absolutely unknown. When, after the Reformation, wars were elsewhere raging between the different sects, here all was peace, and true Christian charity was not only preached, but practised.*21_1 But since the attempt of Rome to regain that power over the individual, which, by one of the greatest blessings God ever vouchsafed to man, had been made to totter to its very foundations, and since that retrograde step of the Austrian Government which favoured the insidious attempt, all this is changed. The Catholic bishop, with misplaced zeal, has been active in separating the confessions, and placing them inimically one against the other. He has forbidden Catholic children to go to Protestant schools, though the law of the land allows it, and though of course religion is not taught there.-j-21_2 The Protestant schools being better than the others, Catholic

21_1 * " The faith of the Christians is ONE, even though different church' observances prevail," was the declaration pronounced unanimously at the Diet held in Mediasch, A.D. 1554, by the fathers of the three peoples living in the land.

21_2t Though a decided enemy to Protestantism, the Hungarians are his ardent partisans, which shows that the nationality question is more to them than the religious one.

parents profited by them till prevented by the interdict. The churchyard, where both in different divisions lay still more equalized, if possible, than they were before, was now separated by a wall. In every possible way measures were taken to raise a similar barrier between them, while still moving in life over the earth, with the sunlight of God shining alike on both. The law of the land, respecting mixed marriages, is so equitable, that no difficulties ever occurred when such took place. Now, however, the Catholics refuse to follow it. In short, the Concordat has proved a curse for the country, as indeed any man of understanding predicted it would do whenever it was accepted by the State.

The rocks around Balán form the cradle of the Alt, which here meanders through the valley as a babbling brook. On the right bank, the mountain mass is composed entirely of mica slate, while on the left, there are, besides, granite and Jura limestone.

All the arrangements for preparing the copper, and especially those for winning every particle of the neweral from the water and the refuse, so that not an atom may be lost, are extremely interesting. As we went along the brook's side, my companion, the director, chanced to see in the water an old iron spoon, lying there with broken potsherds and other rubbish. I remarked that it attracted his attention, and he turned back to fetch it. The whole was slightly covered with a layer of copper, of the consistency of thick cream. By this lie found that, in spite of the means taken higher up to arrest all the particles of copper contained in the water, some still flowed away and were lost. We soon came to the simple machinery in question. Out of one of the adits or horizontal shafts flows e stream, so impregnated with copper, that 100 cwt. airs Obtained from it annually. The water is led through wooden gutters, in which bits of old iron are laid; the coppery particles attach themselves to the iron, and from time to time the thick mass is scraped off and sent to the furnace. The metal obtained thus is almost pure. Here, too, are large mounds of rubbish, thrown out as the excavations proceed. In all this earth and rock there is of course some minimum amount of copper, but so very little as to be worthless. Yet even that little is now not allowed to be lost, and it is obtained by a process which costs neither money or trouble. My companion had once remarked, after a shower of rain, that the water oozing in little rills from the mass of rubbish was very red, and not being willing that a grain of metal should escape, hit upon a most ingenious device for attaining his end. From the hills above he led some brooks, so as to come tumbling over his rubbish-heaps, at a good height, and in order that the water might saturate every part, he laid a square board beneath the falling rill, which caused it to break and dash off in a thousand directions, and come down again like fine rain over a large extent of the heap. This spray per- meated the,whole mass, and the result was a thick stream issuing at the foot of the mound, strongly impregnated with copper. This was led into the gutters filled with old iron, where all the wealth the water had carried off with it was deposited. These are as pretty examples as any I remember, of how the commonest occurrence may be turned to valuable account by a careful and reflecting observer. At a cost of 10f1. per cwt., 24,000 florins' worth is yearly obtained in this way. From the water green copperas, or sulphate of iron, could be produced at an outlay of 50kr. per cwt. In Moldavia and Austria, the price is 2fl. 50kr. per cwt. ; but the expense of carriage to a distance would take away all profit.

