Title


CHAPTER XXXVIII.

CONCLUDING REMARKS.

WHAT I OBSERVED.

My stay in Transylvania has given me an insight into a series of difficulties the Government has to cope with, whose intensity and number is greater than I could have believed possible. They meet you in every conceivable shape, under every conceivable circumstance, and in every rank, class, and condition of the inhabitants. To him whose business it is to examine into or remove them, their magnitude is appalling : it is enough to turn the brain of any one who undertakes the task; so overwhelming must be the sense of weakness in presence of so tremendous a work. When I consider the confusion, the contradictions, the jealousies, mistrust, anomalies, and self-will to be found everywhere, the conflicting rights of the different nationalities, the antiquated privileges still held fast, though at variance with later arrangements, the strife for supremacy, the hubbub of language,-debates being carried on, and ordinances issued, in three different tongues,-all this, and much more besides, makes one wonder that the minister of Austria does not end his days in a mad-house. The present state of Transylvania constitutes a web so wildly confused, and of such baffling intricacy, that the like is only beheld in dreams, or in those opium-visions of De Quincy, when he saw Titanic piles of architecture, with interminable stairs, ever evolving into fresh flights, to climb which a million of years would not have been sufficient. And as we awake, overcome with horror at what we have been shown,-so diminutive do we feel in the presence of such magnitude, so vain and hopeless our attempts even to thread those weary stairs,-thus, methinks, must an Austrian minister feel with regard to his task as such. One circumstance, however, tends to preserve his sanity : the whole amount of evil never meets his eye. He does not see the inextricably tangled skein, but only a few ends of it which have been got out and unravelled. His civil officers give a plausible account of the state of things, and are satisfied if all presents a smooth surface. Even were he to visit a province, lie, as minister, would not get thoroughly informed. A fair outside would be prepared for him; and he would not have the time to devote months to a closer study of the land and its institutions. And yet this is the only way of getting at the truth ; as here, for example, are conditions which exist nowhere else : the country, the people, and their requirements are all peculiar, and are not to be judged of, and legislated for, according to the principles which, for Austria Proper, for the Tyrol, or Bohemia, might be fitting and appropriate. Almost everything in Transylvania is in an exceptional state : a system which shall succeed must therefore take cognizance of such peculiar conditions; for these being inherent, it is as useless to ignore them as it would be to ignore a withered limb, and to call upon a recruit to march who had but one leg to stand upon; he may hop a few steps, but he will certainly not go far.

Now the confusion I have spoken of is the accumulated result of years of mismanagement ; it is the sum total of all the sins of omission and commission of many preceding governments, but which that one coming last is obliged to bear alone, and, if possible, to repair. In this respect Ireland is again a parallel case, and the ministers of Queen Victoria have had to provide against evils which were sown by the soldiers of Elizabeth, and have been growing ever since. When we consider that this province is only one of several where there are like difficulties to be encountered, though not perhaps as great or as manifold as in Transylvania, the magnitude and difficulty of an Austrian minister's task may, in some measure, be conceived. \'Whoever undertakes the responsibility of such office might not unnaturally be supposed to be foolhardy, or heroically bold. Nowhere in the world are so many conflicting interests as here ; and let him act as impartially as he may, some parties are sure to be aggrieved, and will loudly demand equal justice. If, again, all are listened to, and the rights of each one recognized,-as in the question of language, and certain courts of law,-a Babylonian confusion arises, and no one is able to find his way out of the labyrinth. It is an absolute impossibility for the minister to take any step whatever-no matter how enlightened it may be, or how pernicious-without two of the three parties declaiming against it. Nor can it be otherwise; that is the great misfortune : it must be so, from the very nature of things here ; and, what adds to the difficulty, the declaimers, from their selfish point of view, have, after all, a certain amount of right on their side; for I defy you to move in any direction without somebody's privilege being infringed. There is but one cure for such a corrupt state,-a cure such as, regardless of all hereditary and prescriptive rights, Napoleon 1. administered to the Holy Roman Empire; he knocked down the whole fabric, in order to build it up anew. Something of this sort was attempted by the Government by the February Patent of 1861, when the advisers of the Crown committed what has been looked on as the grave error, of making the Emperor set aside the very charter which his predecessors had always sworn to, and which he himself, but a few months before, had solemnly promised to observe. No storm broke out on the occasion; but men's minds were surging like a troubled sea; and though calmer now, a low murmur is still heard, denoting the intensity of that commotion.

I am quite conscious how hazardous it is to make such assertions ; nevertheless it is true, that there are compli- cations so intricate that to undo them by patient unravelling is impossible; they must be cut apart, now with the scissors, now with the sword. People are often afraid to assert what they feel to be true ; and many, also, when they have taken a necessary bold step, are afraid to go on in the same direction, trampling down what, except on such rare exceptional occasions, must and ought to be respected. Now, it was in the latter position that Austria placed herself : she ought either to have gone on deciding naperutiveli/, regardless of opinion, or not have taken that first step at all. Of course, when I speak of unflinchingly and unswervingly going on in a prescribed line of conduct, it is meant that every step shall be founded on right and justice,-right, as understood in morals and religion, and unconnected with rights obtained by circumstance; for these, at such a moment, cannot be regarded.

But. Austria having taken the initiatory bold step which put her in the wrong, inasmuch as she had not yet won that success which, by justifying the act, shows that it was right, halted, and wished, if she proceeded further, to do so only in accordance with established laws. She was desirous to keep within the limits prescribed by these, so as not to give an enemy an opportunity of saying that a single act was illegal; but, in the strict sense, that first step of hers was so. What she ought to have done, therefore, was, as I said, to have gone further, and made that illegal act legal by the good which it compassed.*38_1

I think I have already observed, that throughout Transylvania evidences were always presenting themselves to me of a careful avoidance on the part of the Government of anything like arbitrariness,-of an over-anxiety to keep within the law, to allow each and every conflicting claim, and to shun whatever might be interpreted as a desire to do away with these. But there arc times and circumstances which make such anxiety a fault ; for " dangerous as the doctrine is, we see no escape from the admission, that there is such a thing as the right of the strongest (taking strength beyond its original meaning of brute force), not only in fact, but in morals. It is the most ticklish thing to exercise this right fairly, but we all know times when we have felt its truth and force." t-j-38_2

And if ever the doctrine could, however unwillingly, be admitted, it was in the case in point ; for I am firmly of opinion that no endeavour the Government could have made to come to an understanding with the Hungarians, about modifying their ancient charter, so as to put it more in accordance with the present advanced state of

38_1* Special cases require to be met in a special manner ; so, at least, it was said, when in India we blasted our prisoners from the mouths of cannon, and when that marvellous palace in China was given up to organized vandal destruction.

