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CHAPTER XXXII.

SOUTHWARDS.

My merry young charioteer soon brought me to Enyed (Hungarian). Nearly every house bears traces of the fury with which the revolutionary war was waged. In other days, it was twice stormed by the Turks, but I doubt if such horrors were then committed as were perpetrated by the Wallack bands, when this devoted town was got possession of by them ; it is sickening to hear the tale. The place still looks as if it had been bombarded.

The Protestant Gymnasium here is one of the most flourishing in the province, and the number of students is large. The college has extensive possessions, vineyards among the number, and, to learn the value of their produce, I visited the vast cellars in the town.

It was here that moneys and documents were deposited in the revolution, and by great good fortune escaped discovery. The Wallacks had a clever method of learning whether the ground in the cellars had been recently moved to bury valuables, and of finding at once the spot. They let water run in and cover the ground; and when it sank into the earth they knew it had been lately dug up, and that therefore something was hidden there. At Enyed the precious papers had been walled in between two buttresses, and thus evaded detection.

Close by, are the mansion and vineyards of the nobleman already mentioned, in the chapter on Wine, as doing so much for the improvement of the vine. It was here I saw the tally in general use among the labourers on the estate. It is the simplest way possible of keeping ac counts : the owner of the estate constantly advances money to the peasants, which they repay in labour. A written agreement is useless, as the peasant cannot write. On such a piece of wood therefore, bearing the man's name, thirty or more notches are made, as the number of days the man has to work as repayment of the loan.

WOODEN TALLY
"WOODEN TALLY"
At the end of each day he brings the piece of wood in his possession, and when it is fitted into the other half, kept by the steward, a notch is sliced away from both, and the one part returned to the owner. These labourers are always inclined to cheat, and espe cially to dispute about the number of days' work ; but by this means an end is put at once to all contention, for on the two pieces of the wood being put together, it is seen at once if they tally or not, and how many days are still owing as payment.

A little incident afforded me considerable amusement. When the servant came into my room, he remarked the shoeing-horn on the table, and, by the way he took it up, turned it round, and hopelessly put it down again, it was evident he was quite unable to make out what it could possibly be for. Soon after, I was about to use it, and he stood, with countenance full of expectation, for what was to come. He waited till the mystery should be solved. He saw me stoop, and his eyes were fixed on the shoeing-horn; but as yet he had no clue to its meaning. I put it in the shoe; the lad, full of expectation, watched me anxiously, when down slid my heel with a thump into its place. Now he looked up; a pleased smile played over his whole face ; his astonishment was great, but he had comprehended the process. His eyes, turned wonderingly towards me, plainly said, "Well, that is a masterpiece!" At the moment it appeared to me odd that he should never have seen such instrument; but I afterwards remembered it was not so, as people here either wear boots or sandals, both precluding the necessity for a shoeing-horn. The youth often looked at the instrument afterwards, and then at me, evidently associating the two as intimately belonging together. Perhaps he thought that I was the inventor of the admirable contrivance.*32_1

There is a Saxon church here, with wall and towers, bearing date 1333.

After leaving Enyed, the zigzag mountain ridge draws nearer, and on the upland, on your left, villages are everywhere scattered. The Kokel winds towards the Maros, and makes large bends among the willows and clumps of tall trees, and on nearing Karlsburg the middleland slopes down in one long gradual descent to the road along which you are travelling. White buildings dot the hillside with square campanile-looking towers. An opening is in the hills before you, and there, on an elevation, stands the fortress of Karlsburg. Within the castle walls is the palace of the Roman Catholic bishop of the province, then absent, and as I had a letter to his secretary I drove up to the fortress.

32_1* Bootjacks, I should think, were also unknown. I only saw one, all the time I was in the country.