I went over the mine, which is well worked, and saw how the stone is richly veined with the ore. The copper produced here is of the very best sort, and equal to the Australian, fetching the same price in the market. It is free from arsenic and antimony. The yearly produce at present is 2400 cwt., but much more could be furnished if the works were on a larger scale. The selling price per cwt. is 75f1. ; the cost of producing, 40fl. Wood is cheap, and there is enough still for the next hundred years. The mine belongs to a company, that also possesses large ironworks in the south, which do not pay ; and the loss incurred by the latter is made up by the proceeds of those at Balán. Had the shareholders more capital, this would prove one of the finest undertakings in Europe ; but, without money, they are cramped in their movements, and are hardly able to do what is necessary for the maintenance and enlargement of the machinery. I have tried to find out if they would sell all the shares, or be willing to be joined by men who brought the necessary capital; but, in Transylvania, people do not always answer letters, even when their own interests are concerned. I am, therefore, unable to say what they would do ; but I once was told that the property might be had. If so, lie who obtains it may consider himself a lucky man. The machinery here for washing, sifting, and separating the ore is of most ingenious contrivance. It is the invention of ministerial councillor Bittenger. I asked about Roumains here, and was told they were " very diligent." This, no doubt, is the effect of example and companionship with the Hungarian and Saxon miners ; just as, in England, the Irishman is as steady a workman as those about him. Indeed, all I saw and heard leads me to believe that the Roumains want only strict laws, strictly enforced, with opportunities for good instruction, to make them a people fitted to take their place among the civilized nations of Europe. They are ambitious, and are striving to rise.

It was the afternoon before I left next day, and late in the evening by the time I reached Gyergyó Sz. Miklós, an Armenian market-town. My driver asked about England, and it seemed as if a load was removed from his mind on hearing the inhabitants were Protestants. On learning that it was an island, he said, " Oh, then you have no horses!" and his astonishment was great on being told that we had some.

On entering the inn and inquiring of mine host, who was sitting in his pleasant warm room over a comfortable game of cards, if I could have a room there, he answered abruptly, "No!" and, taking no further notice of me, went on with his game. I asked some Austrian officers, who were supping at an adjoining table, to show me where another inn was to be found, which they did, with that obliging politeness which I have invariably found to characterize their behaviour to a stranger. I went and obtained a room. Soon after, one of the gentlemen came to me and asked if I would join them at their table, expressing regret at the same time for the rude manner of the landlord, who, after all, was a thorough good fellow ; and indeed I found him to be so. He was a blunt sturdy Szekler, near six feet high and stout in proportion,-a man well to do in the world, with broad acres and a hand- some house. We grew very good friends, and there was nothing lie was not always ready to do for me. I never was lodged better than with him; for the day after, saying something about its being late at my arrival, and the room not having been vacant, he made a sort of apology for his abruptness, and offered me, if I liked to do so, to come to him now. I liked the independence of the man. The offer was made solely out of good-nature, and there was nothing in it of anxiety to get a customer. He had too much self-respect for that, and too much money beside. All betokened plenty. The rooms were scrupulously clean and very prettily arranged, and I paid for them much less than for my little lodging at a small inn close by. I think my jolly friend's name is Domokos, and should a traveller pass through Sz. Miklós, I advise him to stop at his comfortable house : he will not find anywhere a better host.