38_2-t 'Quarterly Review,' Oct. 8, 1864.

the Empire, would have had the least result. Whoever has studied the Hungarian question and Hungarian cha- racter, as shown in politics, must feel this to be a certainty. For in no case can two persons ever meet in a conclusion where they start from quite different premisses ; however they may differ on some, or many points, still there must be certain fundamental truths-facts, laws, name them what you will-on which both agree. Without this there can be no argument, because each is altogether in a different sphere to the other; all relation is thus destroyed. Something they must have in common. Now, this, which is so necessary, is wanting here : the one will only recognize certain laws; of others he denies even the existence. Argument is therefore vain, for one argues about a thing which the other says is not; and thus, again, arrangement is precluded.*38_3 It has been seen, again and again, that negotiation leads to nought,-a result, under the given circumstance, as certain as that of a rule of three. If, therefore, anything was to be done that should make an entire change, breaking with the old and adjusting to the new, it could only be brought about by fiat; there was no alternative. The difficulty was one of those into which states, like individuals, sometimes fell; whence escape, if to be had at all, can be only obtained by accepting one of two evils.

38_3* We have just had a notable instance of this, in the position Mr. Hope took up in regard to Liebig. The natural philosopher asserted the existence of certain natural laws, which neither Mr. Hope nor himself could gainsay, and which sufficed to make the scheme of the former impracticable. There they are," said Liebig ; " their existence is no invention of mine, but, being there, we must abide by them." But Mr. Hope denied their exist- ence; he was, he said, " a practical man," and did not care for theories, and would, in spite of them, do what Liebig said was simply an impossibility. Hereupon Liebig gave up any further attempt at explanation, saying, that as Mr. Hope refused to acknowledge certain fundamental, immutable, in- controvertible laws-not concocted by him, but forming part of the great system of the universe,-it was quite useless for him to say a word more, as each thus stood in difiirent regions, having nothing in common with each other.

To have attempted to adjust difficulties or remove obstacles by calm deliberation or the mere force of law, would be about the same thing as trying to turn the course of the Danube, by lading out its waters with a teacup ; yet it was felt that things could not go on as they were any longer, with two antagonistic principles at work, preventing all useful action, and that some great change was necessary. Pitt, in his time, came-in a like difficulty- to the same conclusion; he saw that if matters were to mend, others, beside Irishmen, must legislate for Ireland; this was essential. He also saw, "that the Dublin Government must be under the influence of the Imperial Parliament."*38_4

Even he who thoroughly appreciates the blessings of constitutional government, will allow that absolutism has also advantages which the other system has not; and could we only be assured against its abuses, its directness and simplicity would alone make it preferable to the circuitousness and necessary admixture of mediocre understandings to be found in others ; but, as this assurance cannot be given, we renounce unhesitatingly the advantages, be they what they may. However, under peculiar circumstances, absolutism for a time is better than a limited authority, for the simple reason, that it can do what the other, from its very nature, cannot accomplish. "Absolutism has ceased a great deal too soon for Transylvania," once observed to me an enlightened, liberty- loving inhabitant of the province. The same opinion was expressed to me, more than once, by a well-known Hungarian nobleman, one of the decided opponents of Austria : he said, "If the Emperor were to ask me, what do you advise? I should say, introduce an absolute system directly ; it will be much better than it is now."

38_4'Quarterly Review,' article "Napier," p. 387.

Though I am well aware that both he and his party would find absolutism an evil, directly it came in contact with themselves, still this assertion, so often pronounced, shows that even they now see it is the only resource left, if anything is to be done. The issue of the February Patent was an absolute act, but its great fault was that it stood alone-an anomaly, amid other acts, which were all proceeded in with scrupulous observance of constitutional principles.

Yet, though the Hungarians assert their willingness for conciliation, I must say I am inclined to doubt it. They certainly are in no hurry for it, much as the land suffers by the delay; indeed, they say always, " We can wait," and then add, " We shall see if the Government can afford to do so." Herein we have a proof of the over- importance they attach to themselves, and of their undervaluation of their opponents ; for, deceive themselves as they may, the truth is, they cannot afford to wait. Every day, of the present state of things, tells to their disadvan- tage. Of course the Government suffers by it as well ; of that there can be no doubt ; but it is a poor consolation for a sufferer to know that if he loses another loses too. They say that while the Hungarian difficulty lasts, Austria is hampered in her movements, and that she cannot move with a discontented province at her side ; this is true, but it does not ameliorate their condition ; on the contrary, for Austria's strength is their strength, and her weakness brings loss to them. The Hungarians have to learn that in following a great aim, we ought for the sake of the end to give up points of secondary importance. Besides, though any clause whichi they demand is not con ceded at once, who says it may not be obtained later? But the system is all or nothing. When talking on this point with my Hungarian friends, I always represented to them that the subject in England, and later, the different parties, did not obtain what they would have at once; but, that in every battle for their views or rights, they won only a part of what was sought. This they did not refuse, but took ; and made it a means of adding to their strength,-a weapon for more effectually carrying on the fight.

But to act in this wise the Hungarians would look upon as a concession ; what they say is, it would be leaving the "historische Standpunkt "-their "historic ground." Herein, perhaps without knowing it, they are deceiving themselves; they are-to use a phrase of eastern Europe -strewing dust in their own eyes. What they really require from the Government is unconditional surrender; the terms they will dictate. Now, this is more than the Government wants, or thinks of asking of them. The Government, on its part, is prepared to concede ; but it cannot do so on all points.

It is not unlikely that this disposition to dictate, on the part of the Hungarians, may arise from, and hence be pardonable on account of, their antecedents. The Magyars formed a feudal aristocracy, with all the faults and weaknesses found in other aristocracies ; their own rights were considered of vast importance, those of others infinitely less so. They were as tyrannical as all men in power, whether Englishmen or others, always are and always will be, when not restrained by law or education; and, wherever their own interests were concerned, they cared little about the " equal rights" of others. When, in 1842, they contrived a parliament, in which they and their party so predominated that they could do as they liked, they were satisfied, and found it good.*38_5 They are just as much given to human weaknesses as other men ; and an arrangement that flatters their vanity or that gives them a majority, or in short any advantage, is as eagerly seized on and held fast by them as by any other of us sinful mortals. This is not meant as blame; for love of supremacy, and the wish to give force to our views, is natural to us all ; it is simply human nature ; but 1 mention it to show the foolishness of such wrathful indignation directly an opponent commits a reprehensible act. It is not my wish- following their example-to pick out instances, which a particular year or occasion might furnish.; this is a bad practice, embittering greatly, as it gives undue importance to acts and circumstances, and tends to make those appear special sins, which in reality are general ones, incidental to us all; indeed, recrimination cannot lead to good, and I wish that Hungarians would believe this. But, to use the words of the historian of the Crimean war, when speaking of the hatred of the Czar for Lord Redcliffe, their inimicality towards Austria as defies the healing art."