I was lodged as though I had myself been a bishop ; and in the handsome apartments surrounded at table by the gentlemen of the chapter, and with marked attention shown me as to an honoured guest, I almost began to fancy I had been under a delusion hitherto, and that I was in reality a high dignitary of the Church. If so, it was dangerous to tarry here too long, for I was living as at a court, and in such style and profusion, that my heart could hardly fail to be puffed up with pride, ill becoming an ecclesiastic. Karlsburg, as was said, is famous for its wines ; and of these at every meal a variety was served. The soil of the vineyards here is clay and limestone.

The fortress is large, with streets and a square, and good- looking buildings; there also is the Mint, an observatory and a library, rich in MSS. and illuminated works. The academy now in Enyed was formerly here.

CATHEDRAL AT KARLSBURG
"ST. MICHAEL'S CATHEDRAL AT KARLSBURG: CHRIST, ST. JOHN, OLDER APOSTLE, HOLY GHOST"
But the cathedral dedicated to St. Michael is the monument of chief interest; it is the most important church edifice existing in Transyivania of the, period of the Romanesque style of architecture. It was built in 1275. The side aisles are low, and separated from the nave by massy columns rising out of a square base.
CATHEDRAL SIDE ARCHES AT KARLSBURG
"CATHEDRAL SIDE ARCHES AT KARLSBURG"
The groins of these side arches rest sometimes on mouldings in the outer wall, tastefully ornamented with leaves and flowers. The capitals of the columns are all richly carved with tufts of fruit and leaves, in endless variety, while some on the north side display human heads and birds in fantastic intertwinings.

CAPITALS OF CATHEDRAL COLUMNS AT KARLSBURG
"CAPITALS OF CATHEDRAL COLUMNS AT KARLSBURG"

The whole of the interior shows an endless diversity of forms. There is something grand and solemn in the heavy massiveness of the pillars, and in the dimness which the low vault and the thick walls spread over the side aisles.

As usual, this most curious and interesting building was spoiled by the want of taste and knowledge which seems to prevail here in all such matters. The columns and their capitals, the vaults and groining, had been painted all sorts of colours, but, thanks to the present bishop, all these blemishes are being gradually removed with loving care under his own inspection. The rector of the public school at Schássburg, Friedrich Müller, with a thorough knowledge of his subject, has given an account of this unique monument, as well as of other remains of this peculiar style of architecture extant in Transylvania.

CATHEDRAL ARCHES AT KARLSBURG
"CATHEDRAL ARCHES AT KARLSBURG"

The cathedral has suffered in all possible ways, now by fire, now by bombardment, explosion, and destroying hordes. The south portal, at present walled up, is particularly tasteful. The leaves on the corners of the capitals are bent downwards, to indicate the ponderousness of the superincumbent weight. In the field above the portal is a representation of Christ, the right hand raised to bless, and on one side St. John, and on the other an older apostle. Two doves, symbolic of the Holy Ghost, brood beside their heads.

FIGURES
"FIGURES FRAMING A CATHEDRAL WINDOW AT KARLSBURG"

The way in which the flat surface was made to look light, And diversified, and graceful, is shown in a cor nice on the north side, where animals, and foliage, and grotesque forms are brought together with happiest skill. Thetwo figures here given are from a window, one of them standing on either side.

There is in the fortress a new barracks, with officers' dwellings, built with lavish extravagance. The cost was 500,000 florins, and while looking at it I could not help saying to myself, " That's the way the money goes." Near the town stands a cross, to mark the spot where a bishop fell in battle against the Turks. In the struggle a Kemyn also died to save Hunyadi, being purposely dressed like him. The Turks had vowed to slay the leader, and when they had succeeded in reaching and killing Kemyn, they thought their great aim was accomplished.*32_2 But he suddenly appears ; the consternation is great, and the battle is decided against the infidel.

This place-once the Roman colony Apulum-was the station of the thirteenth legion, Mihlbach also. There are churches for all oreeds here now : for Lutherans, Calvinists, Roman Catholics, Jews, and those of the Greek and Latin Church.

All along this road traces may be found of the German population that once was spread over the district, but which has now dwindled into a few small colonies scattered here and there.