From here I again tried my success in bear-hunting, having been told by a man, whom I had sent out for the purpose, that several bears were in the forest : nine had been shot here that autumn. There must also have been many wolves, for twenty-seven horses had already been devoured in the same year, belonging to the Sz. Miklós people alone. I had eighty men with me to drive, having left the preparations to the care of the individual in question, who, as he was commander-in-chief, seemed to like having as many persons to rule over as possible. I never in my life met with such a noisy crew. They were utterly useless for the purpose intended; they went loitering about, without any order, chattering incessantly, and doing what they liked. The only thing they seemed to understand thoroughly was building huts of boughs, and drinking brandy ; in both they displayed a mastery. We had stopped in the morning in a glade surrounded by slightly rising ground, with a rivulet in the bottom, and when I returned at evening there stood my hut neatly built, with pegs on the door-posts for hanging up the guns or cloaks, and inside a famous bed of leaves and fir-twigs. All around were smaller ones, which the men had built for themselves, and everywhere-some on the slopes, others among the rocks or beside the water-fires were blazing cheerfully, with chatting groups sitting or lying before them. For half the night the sky was ruddy with the glare. The horses were grazing at liberty, the waggon was brought near the hut, but I had the barrel of schnapps placed in my hut, for it was not advisable to leave it all night unguarded.*21_3 We were out a couple of days, but saw nothing, except recent traces of the animals we were seeking. There is a great charm in such a bivouac, and I always left the spot with regret which had been to me, though but for a single night, a comfortable home.

21_3* I always like to watch the ready expedients adopted by people living either temporarily, or always, face to face with nature. Our cask sprang a leak-a serious affair. Had I been asked to stop it, I should not have known how. But a Wallack took up a piece of resinous wood, lighted it, and letting the resin drop along the seam between the staves, soldered it up in a moment.

On returning to Sz. Miklos, I started for Borszek, one of the most celebrated bathing-places in Transylvania. To reach it, a steep, long, high hill, branching off from the main road, has to be passed. At the top a wide extent of lowland and valley stretch away to an immense distance, and you overlook, immediately below you, what seems a portion of the Black Forest. At the foot of this steep declivity lies Borszek, and beyond, on the hillside, are the springs that make it so deservedly famous. The water is still more exhilarating and refreshing than that of Selters, and throughout the country it is found on every table beside the bottle of wine.-j- 21_4 This custom of mixing the two is, I imagine, the reason why so few persons in the country care about drinking a superior vintage. Wherever a really good and an inferior one were on the table, it was I only who drank the better wine ; tho others invariably preferred the weaker sort. On all occasions the same reason was given : " The other is so strong." This, probably, is why no good wine is to be had at the inns, for, as it is mostly drunk with this excel lent mineral water, the quality is really unimportant.

21_4-j- t A peasant comes into a wine-house and calls for " A pair!" meaning a pair of bottles-one of wine and one of Borszek water.

On a piece of ground which may be a little more than a mile in circumference, rise eleven springs, some of which, though flowing but a few paces apart, vary con siderably in quality, quantity, and temperature. They surpass all similar waters in Europe in the quantity of carbonic acid which they contain, and in the lowness of their temperature. They taste agreeably acidulous, and leave a prickling on the tongue ; the rising gas tickles the nose like champagne when drunk quickly. Formerly, it is said, the water was stronger even than now.

The wells, so the story goes, were discovered by a shepherd in the recesses of what then were untrodden woods ; and he, having benefited by their power, spread their fame among his acquaintance. But they would have remained long hidden from the world, had not an officer at the court of Joseph II. been restored to health by their use. The efficacy of the baths became known, and the water was brought to Vienna as a most delicious article of luxury for the table. Since then, Germans, Hungarians, Moldavians, Wallachians, and Turks come hither in large numbers annually. New houses have been built, landlords and restaurateurs provide for the wants of guests, and, as it is the most important bath as regards sanitary effect, so it is the first in Transylvania with respect to accommodation. At first it was a dangerous undertaking to attempt to reach the spot in the pathless forest ; now an excellent highway leads thither. The bottles of water, which soon found their way over the whole country, were borne on pack-horses ; now small carts, like a square trough on wheels, in which the clear glass bottles stand upright, go backwards and forwards in one continuous line to fetch them and carry them abroad. Night and day, without intermission, the bottles, or " cylinders," as they are always called, are filled at the spring. There is never even a momentary cessation. Two millions are thus stored away or disposed of annually; and as each costs on the spot 12kr., the receipts from the traffic are considerable. Immediately on being filled, they are corked, then taken to be examined, and covered with a capsule of tinfoil and sealing-wax. About 5000 bottles are calculated to burst annually, so great is the quantity of gas contained in the water. In 1lb. are 52 cubic inches of free carbonic acid.*21_5 This water will keep for years without losing its good qualities; it is the only mineral water of the sort that may cross the equator without deterioration. A case of it was sent out with the Novara,' and, on the ship's return, the beverage was as fresh and gaseous as when first bottled. The temperature of the spring is + 7.5 R., while chat of Selters is +13'5 R. In dry weather the water is stronger, as the carbonic acid is developed more freely. The cold baths are acknowledged by all to be the most efficacious of any known, owing to the low temperature of the water, and the quantity of carbonic acid which it contains. Its healthfully- exciting power on the nerves and muscles is unparalleled; and though, at first, it is difficult to bear the coldness of the water, it soon causes a pleasurable and exciting warmth. Were this spot nearer the great capitals of the West, it would be far too small to hold the thousands who would flock here to restore their debilitated systems and weakened organization after a life of dissipation. There is, perhaps, no known spring existing which, for such purpose, could compete with florszek.