38_5* It is my opinion, founded on utterances of the Hungarians themselves, that they would have entered the parliament at Hermannstadt, had they been sure of a majority. They went there ; but when they saw that they would not be able to carry all before them, they said that the regulations laid down for the business of the House were such as to prevent free discussion, and that, under such circumstances, they could not take their seats ; this was put forward as the reason, though I believe the other was the real one. At all events, the words of a Hungarian nobleman, who wished to show me how justified his party was in refusing to enter, were t liese : "We saw the Chamber was so constituted that we should be outvoted ; what then was the good of our going there ?" It is very possible that other reasons, founded on the laws of the House (Geschäftsordnung), had also weight ; but what I mean to say is, that the prospect of not being the preponderating party, made them hold back. They ought not to have forgotten, as I always told them, that those laws were merely preliminary regulations,-laid down as a groundwork on which to build up better ones. The whole was a sort of " Vor Parlament," to use a word coined during the movement in Germany ; to advise on what there was to do, and on the mode of doing it ; but the Government, knowing whom it would have to deal with, was forced, in self-defence, to be stringent in its regulations. Had it not. been so, there would have been an end to business in the first hour of meeting. Without imposing certain limits to be observed by all, the Hungarians, unflinchingly bold as they are, would with their demands and propositions have upset everything. It was never intended to retain all those restrictions, but for the beginning they were necessary. The same with the so-called " Regalisten ;" men not elected, but deputed by Government to sit in the House. Such a system cannot, of course, continue in a state where constitutional principles arc to prevail; but I can quite well understand-thoroughly bad as, to my mind, such an arrangement is-that at a moment when an elective assembly was something quite new; when, too, some of the elements were fanatically- inimical, and others almost devoid of culture,-it was absolutely necessary to resort to some such measure, in order to make it possible to carry out any sensible preliminary measures at all. And my argument with the Hungarians in- variably was, "Why, then, did you not accept your mandate, and lend your powerful aid to build up a better fabric ? Why did you not, without first thinking whether you would be in a. majority or minority, enter the, Assembly, and, raising your voice against any abuse of prerogative, propos better laws, more in accordance with a constitutional system ? As you saw the defects, why did you not go and help to mend or remove them ?" A remark made by the author of a paper in the `British Review,' " Austria in 1863," seems to me much to the point:-" What complaints the Hungarians may utter, one fact it is impossible for them to deny, namely, that the right of measuring their strength with the other races of the Empire was granted them, as to every one beside. The chance of gaining the preponderance was oflered them ; it is they who did not choose to run that chance."

I, for my part, do not understand the distinction they make between Austria and the Emperor ; and how they can profess, as they do, loyalty to the one and enmity to the other. If loyal to their king, they should not, meseems, exult in the difficulties of his realm ; but they draw a distinction, which to themselves is perfectly sa- tisfactory, though I hardly think it can be intelligible to others. Be it as it may, the irritation which they syste- matically cherish in their minds, is certainly incompatible with those sentiments which alone can lead to a good understanding between a people and its rulers. Nor can I but think that, by still imperatively demanding, the dignity and respect which should attach to monarchy are impaired. With the word " State," we are accustomed to connect the idea of one large assemblage governed by equal laws; here is an assemblage of different, mutually jealous people, each one demanding separate and peculiar rights, in accordance with its peculiar origin. The rights of one do not suit the other people ; they renounce, discard them, because their particular antecedents happened to have this or that peculiarity.

Of all the difficulties an Austrian minister has to deal with, the opposition of the Hungarians is undoubtedly the greatest; and this, because of their intelligence, their boldness, their perseverance and implacability. But there are many others of minor importance, which in every province tend to harass and impede; the contest continually going on for supremacy of language is one of these. Let us fancy to ourselves the Irish peasant or the dwellers on some remote Scottish isle, speaking only his own native Erse, demanding "equal rights" for his tongue; the Welshman, too, making the same claim; and each requiring that, if his particular language was not to be su- preme,-which, of course, in law and justice, he believes it ought to be,-at least every edict shall be in his as well as in the other languages. Thus, in Transylvania, official announcements, the debates of the Chamber, etc., are polyglot ; there are three columns, one of which is Ger man, the other Hungarian, and the third Roumain. In the Parliament, one speaker addresses the House in Ger man, and is replied to by a Wallack deputy in his own tongue. Hansard would have a difficult task here.

I said above, that what I witnessed in Transylvania makes me look on the difficulties of a minister as some thing appalling. If then, but in imagination, we picture to ourselves the task which such a complicated state- running through many provinces*38_6-involves, we become almost giddy at the thought; there is nothing like it to be found elsewhere. It is so different to anything we in England can even conceive of, that without knowing it, we are often unjust in our estimate of what Austria does or has left undone. If no great crisis come, a better condition of the empire will, before long, supervene. To this end a freer and more extended commerce will most contribute; and while to the land is thus brought a positive appreciable gain, another indirect advantage, hardly less important, is obtained. The foreigner, by such intercourse, will be better able to judge of Austria's policy, by taking into account her exceptional position.

WHAT IS WANTED.

To many, it will sound strange for me to say that there is, on the part of the Austrian Government, an over- anxiousness to conciliate the people, and a wish to avoid as much as possible rigorous enforcement of the law; but it is so. This I consider a decided fault ; for laws, if they exist, must be carried out, or it would be better to have none. Such leniency is profited of by those very men for whom the restraint is most necessary.

As the very first step, therefore, to a happy change in Transylvania, I should say, " Have the law enforced to the very letter." Before a building can be raised, there must be a foundation ; and this is the basis which here must first of all be laid; without it, the system that is developed, whatever it may be, will be unable to work: there will be, as there are now, constant stoppages, making progress impossible.

38_6 * There are thirteen nations in Austria.

The second thing that must be done, and it is, in its way, as necessary as the first, is to introduce an authentic register of the landed property in the province (Grundbücher). Until it be done, the proprietors are helpless ; they cannot raise money on their estates for purposes of improvement, because no one knows what mortgages may be already upon them. In such register, as in Domesday Book, the extent of each estate is given, and, moreover, every burden incurred by the possessor is inscribed also. Any one therefore, desirous of raising a sum on mortgage, has but to refer to this volume ; there will be found an authentic record of the property and the habitation of the owner.

That this should be done is the general wish, from one end of rransylvania to the other; it would he a boon to the enterprising Hungarian noblemen, who are now bestirring themselves, and would aid them greatly : the advantage it brought them would also be shared by all. Estates worth 150,000fl. will then not be purchasable for 70,000fl., as is now the case.

Many a landed proprietor pays now more- than lie ought, owing to the imperfect manner in. which the surveys have hitherto been made. Such a territorial survey or cadastre is everywhere looked on as of inestimable im- portance, and, notwithstanding the great cost, governments go on with the work, from year to year, till it is completed. The French cadsstre, begun effectually in 1802, cost about 8 3/4d. per acre, or #120,000 a year.*38_7 How various and wide-spreading the advantages which such a survey brings, may be seen by an extract from the evi- dence brought before the Committee in 1824, when this work was about to be begun for Ireland. The cadastre of Savoy and Piedmont began in 1722, and is stated to have at once cq orded the Government the means of apportioning justly all the territorial contributions, and to have put an end to litigations between individuals, by ascertaining satisfactorily the bounds of properties."

38_7This expense was incurred, owing to the minuteness of the survey.