You pass presently through Mühlbach, and your attention is irresistibly attracted by the church standing in the middle of the town. Its various parts are the work of different centuries, and hence the greatest beauty and elegance will be found united with heavy and cumbrous forms. But the union of styles, of Gothic and Romanesque, makes a study of the building one of extreme interest. And this not only in an artistic sense, but also because the mode of construction and the materials used are

32_2 * So in "king Henry IV." part i., act v., scene 3 :
" Douglas. All's done, all's won ; here breathless lies the king.
Hotspur. Where?
Douglas. Here.
Hotspur. This, Douglas ? No. I know this face full well
A gallant knight he was, his name was Blunt ;
Semblably furnished like the king himself.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
The king hath many marching in his coats.
Scene 4:
Douglas. Another king ' They grow like Hydra's heads: '

closely connected with the history of the builders, and the stormy times in which they lived. The whole church presents so many episodes of Saxon history. One part dates from the twelfth century, the tower and portal from the thirteenth and fourteenth. The choir is considered the grandest work of the sort in Transylvania.

In this little place I found again in the Saxon Protestant clergyman one of those men who by their acquirements have contributed to spread culture among their countrymen in Transylvania, and to keep up that reputation for solid knowledge which Germany is so proud of, and so thoroughly deserves. These village pastors and schoolmen, exercising imperceptibly beneficial influence, unknown to and unseen by those beyond their immediate sphere, always reminded me of the brooks rising out of the earth in some remote dell or wood, or on a hill-side, or among the rocks, where no one passes, save a shepherd boy, or village girl, but which run on and on uninterruptedly with quiet equal flow, doing good everywhere, and spreading freshness and verdure around. No one takes account of the rivulet, yet many come to drink, and the ceaselessly humming brook gives health and gladness to all.

The influence of such men in maintaining a taste, or rather respect, for knowledge has hardly been sufficiently estimated. It is they who by their exertions and their relations with the great intellectual world, have, as regards culture, b;ept their nation up to the mark.*32_3 Without their mental activity, the peasant and the burgher, surrounded by a people so far behind the dwellers in Western

32_3* The words of a clergyman at a public meeting at Mediasch show the point of view these men take with regard to science and theology. " With science, in the most extended sense of the word, the Evangelical Protestant religious teacher cannot dispense; he must rather conscientiously and perseveringly advance with it."

Europe, would have sunk to a level with those about them ; they having to toil themselves for their daily bread. They would at last have learned to care only for bodily necessities, and would have forgotten that they still belonged to, though separated from, the West. They would have lost all deference for knowledge, all wish for its acquirement, all sense for the value of its possession. But, like true apostles, these men, distributed over the land, have everywhere spread light ; their presence alone makes darkness impossible.

And not one, perhaps, has contributed so much to this diffusion of a taste for intellectual acquirements, and to keep up the union with the mother country, as he who may be called the Nestor of German scholars in Transyl-vania, John Charles Schuller. Not only has he largely contributed, during a long and active life, to our stores of knowledge, but by his bright example, and the interest of his investigations, has impelled others of his country-men to follow in his steps, and to give the Land beyond the Forest a literature of its own. It would have been a graceful and a well-deserved acknowledgment of his great merit and services, if the Academy of Vienna had elected him a member. The addition of his name would have been no less an honour to that body than to himself.*32_4

32_4* While these sheets were going through the press, the sad intelligence reached me of this excellent man's death.

Near Leschkirch, on the road from Hermannstadt to Agnetheln, the ground rises, and the long Forgaras mountain-chain presents a magnificent sight ; the peaks are sharp and jagged, and the whole aspect is as fine as in the Tyrol.

I passed a village with the church on a neighbouring hill. When Hermannstadt was founded it was the same; the houses of the first settlers were below, but the stronghold, where was the place of worship, stood on the higher ground.