21_5 * Analysis of the medicinal Faculty of Vienna.

This is not the place to allude to the various disorders for which it is recommended ; I refer the reader to a little book of Dr. Ignaz Meyr, `Die Heilquellen von Borszek in Siebenbürgen,' Kronstadt, 1863.*21_6 A bath costs 10kr.; living and lodging are equally reasonable; the post arrives twice a week during the season; and there is always good society to be found here,-Hungarian noblemen and their families, and Boyars from neighbouring Moldavia. In 1823 the spring was struck by lightning, and disappeared, and great was the fear that it was lost for ever. On digging, however, it was found again.

This place, in the hands of a man of capital and enterprise, would soon rival the most frequented watering- places in Europe ; but he must make it as agreeable a sojourn as Baden, Homburg, Ems, or Tóplitz, and spread its fame as it deserves. The rise of Borszek is hindered by the foolishness of the community to whom it belongs. For the first lease of, I believe, five years, 40 zwanzigers, or #1 1s., was paid ; for the second, 200 zwanzigers was demanded; and the present lessee pays 32,000 florins for

21_6* I give an analysis of the " Principal Spring " used for drinking, and the one for bathing, taken from the above work :-
10,000 cubic centimetres =10 litres, contain inTemp erature
grammes 7'3 R 7'3 R
Carbonate of Soda 7.780 5`783
Carbonate of Lime 15.070 10.250
Carbonate of Magnesia 7.070 5.592
Protoxide of Iron 0.150 0.201
Chloride of Potassium 0.250 0.107
Chloride of Sodium 0.790 0.568
Alumina 0.050 0.210
Silica 0.760 0.540
Solid elements 31.920 23.251
Carbonic Acid in the form of bi-carbonates 9.870
Carbonic Acid in a free state 17.920 21.192
Total of all the elements 49.840 54.313
The spring called " Wald Quelle " contains 25.640 carbonic acid in a free state, and has a temperature of 5.5 R.

his five years' holding. Were Borszek more widelyknown, foreigners without end would throng there, and the whole neighbourhood would profit by the imported wealth. But the village to whom the property belongs cannot be prevailed on to let it for a longer term than five years ; the more they are pressed to do so, the more suspicious they become. No lessee, therefore, can embark his capital in an undertaking which may be taken from him just as he is about to reap the benefit of his outlay.

Sandstone of dazzling whiteness is found here in plenty, admirably fitted for making the finest glass. The best mirrors might be manufactured from it ; but it is only used for making bottles for the mineral water, and these are as ill adapted for their purpose as can well be conceived. Not only is the glass unusually thin, but the necks are of the utmost possible shortness ; the corks, therefore, are hardly as long as one's nail, while in order to prevent the escape of the gas, they should fit firmly in a long surface of neck. As a proof more of the deficient state of all that relates to production and trade, I may mention that the tinfoil capsules for the bottles come ready-made from Hamburg and Nuremberg. Not one is made in the country, or even in the monarchy. Beside a brook running near the road is an embankment, seven feet thick, of tufaceous limestone, in which are beautifully-preserved impressions and petrifactions of the leaves and steins of maple and beech-trees ; indeed, the whole bank is formed of these remains. Every delicate form and ramification is preserved with exquisite sharpness. Close by, among the torn lime rocks, is a grotto, where, in the hottest summer, ice is to be found. The entry to Moldavia is by the Tólgyes Pass, near at hand, where thirty-five years ago the potato was unknown, and its culture obliged to be introduced by force.