For the prosperity of Transylvania, railway communication is an imperative necessity : while llungary has communication with the rest of Europe by water and iron roads, this Land beyond the Forest is without either.*38_8 And thus, as we have seen, it is like a field left fallow, although so fertile, as to repay abundantly the slightest amount of toil. Its wine is unknown, its corn remains unsold, the mineral wealth it possesses is imperfectly turned to account. The province is almost ignored by the rest of Europe,t-j-38_9 from which, by its remoteness and its position, it is shut out and separated. This want of communication is the reason why, at short distances, the price of produce differs so greatly; why, in one part of the monarchy a people dies of hunger, while the neighbouring sister province has her granaries bursting with superfluity. Railways would not only enable Tiausylvauia to export her produce, which before long could be more than doubled, but they would bring in their train a multi- tude of advantages, quite as important as the direct gain. For, besides developing resources as yet unemployed, and calling forth new branches of industry, they would act as a civilizing power on the uncultivated people that form so large a part of the population. In this regard, they would in a few years effect more than, without them, would be accomplished in half a century ; and, as has already been shown, their progress is a gain to the empire. Nor would the introduction of railways be without an influence on the system of husbandry; for it is quite certain that in a country merely agricultural, agriculture never improves or progresses as it ought to do. It is only when trade-home and foreign-and manufactories give the stimulus, that it does so and becomes an art.*38_10

38_8All the rivers of Transylvania run out of the country ; there is no stream, as is in Hungary, flowing into it, bringing wares and people from elsewhere, and forming a great highway through the province.

38_9 -j-t How little communication takes place in the province, or from without, is best seen by the nrmiber of letters sent by post. Except Dalmatia, Transylvania could show the smallest number of letters of any prorince in the whole empire. The number in one year was 1,33 L,536 ; Croatia had nearly twice as many in the same year.

38_10 " Farming is an art " ('Times,' Aug. 24, 1864). Many possibly read these words when they appeared, and little heeded their importance. But there is hardly anything that would ensure greater and more beneficial re sults than the inculcation of the truth they express. It is owing to the non-recognition of the fact, that we still go on in our empirical manner, at great cost buying experience. We shall only begin to make progress in our system of agriculture, and to profit of the revelations that science has furnished us, when we believe in the really important, but little-heeded truth, that "Farming is an ART," and that, in order to learn it, "great training is necessary." The man who wrote those words is far in advance of his time.

On the railway question, as on every other, national rivalry manifested itself at once. The Hungarians were de- sirous that the new line should enter the province by Klausenburg (Hungarian), which would have given this town great additional importance, and-unless the scat of Government had been removed thither-have had the effect of rendering Hermannstadt (Saxon) a second-rate town. From Klausenburg the line was to have gone to Tovis, Karlsberg, and Kronstadt, the, eventual terminus being Galatz. The Government line was intended to join the great European railways at Arad, and thence go to Hermannstadt, leaving Transylvania by the Rotken Thurm Pass, where it would meet the Turkish line to Bucharest and Kustende. Thus, Transylvania, with the exception of Hermannstadt and its neighbourhood, would have be- nefited little, as the line left the land almost as soon as it entered it. The Grosswardein, Klausenburg-Kronstadt route, had the great advantage of traversing the whole province, which would go far to compensate for the cost- liness of the undertaking, owing to the difficulties of the route. If assistance were to be rendered to Transylvania, therefore, this line seemed the one best adapted for doing so. Seeing the impossibility of benefit to the province by the Arad-Hermannstadt line, which was a European railway rather than a Transylvanian one, I became a warm partisan for the one through Klausenburg, in spite of the heavy expense of construction. But later, I learned that it was by no means intended that the Arad line should go no further inland than to Hermannstadt. A branch was to go to Karlsburg and Klausenburg, and, as soon as practicable, other lines were to join the northern and midland towns with Kronstadt ;*38_11 thus, many advantages which the Klausenburg line presented, were obtained also by the other, and at a much less cost. The sections here given show the proposal of each party.t-j-38_12 From a strategic point of view, the military authorities give the preference to the Klausenburg line; the Government, however, though in favour of the Hermannstadt line, will give its consent to either, as soon as a body of capitalists come forward to set about the undertaking. Whoever presents himself with sufficient guarantees, can at once take up which line he likes. Moreover, it is the intention of the committee appointed to report on the matter, to propose to Government to guarantee a certain amount of interest (5 per cent. probably) to the shareholders, and even to those of both lines, should they be undertaken. Indeed, the Government has already expressed its opinion that "the result of the preliminary investigations is, that if the interests of the province are to be fully provided for, the line Grosswardein-Klausenburg as well as AradKarlsburg should. be built, making Karlsburg the point where the different branch lines, forming part of the network of railways in Transylvania, are to diverge." But the rivalry of the two towns, and the two nationalities, contrived to fling impediments in the way of both.

38_11* One, also, from Piski into the Syl Valley, for coal, where there are absolutely inexhaustible beds of this mineral. Von Hauer calculates the quantity to be, " at the very least," 10,000,000,000 cwt. ; in quality it belongs "to the best coals of the tertiary formation yet known." Its specific weight is 1.326 ; it gives 60 per cent. coke. An analysis gave as result in 100 parts :-75.0 carbon ; 5'0 hydrogen ; 8.8 oxygen ; 1-2 nitrogen ; 0.5 sulphur ; 9.5 ashes. 100 parts (according to weight) of the coal were found to be equivalent, for heating purposes, to 190 of dry beechwood fuel.

38_12See Map, page 604.

The interest which these schemes must have for us is self-evident : the contemplated lines stretch forward to meet those railways running from our Indian Presidencies toward the west. I believe I am not mistaken in assert- ing that, when the road through Transylvania, 'Wallaehia, and Turkey, which will unite London, Vienna, Consta~ntinople, and Salonica, shall be accomplished, fourteen days will suffice to bring us news from India.*38_13

What a prospect, too, is opened before us of future prosperity for Transylvania, by the accomplishment of such plans ! We have seen the field, which is lying fallow, awaiting only the arrival of the man with brains and money to make it yield the richest harvests. In every direction are opportunities for commercial undertakings, each one bearing in itself the conditions necessary to success.

PROJECTED RAILWAYS THROUGH TRANSYLVANIA
"PROJECT RAILWAYS THROUGH TRANSYLVANIA"
As 'soon as an iron road joins the province, on one hand, with Western Europe, and with Turkey, the Le- vant, and the vast East, on the other, the propitious combinations become so manifold, that evident as the result must be, one is almost inclined to believe that Fancy is here playing a part and throwing a brilliancy over the contemplated picture. But it is not so; and sober reasoning, incredulous at first, is forced to own that the colour- ing is real.

38_13 * Now, too, that we have no longer the Ionian Islands, with a station and coal depot at Corfu, the route by Trieste is, in some measure, of less importance to us.

To Transylvania, the existence of railway communication with the rest of Europe is of such vital importance, that any line, no matter which, would, one might think, have been eagerly accepted.*38_14 The Hungarians, however, were so determined on the Klausenburg line, that every nerve was strained to have it carried out. An important step was to delay a decision being come to on the Hermannstadt line, and this they effected; indeed, the energy and activity of the Magyar, on national or political questions, are not to be surpassed. He has, too, what has been called " the faculty of will," in a pre=eminent degree, -a power to enforce his views and carry others along with him, even against their will and conviction. In the present case this influence made itself felt; the whole matter was brought to a dead stop. I have been told that, but for this opposition and agitation in favour of the Klausen- burg line, the one from Arad would already have been begun.t-j-38_15 In the map here given, the countries adjoining Transylvania and Turkey are introduced; so that a glance is sufficient, to comprehend, at once, the bearings of these important works.*38_16

38_14While, in the centre of Transylvania, maize costs I fl. 20 kr. per metzen, it was selling at Arad, only thirty German miles off, for 3fd. But the producer could not transport it thither, the expense being too great.