The Saxon church at Leschkirch is another good specimen of these citadels. It is surrounded by two walls, and over the portal of the inner one hangs a portcullis. Six or seven strong towers rise above the wall, and give the little fortress a most picturesque appearance. Leschkirch is Saxon, but the keeper of the inn where I halted was Hungarian.

We turned off into an oak wood, and then came into a plain filled with large-horned white oxen and bleating flocks ; and soon Agnetheln appeared before me, with its square-walled enclosure and towers at the corners, and the remains of a moat in front.

CHURCH AT AGNEIHELN.
"CHURCH AT AGNEIHELN."

I passed here a most pleasant time, in company with the accomplished historian of the Transylvanian Saxons, His countrymen are proud of him, and they are right to be so, for he would be an ornament to any society in any country. It pleased me not a little to find that he knew the great work of Buckle, and fully appreciated it.

A hill, near Agnetheln, is still called " Csetate," or Burgh, by the Roumains. Thus, from generation to generation, has the remembrance of the Roman fort, which doubtless once existed here, been handed down.

The road from Agnetheln to Gross Schenk is very pretty. On mounting a hill, a sudden turn brings you again in presence of the Alps. Marienthal lies below you, nestling in a vale. There you pass a village with a curious church, a tower being at either end, and the chancel in the tower. And soon, if you have as fleet horses as I had, you will come rattling into the large Saxon markettown of Gross Schenk. The streets are broad, the houses large and well built, and to judge from the appearance of them, their owners must be well off in the world. I lead an opportunity afterwards of judging how comfortable they were, and how neat; for I passed the night here as guest of the lawyer, who I found had studied at Heidelberg and Vienna; and was present at a large dinner given by the burgomaster of the town. There was a convocation of the clergy held on that day; and it was no easy matter for me to evade the many kind offers I received to pay this or that house a visit. Every one seemed to vie with his neighbour in the wish to show me hospitality. With one clergyman I had a conversation in English : he was overjoyed to have an oppor- tunity of speaking the language he had so diligently studied. I found, here, Macaulay and Shakspeare as familiar names as with us.

The taxes a village clergyman, not far from here, had to pay, were 130 fls. 27krs., out of an income of 1100fls. ; a proof how heavy these burdens are. All along the road the same thing was told me,-" People absolutely cannot pay any longer." I am very sure, that at the seat of Government, there is no correct knowledge of the state of Transylvania, whether as to the impossibility of pressing out much longer the imposts levied, or as regards the capabilities of the province. Were these latter known and appreciated, were men to perceive what an advantage to the empire so rich an appanage might become, they never, for their own sakes, would, year after year, treat the valuable opportunity with neglect.

Fogaras lies in the plain, at the foot of the mountains, which rise immediately from the fertile fields. I took a walk betimes to reach a hill, whence a good view is obtained over the surrounding landscape. It is well worth seeing. For forty miles the long plain stretches out beside the barrier of rock, down whose sides the barbarians, wherever there was a pass, used periodically to pour. All along the mountain-range, innumerable streams flow through the meads below, and, in a short distance, thirty-two brooks, strong and full of water, may be counted, beside perhaps twenty other smaller ones, all having, on an average, a fall of one inch per furlong. But this abundance of motive power is entirely unused. And yet in Gross Schenk, Agnetheln, and about twenty-one other neighbouring villages, there is not a single water mill.*32_5 To the right, the mountains of the Rothen Thurm Pass were visible, and far away, eastward, those near Kronstadt. The Alt, fed by many streams, is here broad, and meanders along dallying on its way.

32_5* A steam mill has been built at Agnetheln, wood being there but 4 fl. per klafter, and the inhabitants moreover being a busy, active, trading set of people.

In the town of Fogaras is a fort, with walls and abroad moat, built by Prince Gabriel Bethlen. In the suburbs of the town was formerly a colony of " Germans," who were Catholics, inhabiting a street called the "Wildgarten." They had separate rights from the other inhabitants, and distinctive privileges ; but, since 1848, this state of things had ceased. I only mention this to show how multifarious and complicated were the various relations in the land, and that an idea may be had of the difficulty of disentangling and simplifying them.