As I was going to Szász Regen-or, as the Germans call it, Sáchsisch Reen-I drove to Toplitza, situated on the Maros, intending to pass along its banks. There is another route, more direct, perhaps, practicable but on horseback, by Remete across the mountains. This lastnamed village was the only place where I heard of violence to travellers having been committed. The way is lonely, and favourable for robbery. My companion had passed there some years ago with horses for the market, and on coming to a certain spot found several merchants who had been robbed, sitting on the rocks lamenting the loss of their goods. He did not turn back, but went on, and was not molested. The village of Remete has a bad name in the neighbourhood.

The Csik is the land of truffles : they are so abundant here, that at Csik Czereda 32 lbs. may be had for two florins. At this last place is a small fort, with moat and redoubts, built in 1620 by the Csik Captain Franz Millo, and destroyed in 1661 by the Turks. It was rebuilt later by the Government, and contains now a small garrison. We passed a mound near which the last battle had been fought with the invading Tartars, and where arrow-heads are still frequently found. I Saw how testimony relating to the invaders had been preserved. "They were," so mine host said, "as I have heard, an ugly race, with small heads and very little eyes." The Tartars were beaten, and had to deliver hostages. The horses of the Csik are diminutive animals, and are the descendants of those brought and left here by the Tartars in their invasions.

The fields are regularly manured by sheep, enclosed by hurdles on the fallow land.

At Toplitza a considerable business in timber is carried on. It is floated down the Maros, when that stream, which here is in its infancy, is not too shallow. The undertaking, a very large one, is in the hands of a Hungarian nobleman, who, with that spirit of enterprise which distinguishes the Hungarian gentry of Transylvania at the present time, has built sluices, excellently carried out, for bringing the wood down to the river. It was at the house of the director of the works that I stopped, and was most hospitably entertained. Very many Italians are employed, brought hither from Vienna. They are more skilful than the Roumain population, and work quicker.

I was surprised to find in the court a fine English pig. The breed thrives here, which is not the case everywhere on the Continent ; but it is not very much liked, on account of the immense accumulation of fat on the animal. Throughout the country, Cochin China fowls are to be seen ; yet not long ago, a crusade was begun against the whole race, and in every village they fell a sacrifice to popular superstition. The cause was laughable enough. At fixed periods, pedlars were accustomed to go their rounds and collect the tail-feathers of the common cock, which are used in the army as plumes for certain regiments. These they bought for a trifle, or exchanged for their wares. But as the tailless Cochin Chinas grew the fashion, these men, go where they might, could get no feathers. The traffic was suddenly at an end. One man, angry, it seems, at being always disappointed, and yet half in joke, said-" Well, you'll see that a judgment will come upon you for keeping those tailless brutes." Some time after, the harvest failed, or there was a drought -I forget exactly what ; and the people thought the threatened judgment had really come. So, as atonement, war was declared against the Chinese, and a hecatomb of the long-legged birds were sacrificed, and lost their heads.

The way to Sz. Reen beside the Maros is most pie turesque. Any traveller will be delighted with it. The road then making was not yet finished, and formerly it was not possible to get along there, except on foot or horseback. Sometimes we drove in the broad bed of the river, which we were obliged to cross eight times. The horses, clambering up and down, felt their way in a surprising manner.