38_15-j-t My authority is one of the members of the commission appointed to examine into the feasibility of the different lines. In a military point of view, lie was decidedly in favour of the Klausenburg route, and against the other.

38_16 The length of the lines is given in German miles, the height of the gradients in fathoms. The line from Varna to Rustehnk is not quite finished, but will he completed in the spring of 1866.

On the German railways, the goods tariff diminishes according to distance ; and a great saving can be effected by taking a whole truck or van and sending it on without unloading from (say) Grosswardein to Rotterdam. A fortnight is allowed for its return. By this arrangement, the transmission of goods, per rail, costs less than the water-carriage, and is of course very much quicker.

The cost of carriage, by rail, from Grosswardein to Rotterdam per cwt.-supposing not less than 200 cwt. to be transmitted at once-is 4fl. 3kr. or 6s. 9d.

From Pesth to Rotterdam, by water, the cost per cwt. is 2fl. 52kr.; added to which, the transport from Grosswardein to Pesth, 1fl. 40kr., the whole amount would be 4fl. 32kr., or 7s. 7d., being tenpence more than the cost of transmission by rail the whole distance.

No permanent elevation of a people can be effected without commerce ; and Austria is aware that her sole hope lies in opening up her commerce and endowing it with life. Though, as usual, all goes on slowly, Government has shown a laudable anxiety in furthering whatever might lead to the deserved end. The `Pro-Memoria,' on the railway question, gives fullest evidence on this point, as well as on the perfect impartiality with which the investigations were conducted. It is very possible that this or that deputed officer may have felt a partiality to this or that party, or have been won over to one side or the other, but I speak of " the Government " as a collective body; and the offers it made show that nationality feeling was put aside, and that it was quite ready to give way as soon as the successful execution of either plan should be assured. My own opinion is, that Government exer- cised far too little pressure ; and that instead of keeping aloof, for fear of seeming to influence unduly, and thus let the two parties wrangle on for years, it would have been wiser to use its authority, and acting as umpire, have settled the question at once; but the Government of to-day suffers for the sins of its predecessors, and, owing to the bad name which Austria had hitherto, it avoids all interference, lest there be again a talk of tyranny and uncoil stitutionalism. It is this circumstance which makes the task of the men who have to direct the affairs of the empire so very arduous ; they must atone for faults they have not committed, and root out evils almost immovable, so old is their existence, and so tenacious their hold. The truth is, an old fabric going to rack and ruin, has caused an accumulation of debris ; out of this overwhelming rubbish-heap, the minister has to grope and struggle upwards and force his painful way. And this fact must never be lost sight of when judging Austrian affairs, if we wish to do so fairly and come to right conclusions.

There is one thing more that can no longer be delayed, -the settlement of the boundary question in Naszod ; this must be decided. The mere act of decision would work good, for it would give reliance to the one party, and show the other that authority was henceforward to be respected.

These, then, are the first necessities for the province ; until they have been attended to, all measures in aid of Transylvania will remain without result.

Although not to be classed in the same category as the preceding necessities, there is one want too important to be passed over in silence,-that of medical aid in the different villages. It is not only a great hardship that the peasant must often sink into his grave for want of help, but there is another evil attending the total absence of physicians in places not in the neighbourhood of towns. Certain contagious diseases prevail in many parts, and as there is no one at hand to give a remedy, they continue to rage through a whole village with all their fearful consequences. In Germany, there are official medical men, short distances apart, all over the country; and there is no reason why a similar arrangement should not be made here. I have seen the sick driven for miles into town on a sledge, in winter, to consult the doctor; and as the peasant always waits as long as possible before he seeks the help of science, the state these poor wretches were in was really pitiable. But for want of help near at hand, the patient had to n e, from his bed, endure the fatigue of a long journey and exposure to winter cold; the very act of seeking medical aid was therefore, in his advanced stage of illness, sufficient to kill him.

THE FRANCHISE.

The representation of the province, as well as the census, needs revision; the latter is too low. Whoever pays 8fl. direct taxation (that is to say, ground rent, income-tax, house-tax, poll-tax), is an elector. Here, too, the election is conducted as in England. Each man records his vote, and the candidate who has the majority is chosen ; but elsewhere, throughout the Empire, except in Hungary, where it is the same as in Transylvania, the voters choose " electors "-the men in whom they have most confidence, and these elect the representative for the district or the borough.

The former plan, the direct election, gives greater power to the multitude. It is not without good reason, that a too low census has been always opposed in England. The meaning of a census at all is to ensure ourselves, as much as human precaution can do, against the overwhelming power of those who have nothing to lose, and who, from their social position, may be supposed too ignorant to choose wisely. Now, let us see the class to whom the census in Transylvania gives a preponderating influence. A Jew pays 6fl. 30k;. poll-tax, a Christian 4fl. 30kr.; if he pay 50k; . house-tax, which is the least sum possible, there remains only 1fl. 20kr. to make up the necessary sum. Suppose this be paid as income-tax : if we subtract the "Zuschlag," or extra tax, before mentioned, the sum would represent a most insignificant income; yet its possessor has a vote. In Switzerland the voter must have property worth 200 francs, a sum which, at 5 per cent., produces 4 fl. 20kr. interest. Thus, the census here is lower than in the freest states. When the preponderating part of the population is so little advanced in culture, such a liberal franchise works rather harm than good. There are inore than 15,000 electors in the province. Many readers will hardly believe that this can exist under "tyrannous " Austrian rule.

TAXATION.

A department in which reform is a crying necessity, is the taxation of the province; it is badly distributed, and is thus more onerous than it need or would otherwise be; it is, too, so complicated an affair, that the mere difficulty of understanding it makes it a grievance. Indeed, no one understands it, even those, part of whose business it is to do so; for in addition to every principal tax, there is besides a " Zuschlag," or extra rate, levied ; and this addition is, in some cases, equal to or more than the tax itself. This is raised to pay off certain expenses, such as those incurred by the war, for the commuting of feudal rights, and other burdens weighing on the peasantry.*38_17 The following figures will explain this:--
Florins.
The ground-rent, in 1862, amounted to 1,260,351
16 1/3 per cent. to pay off War Expenses =210,058
But on this sum 6 per cent. to pay off -j-38_18 Landes Steuer= 75,621
was levied again 62 per cent. to pay offCommutation =781,417
-----
2,327,447
or nearly double the tax itself. The whole of the direct taxation amounted, in 1862, to 4,058,617fl, while in 1847 it was only 1,452,1681. At that time, however, the nobles and the clergy were free from all imposts, but still the difference is sufficiently great to make it intelligible that the additional burdens should be severely felt; especially as since then there is no proportionate improvement in the position or condition of the province and its inhabitants. No one can tell what he has to pay without long seeking in his books, and even then he knows about as much as he did before. In order to learn something of the system, I had the books*38_19 of an estate brought me by the land-steward. After examining them, I asked for an explanation of something ; he looked, and tried to make it out, but the attempt ended by his saying, "I do not understand it either." Certain sums were marked which he had to pay, but how some of them were made out he could not tell ; nor was I surprised at this, when I saw the complication.