Two villages in the neighbourhood were named to me, in each of which the pope was a noted thief,-the one as a horsestealer, the other was known for stealing bees.

Of the 4-5000 inhabitants in Fogaras, more than onethird are Germans. There are five teachers at the school, one of whom is a university man. At Gross Schenk, too, where are 3000 inhabitants, there are four academical and two other teachers ; good proofs of the efficiency of Saxon schools throughout the land from one end to the other.

At Klein Schenk (German), where I stopped, on my road I learned that the population, in two hundred years, had diminished from 840 to 519 souls. Here, also the Roumains send their children to the Saxon school. They look upon a knowledge of German as a great accomplishment. lie among them who speaks it is considered an educated man-a proof how well aware they are of German superiority.

I heard everywhere that the Wallack children learn well ; especially while they are in the two first classes, and this not so much on account of superior quickness or ability, but because of their intense perseverance. They are determined to get on. For history and syntax they have no taste; but they write beautifully. Village children especially, so the schoolmasters find, progress well at first, and they ascribe it to the circumstance that the horizon of the pupils is more bounded, and they have not so much to distract their attention and excite their fancy. Their mind is more concentrated on what they are about than is the case with the town children. The Wallacks are more easily roused than the Germans ; this a Saxon clergyman told me (begeistern-" to fill with enthusiasm"was the word he used). If the Germans do not bestir themselves, and get rid of their slow habits, their unbusiness-like ways, and their unpunctuality, they will soon find themselves distanced by their striving competitors. As of old their perilous position forced them out of their original nature, so now it is to be hoped the necessity for exertion, to guard against perils quite as threatening as of yore, may goad them into greater activity. In Germany the inhabitants would, I dare say, be the same ; but there they are borne along by the strong tide of busy European life, and are forced forward, whether they will or not.

The wonderment which the power of the screw causes alike to Wallack and gipsy is very indicative of their degree of culture. It is to them what the thunder and lightning of fire- arms were to the savage who had never seen a European; an inexplicable contrivance calling forth their marvelling admiration. Hence, when the Wallack sees something extraordinary, which at first sight is utterly beyond his comprehension, he exclaims, "Lukru ku schruf !" which means, literally, "Work with the screw !" but which is used by him merely as an exclamation of astonishment, at something surpassingly ingenious, as we should say, " Wonderful!" for to him the screw is really the perfection of art. It is a machine whose working lie cannot fathom ; it is in a concrete form " the incomprehensible," and lie stands in presence of it over- whelmed with a feeling of his incapacity.

The expression is supposed to have originated in the smithy of the gipsy, who is able to unite his plates or bars of iron with nails only, and not with screws. When, therefore, he meets with workmanship in which the latter are used, giving of course unusual strength and tenacity, lie, fully appreciating the power gained by such consummate art, exclaims as he gazes at it, "Lukru ku schruf !" and thus the words have become the expression of wonderment generally, let the subject-matter be what it may.

The Saxon detests soldiering, and would do anything to evade the conscription. He is, so officers assured me, " effeminate " (verweichlicht), and does not make a good soldier. "In the revolution," said a Saxon clergyman to me, who had seen much of it, and been himself actively employed, "the Saxons ran away. They were miserable fellows, but the Wallacks were still worse." As to the cowardice of the latter, however, every one agreed.