WALLACK CHURCH
"WALLACK CHURCH"
For a great part of the road, the valley is just broad enough to let the river pass; occasionally it Widens, and then on the upland are Wallack villages, With the painted wooden church on a little eminence ; for the Greek churches are always placed, if possible, on a mound or hilltop. They are built of logs, like a loghouse, the ends projecting, where they meet, across each other. There is frequently an arched peristyle running round the building, and that, as well as the porch and walls are decorated with coloured arabesque ornaments and figures of saints. All this is certainly the very rudest art, but still it looks pretty. In Norway, also, wooden churches are to be found, but of ancient date (eleventh or twelfth century). They are covered with Runic carving, and this adornment, at a distance, looks much the same as the painted tracery in these Roumain constructions. Over some graves was a cross, at the end of which, as at the end of a yard-arm, a smaller one was fixed. This denoted that, beside the parent, a child was also interred. 'there are places where the rocks, covered with forest to their very summits, rise perpendicularly from the water, which foams through the narrowed channel, leaving hardly a foot of ground for a pathway at their base. Large naked boulders of jagged limestone, rent and blasted, seem to shut out all further progress. Crags that have fallen lie about, and large trees, bleached by the elements, overhang the caldron below. You are locked in by rocks, and it is only on winding round them that you discover where egress is possible. Now on one side, among the beeches on the slope, large pinnacles of rock rise up from time to time, like half-ruined castles. On our way we met Wallack women astride on horseback ; they came riding along, with their long white head-gear hanging low behind, or, as the breeze caught it, floating in the air. Their faces were nearly covered by the veil wound round the chin and forehead. It looked like an oriental cavalcade ; and men were with them,-Hungarians in bright blue, and their own husbands in short sheepskin jackets and high fur caps, and with sandals round their feet. We stopped to bait at a halfway house, inhabited by a Saxon family. It was neat, and I could not help thinking that the prosy unadorned head was, after all, better than the half-savage though picturesque adorning of the women I had met. It was pleasant to hear again " Guten Tag" uttered by a woman with feet not swathed with rags and thongs, but in a Christian dress of gown and petticoats. She found it a hard life, she said, among so rude and uncivilized a population ; her husband, too, being at work all day, left her much alone.

By the time I reached Sz. Reen it was dark, and I was undecided if I should take my chance at the inn, or, as I had done before, go to the Protestant clergyman's. I had no letter to him, and felt embarrassed to ask his hospitality where, this being a town, there was no absolute necessity for doing so. However, the remembrance of the comfortable quarters I had always had in parsonage-houses, the pleasant conversation and the kindly welcome determined me, and I ordered the man to drive " zum Herrn Pfarrer."

It was rather unusual for a total stranger to make his appearance with bag and baggage, and ask to be received; but directly the kind clergyman understood the matter, he and his household were busy to make the new guest feel at his ease. And I soon did so. Every attention that could be thought of was shown me, and each act of the family told, better than words, how pleased they were to have me under their roof.

The town lies on the right bank of the Maros, on a slight eminence, which gives it a very pretty appearance when viewed from the plain below. It was destroyed by the Hungarians in 1848 ; hence the new look which the buildings have. The principal trade is in wood, all which floats down the river to Czegedin, and thence on the Danube to Vienna, Pesth, etc. The inhabitants (4771) are well off, which is shown by the mode of life and the interiors of the houses. Indeed, Sz. Reen is considered to be one of the most prosperous of the Saxon towns.*21_7 Everywhere around, traces of the Romans are to be found,-instruments in bronze, coins, urns, monu- ments, and roads, one of which is still known as "The Road of Trajan."

21_7* It is characteristic that in so small a town as this, the following branches of knowledge should be taught in the public school. According to a School Report of 1762, lectures were given on-" 1. Grammatica Lat. Graeca et Hebraica. 2. Syntaxis. 3. Poesis. 4. Rhetorica. 5. Historia. 6. Geographia. 7. Mathesis. S. Logica et Philosophia, Theoretica et Practice. 9. Metaphysis ; Jus Nat. ; Philosophia Morum. 10. Theologia, Theologica et Moralis."

WALLACK CHURCHYARD
"WALLACK CHURCHYARD"



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