38_17 Generally, in revolutions, old privileges are got rid of with the rotten fabric which is pulled down, and no one thinks of indemnifying the losers. Here, however, it is otherwise : Austria, over-anxious to avoid anything like arbitrariness or illegality, has done as we did, when the emancipation of all slaves on English ground was proclaimed. She made good all the losses incurred, and, by doing so, has bound a millstone round her neck. I am not aware if the possessors of collieries, in Scotland, received any indenuiity when the colliers and coal-bearers were manumitted by the Act of 1775, but I suspect not ; yet these men were in exactly the same position, with regard to the possessors of the collieries, as the peasant in Transylva- nia, to the lord of the manor on whose estate he was born. It will, no doubt, startle many a reader to learn what was the position of these workers, in the pits, up to the year 1799; and this, on British ground-in our own island of Britain. " Whereas," says the preamble to the Act of 1775, "by the statute law of Scotland, as explained by the judges of the courts of law there, ninny colliers and coal-bearers and salters, are in a state of slavery or bondage, bound to the collieries or salt-works, where they work for life, transferable with the collieries and salt-works; and whereas," etc. etc. In the preamble to the Act of 1790, it is said that as "many colliers and coal-bearers still continue in a state of bondage," etc. etc. At the time all the men working in the collieries were born slaves, and remained so till the Act of Parliament set them free.

38_18-j-t Current expenses of the province.

38_19* Each person gets a book, like that given in England to a depositor in a savings-bank.

The illiterate peasant is still less able to comprehend all the items and additions. Every one pays what he finds put down, without attempting to remonstrate or to find out why the sum is levied, or if it be correct or not. If incorrect, he knows it will cost him more time and trouble than the sum is worth to have it remedied,should he claim the money he had paid too much, he may get it back, perhaps, in six or twelve months ; there is no disinclination to give redress, but it takes time for the officers of finance to make out what is wrong. I know a case of taxes being levied twice, when an execution was put into the house because they were refused; there was no intention of extortion, but the system and its work ing was so bad it led to the mistake. Again, when the receipt had been shown for moneys paid, they still were levied again, because the officer had been ordered to do so, and he must obey. They were refunded later, when the circumlocution office had gone through its routine.*38_20

The taxation, too, is not equal : owing to the ignorance of those who had to decide on the worth of the land, the valuation was often wrong; thus, at the Saxon village it was too high. The German, always inclined to submit to authority, has not remonstrated, and so goes on paying more than he really ought.t-j-38_21 I once asked a Saxon about the state of things, and especially about the capability of the population to meet the taxes. " Longer than ten years," he said, "we shall not be able to bear it ; as long as we can, we shall pay."-- And what then?" -" Das weiss ich nicht." (" I don't know what then.")

Revolutions are expensive things. A tradesman at Szamos Ujvir, who, before 1848, paid 27fl. taxes, gave now 200fl.-j--j-38_22 The rise in all the imposts is immense, and yet in the means of gaining mnoney, of selling produce, of trading with other countries, all has remained as it was; and in the north of the province the inhabitants are es- pecially badly off in this respect. In the south they are near Moldavia, and have an opportunity of selling ; the railway, therefore, about which there is such long discussion, and which never becomes a reality, is for the north a question of existence or of death.

Then, too, a great part of the money raised by taxation goes out of the province; it does not merely change hands, which would be no evil, but the circulation is diminished by the constant drain which is going on. Of the nine millions taxes levied in Transylvania, it has been computed that four remain in, and five leave the province ; if so, impoverishment is a natural consequence.

38_20* In one case 200fl. were sent back after several years, when the error had been discovered.

38_21-j- I was told of cases, where the tax for the commutation of the burdens on land (Grund Entlastungs Steuer) was paid by individuals who are not yet free, and who have, gradually, to work out their own manumission.

38_22-j--j- The town of S. Regen, before 1848, paid 8000fl.; now, with the direct and indirect taxes, 150,000fl.

I have been told by competent authorities, that if we calculate what the peasant was formerly obliged to give in kind, tithes to the clergyman, corn, hay, and straw for the military, at a mere nominal price, besides contribu- tions to certain foundations, as at Klausenburg, delivering them there also, though so far off when, I say, we take account of these imposts from which he now is freed, it is a query whether he does not pay less at present than formerly; but the great burden is that the payment must be made in cash, and he has none.*38_23

Now, whether the taxation be light or too heavy, the grievance is that nothing is done for the land to facilitate its payment. Heavy imposts can be borne, and borne willingly, where a means is given, as we say, "of making money;" matters thus are equalized, but it is not so here. In England we can bear the burdens we do, because of the many indirect advantages possessed; no more striking evidence of this can be given than the positive assertion. of Stephenson, that the railways make up for the burden of the national debt.

The landed proprietor, who has a large amount of taxes to pay, has no money either ;t-j-38_24 his barns and cellars are full -so full that their contents are in his way,-but he cannot convert what they hold into money; he is willing to give 25 per cent. interest for a loan, but even at this exorbitant rate he is unable to obtain it.

38_23This dearth of money, also, prevents the peasant from averting coming evil. By a letter, received from Transylvania, in January, 1856, I learn that the maize crop will fail, and the Roumains have little or none. They see famine coming, and though corn is cheap at the moment, they cannot prepare against the approaching calamity, having no, means of purchasing.

38_24t-j- "There are not five hundred persons in Transylvania who do not entrench on their capital in order to live ; even ` rich ' men do so." Words of - on talking to me of these matters.

!-- TRANSYLVANIA.-->

Owing to the scantiness of the population, the wages of labourers, when they are to be had, is high-nearly double what is paid in Bohemia : there an agricultural day labourer gets 27-30k-r. a day, without food ; in Transylvania, 40-50kr. is paid, and three meals during the day. Moreover, the Wallack is a bad hired servant; you cannot depend on him for a continuance, as he ceases to work directly he has enough for the morrow : yet here wheat costs 3fl. per metzen (=40 maass, or quarts),-in Bohemia and Austria proper, 8 fl. Notwithstanding these differences, the tax on land is the same in both provicences.

All the beet-root sugar factories in the province have been obliged to stop working, owing to the heavy tax imposed upon them, making the undertaking a losing instead of a profitable one. It would, probably, not have been too high,-for elsewhere,*38_25 in Moravia, etc., they thrive and are found lucrative,-if better means of transport had been furnished, so as to open a market to the producer ; but a tax that in one province is not burdensome, becomes oppressive in another, where the proprietor is cut off from turning his property to account.

There are four towns in Transylvania where a higher poll-tax is levied than elsewhere ; one example, of many, of the complications of the system. (The poll-tax, in 1862, brought in 1,153,516fl).

38_25* There are 125 beet-root sugar factories in Austria ; some, to my knowledge, thrive well.

On one occasion, having made an excursion with a gentleman to a neighbouring estate, the conversation turned on the taxation of land, and of taxation generally ; he observed that he had to pay poll-tax on every one of his small farms, scattered in different parts of the land, though he, aft6r all, had only one head. I urged him to inquire into the matter, and to learn if this repeated levy were authorized. On asking later the result of his appeal, he told me that the procedure had been sanctioned; for the tax was a "Personal Steuer" (a "personal tax"), and, accordingly, on every farm he had to pay for his personality. It does seem strange that the individual should be called upon to pay for his individuality twenty times over ; but what is stranger is that a man, like the acquaintance in question, should for years have been paying a tax under one denomination, and at last discover it to be another than he thought. It shows, however, the confusion existing in the whole system of taxation; for the gentleman here mentioned not only manages his own estates, and examines every detail, but is also one who takes an active and leading part in all political questions, and who may therefore be supposed to be well acquainted, as in reality he is, with all such matters.