It interested me to look at the book-shelves of my hosts, and I almost always found, in addition to a good stock of modern German works, translations from English authors. It surprised me to find once in my bedroom good prints of Ho garth. At one place was Lewes's Life of Goethe,' which was greatly adnmired, and the book led to a conversation with one of my companions about Göthe himself. lly informant had been at Weimar while the poet was there. On Saturdays, so he told me, when the students were admitted free, the best pieces of Schiller and of Shakespeare were always given at the theatre, and the house was crammed full. If all did not go on well and as it ought, Göthe grumbled (hat gebrummt), and so loudly that it was unpleasant, as it disturbed the audience. "It annoyed me," he continued, "and I got quite angry at last; and, in future, I made a point of choosing a place further away from where he sat. He always was in the lowest tier in the middle box, where he could see best. If the actors performed well, he applauded warmly. The actors were constantly looking towards him, for it gratified them greatly when he was satisfied. But, in reality, the representations were always admirable. ... Göthe was often rude to people, and there was in his manner a certain self-sufficiency. He used to walk through the town in sieh gehehrt (lost in thought). Everybody, professors, students, etc., greeted him as he passed, but he took no notice of them. Once, a professor who had arrived paid him a visit. Göthe asked him, `What is it you read?' 'History,' was the answer. ' Ah, well,' replied Göthe, `people like maährehen (tales)."'

The old Saxon church towers were built in a manner to serve as sun-dials ; their direction was south, and thus, directly the shadow fell on one side of the corner line, it was noon. In the church at Klein Schenk, fortified as usual, was not only a well to supply the besieged with water, but a mill also for grinding corn. It was the only one in which I had seen such arrangement. In the tower and on the parapet were the stones which had been laid ready to hurl down on the invaders.

A good drive further on, and lying away from the road and near the river, is the village of Kerz. 'There is a fine ruin here of a Cistercian abbey, founded 1173, which King Matthew, in 1477, suppressed "ob dissolutos conventionalium mores," and made a present of to the Church of Hermannstadt. In any other country this monument would have been kept with care, and would attract visitors to wander round its crumbling remains. Here, what Time spares Man demolishes. At the bottom of the house-stairs were two handsome capitals, and even in the villages portions of the abbey were to be found. The dwellers here, although Saxons, had been originally vassals of the monastery ; they remained in a state of villeinage till 1848.*32_6 The soil around was bad and stony; the villagers, like the Savoyards, go far away to foreign lands to get a subsistence, and return home later with the little fortune they have made : some have been as far as Constantinople.

RUIN OF KERZEN ABBEY
"RUIN OF KERZEN ABBEY"
The families were rich in children, even those who had possessions. It was noticeable also that in eleven years there had been but one divorce ; for the clergyman would not hear of it, and told the parties they must agree. But a little further on the influences alluded to in Chapter XVII. were again in the ascendant among those better off, and there was no houseful of children, no pleasant hubbub of their cheery voices.

32_6 * In walking through the village, the peasantry addressed their pastor as "Herr Vater." They did not say "I wish you a good morning," but " Dem Herrn Vater einen guten Morgen," and on leaving " Gott segne den, Herrn Vater." There was the same kindly relation between the clergyman and his parishioners which exists in all the Saxon villages.

In the church porch I saw the same stone hanging up in terrorem for the frail as in the other village mentioned at page 372. The Protestant clergyman had been a traveller; he had passed some time at Copenhagen and at Odessa. From him I gained a piece of information relating to the Russian war which interested me. His wife's family lived in Odessa, and knew the commanding generals ; and it was from them they learned, when the war was over, that 300,000 Russians had found their death in that Crimean campaign. The flora of this country is especially interesting, because here the east and the west are united. You find on the same spot plants of the Caucasus and of Spain. For the exploration of the botanist, therefore, there is not a finer field than Transylvania.

The researches of the philologist also would be amply repaid. Any who should come here possessing a knowledge of the Celtic language would unravel many a longhidden mystery; but till now no one thus prepared to investigate has appeared. In the language of the Wallacks (Roumains) there is a decided Celtic element ; and this is natural ; for their ancestors,-those Romanized Dacians, who lived here after Trajan's time,-were, there is no doubt, a Celtic tribe; and this is proved, not only by the language of their descendants, but by the numerous gold and bronze remains found so abundantly in Transylvania, and which are never discovered but in Celtic lands. And, moreover, all records of that ancient time whence these remains originate make mention only of the Dacians as a people that had permanently settled there.

And now Hermannstadt is reached again, and I drive once more to my old quarters in the inn.




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