There is another evil attending the burdens of taxation the Government is brought into direct collision with the people, and that, too, in the most painful way ; while at the same time it places itself in a most hateful position. The sums imposed must be levied, and when not paid distraining for the amount takes place. The expenses in- curred are put to the account of those who can least afford them, the debtors who are already insolvent ; but, as I have said, the hateful position of bailiff, which the Government is obliged to take up, causes enmity and heart- burning,-the wounds thus inflicted by the law being of the most sensitive description. In certain parts you see troops of soldiers entering the villages, and remaining quartered on the inhabitants till the moneys due are paid. It is true, the civil authorities, who always accompany the men charged with this painful service, are humane, and show as much leniency in the performancd of their duties as possible; and as to the soldiery, they-peasants them selves-live with the people on friendly terms; but though their behaviour makes bearable what otherwise would not be so, it does not make the actual burden less, of having to support in your house unbidden guests for days or even weeks. It is, however, true, and this I heard from a Saxon officer whom I met while on his disagreeable duty, and which he certainly executed with all possible consideration and humanity, that many will not pay till pressure is put upon them ; then, after a few days' endurance of the extra burdens, they produce the money. Of the 4,058,617 fl. direct taxation for 1862, there were 1,124,428 fl. which could not be levied; against 350,849 persons executions were issued, and of 28,658 the goods were distrained, and the estates of seven mortgaged.

The taxation at present is all the more irksome, because it is such a contrast to the state of things formerly, the demands made upon the province being then insignificant; for at no time can it be said that a colonial bond-age existed here : it was rather an indifference to, and ignorance as to the wants of, the distant land. This, I should say, arose partly from a monopolizing spirit and a jealousy felt towards the various dependencies, and partly because they excited no interest; the inhabitants being looked on as people in a semi-barbarous state, or at all events greatly inferior to those nearer the seat of government; they were less cared for, because considered less worthy of care. A certain amount of revenue being raised, no thought was taken for improving their condi-tion, and of opening up new and more abundant solaces of wealth; indeed, it was long before the Government turned its attention to the province. Austria had become possessor of a land which, before long, will prove its richest appanage.*38_26

I have already spoken of the quantity of spirits consumed in the country,-the corn, for want of markets, being sold to the distillers. In a village in the north of the province, containing nearly 2000 souls, the license for selling spirituous liquor brings in annually 3-1248. The quantity consumed is 2000 Transylvanian eimer, or 5000 English gallons, of 18° of strength. If we suppose 400 of the inhabitants to be men, and the rest women and children, this would give 122' gallons of spirits as the annual consumption of each man. A great evil attending the leasing of these spirit-shops to Jews is the increased number of them who thus settle in every part of the country ; their presence might not, at first sight, seem to bear upon the question of spirit-drinking, but it does. It is in close connection with it. " When a Jew settles in a village," said a Protestant clergyman to me one day, when speaking on this subject, "you may be quite sure that the demoralization of the population will soon follow." This opinion only confirmed what I had been told many years before regarding the Jews in Bohemia, and especially in Gallicia. Careful observers in those two provinces had expressed the same opinion. There, too, the small public-houses are leased wholly by Jews ; they give credit, with interest, for the gin the peasant has not the ready money to pay for,-thus putting it always within his reach. Unable to resist temptation, he gets more and more involved, till at last the inexorable usurious creditor seizes on his goods, his cattle, and his estate. In the two provinces named above, the Jew publican, or he at the huckster's shop, literally holds the whole village in his grasp ; it is his interest that it should be so, nor does he rest till this desired state of dependence has been brought about. He knows that once within his net there is no escape, and that each day makes the victim more surely his.

38_26* Formerly, the value of commerce to a country was not appreciated, its importance not understood ; had it been, the ministers of Austria, in the time of the great Eugene, would have seen the wisdom of his counsel, and, giving up Naples, have directed all the strength of the empire against the Osmanlee. Thus lie would have been driven back further and further, and Austrian territory might now, not improbably, extend all along the Danube, until the shores of the Black Sea.

Beside this, the presence of the Jew in country places is harmful, because he is the general receiver of stolen goods. Thus the thief knows he is always sure of turning his plunder to account ; for the wide-spread connections of the Jew enable him to find a good market, in towns far off. Not long ago, a collection of pictures was offered for sale in Klausenburg, which there was every reason to suppose had been obtained in this way from Poland.

DOTATION OF LEARNED SOCIETIES.

The Academy in Vienna receives a dotation from the state ; in 1859, it amounted to 146,6508., in 1860, 87,2128. No scientific or literary society in Transylvania, that I am aware of, is assisted by Government the province, however, contributes its share to the moneys for endowing such establishments in Austria proper. If a small sum were appropriated to Transylvania, it would bear good interest, not only in the assistance it would render, but on account of the good feeling that such an act would call forth. The Transylvanian Archaeological Society (Verein fur Siebenbiirgische Landesk-unde) well deserves a grant from Government ; what it has already done may vie with the labours of any similar society of Europe, and were a small yearly revenue assured it,-say only 500 fl., still more might be accomplished. I have no doubt that had the society funds, various monuments, now falling to decay, would have been preserved.

I have already spoken of the Polytechnic School the Klausenburgers are so desirous to have. Their demand is well founded, and in this case too Government might come forward, and render assistance in carrying out the plan.

WINE.

I. THE WINE TRADE.

At page 181, allusion was made to the peculiar qualities of the Mediasch wine, and its fittingness for the manufacture of champagne. It was said : " This alone were an undertaking worth thinking of; the continual demand for such wine, and the absence of any neighbouring competition in this special branch, offer the conditions of success."

Since this was written, I have read the report of the Director of the Hochheim Company for the preparation of sparkling Rhine wine ; and the balance-sheet presented at the general meeting of the shareholders (April 8, 1865) fully bears out my assertion, as to the profitability of the scheme. The following were some of the statements made on that occasion :--

The results of the last year's business were in every respect satisfactory. Although the communication with America had been interrupted, owing to the fluctuating standard, there still had been an increase in the sale of wine ; especially in England and Russia, the produce was much liked, and in Germany, in spite of the great competition, the sale was increasing. In 1864, were exported 426,886 bottles; in the first three months of the present year (1865) 26,680 bottles more were exported than in the same period of the preceding year. The balance sheet showed a clear profit of 154,965f1. When various sums had been set aside for certain liabilities, there remained enough to pay the shareholders a dividend of 10 per cent., and to add 85221. to a reserve fund.

These facts speak for themselves. The mention of Russia, in the report, as being a good purchaser of this sort of wine, tells, too, in favour of the project. In Jassy and Bucharest also a good market would most certainly be found.

II. A HINT.

In order to make Transylvanian wine more known, especially in foreign countries, it would not be a bad plan if the representatives of Austria were recommended to import it for their use. A good wine, drunk at the table of an Ambassador, would soon become known ; and thus every dinner given at the Embassy would conduce to this desirable end.

SULPHUR.

In reference to Chapter XX., I would observe that a large English Company has just been formed, for working the sulphur deposits in Sicily ; and the calculations made of the returns show how profitable such a speculation is sure to prove.

TRANSYLVANIA-GEOGRAPHICAL, METEOROLOGICAL, STATISTICAL.

On nearly every side, Transylvania has a natural boundary of mountains. The whole land lies high, even its lowest parts are more than 530 feet above the level of the Adriatic; while the plains of Hungary and Wallachia vary from 100 to 300 feet above the sea. "Thus the high land forms a sort of connecting link between the mountain systems of the central Carpathians, the Alps, the Balkan, and the Caucasus, which surround it ; it forms also a point of union for the peculiar animal and vegetable conditions of each of these mountain districts, which, according to as yet unknown laws, incline now in one direction, now in another."

"The mountains which border the country in a semicircle, from the north-east to the south-west, bear the traces of primitive formation, and here Mica-slate especially shows itself in vast proportions : sometimes strata of chlorite slate and limestone are subordinate to it, or occasionally it varies with layers of clayey or siliceous slate, grauwacke, sycnite, and very often with calcareous mountains of very considerable extent. The late forma tions of gradually piled-up stone have been deposited on these primitive mountains, frequently broken by con formations, produced by plutonic activity of our earth, especially in the interior of the land, and on the north east and western limits, where whole mountains of por phyry and trachyte, as well as subordinate groups of basalt have been formed. These changes modified en tirely the former surface of the country,, caused the dis appearance of that sea which once occupied the whole, leaving behind, however, its saline particles, and many of its organic inhabitants. We find here all the transitions, with their successive sedimentary deposits, from the period when water reigned everywhere to that later one when all was dry; with the different gradations of the most various organic life. All that is found here proves the existence of an extensive sea, of which the surrounding mountains are the shores. The remains of land-plants and animals, found in the later strata of the sedimentary formations, lead me to suppose that a great change has taken place in the climate of Transylvania since the basin was first dried up ; unless we suppose that a difference in the organization of those animals which once were here, but now thrive only in the torrid zones.

" On the hills and plains of Transylvania lived formerly many large land mammalia of the tropics, as well as others inhabiting more temperate zones. Elephants, rhinoceroses, the antediluvian bison (Bos urus priscus, Schlotth.), several sorts of stag, tapir, and hippopotami; the bones of panthers, bears, and birds of an anterior world, were found in the Almasch cave in the east, and the Dragon's Cave (Drachen Höhle; Hungarian, Hudje - ismëilor), on the western confines towards Hungary, near Bihár. Of birds of an anterior world there are fewer remains. Fishes of an earlier world are the most frequent; these are found in great numbers. Frequent, also, are the remains of amphibious animals, especially of the genus Saurus, such as the extinct species Nothosaurus Brownii and mirabilis, Munst. ; Megalosaurus Bucklandi, Mant. ; Mastodon saurus Jaegeri, v. Meyer ; Ichthyosaurus communis, Bronn, from the coarse limestone formation near Porcsesd," etc.*38_27

38_27 *Biele, `Fauna der Wirbelthiere Siebenbürgens.'

The highest mountains are 8000 feet high, which is a little below the range of eternal snow. The valleys have a medium height of 1400 feet above the level of the sea; the rivers flow all into the Black Sea, mingling their waters with the Danube, either directly or by an intermediate channel. The principal ones are-1. The Marosch, Saxon Mieresch, Hungarian Maros, Roumain Mureschu, and it has a fall now of 12, now of 16 feet per mile. Rate of flowing, 1.6 foot per second.

2. The Alt; Hungarian and Roumain, Olt. Its fall varies from 22.8 feet to 25.9 feet per mile. Rate of flowing, 2 feet per second.

3. The Great and Little Samosch; Hungarian, Szamos. In some parts the one has a fall of 28.5 feet per mile, the other, in certain parts, one of 43 feet per mile.

4. The Aranyos has a fall of 14 feet per mile.

5. The Great and Little Kokel; Hungarian, Kükülo; Roumain, Tirnava; besides some lesser waters.

The chain of mountains along the southern frontier keep off the warm winds that come from that direction; the high level of the province, as well as the abundance of wood, and the great moisture caused by this, all tends to make the temperature lower than, from the geographical position of the land,*38_28 it otherwise would be.

Autumn is most equable in temperature, and most pleasant of the seasons; it is long and warm, and it fre- quently happens that there is no frost before December. Spring is seldom favourable, the cold lasting sometimes till near May, when suddenly an oppressive heat begins. As the mountains are then still covered with snow, the mornings are very cool, and the barometer on the same day may vary from 8° to 14° Reaumur.

The difference is considerable, according to situation, and depends much on the direction of the valleys. The mean warmth of the following places was, Karlsburg, 8.253°; Schässburg, 7.930°; Hermannstadt, 7.790°; Klausenburg, 7.175°. As regards the seasons, the mean tem- perature was--

38_28* It is nearly in the same latitude as Milan.

Klausenburg. Hermannstadt. Karlsburg. Schässburg.
Winter. . - 2.440° - 1.760° - 1.820° - 0.525°
Spring . + 7.156° + 7.923° + 8.135° + 7.455°
Summer +15-308' +16-195' + 16.281° + 14.794°
Autumn + 9.089° + 8.357° + 9.706° + 9.281°

The latest official returns enable me to give the following statistics:-The arable land in the province amounted to 2,161,345 joch ; vineyards, 46,989; meadows, gardens, 1,575,635 ; pasture, 913,775 ; forest, 3,563,511; marsh, 4037. Number of cattle, 75,299,312. Value of landed property, 215,607,312 florins.

Bielz computes the native population of Transylvania at 2,062,379 souls; of these

1,227,276 are Roumains.
536,011 Magyars (Hungarians and Szckler* 38_29). 192,482 Germans.
78,923 Gipsies. 15,573 Jews.
7,600 Armenians.
3,743 Sclaves.
771 Greeks, Italians, and other nationalities.

38_29* The Szeklers are the oldest inhabitants in the land ; they did not migrate hither with the Hungarians in the ninth century, but are the remains of the Huns of the fourth century, and remained here in the mountains when the rest had left. They are all " noble," and proudly and steadfastly adhere to and uphold their old rights and privileges,-such as right of hunting and of pasture. They had their own judges, and acknowledged the authority of none beside. Like their ancestors, the Huns, they loved fighting, and were the best soldiers that Bem had in his army. They guarded the frontier, and guarded it well, of their own free will; but they would not be compelled to do so ; and the very circumstance that Austria, when the Border System was established, obliged them to furnish a contingent of one infantry and two hussar regiments, sufficed to alienate their regard.

Thus, in every 1000 of the population, there would be

596 Roumains.
261 Hungarians.
93 Germans.
38 Gipsies.
7 Jews.
3 Armenians.
2 Sclaves.

Now, if we take as true the assertion of Sir Richard Phillips, that in England " every acre will support a family on vegetable diet, but in flesh and vegetables three acres are required to live in plenty," and compute byy it the number of inhabitants that Transylvania might feed, we shall see how disproportionate to the capabilities of the land the number of the population is; although the Englishman would require more meat than the Transylvanian, I will still keep to the three acres named by Sir Richard, as the requisite quantity of land per man.

Arable, pasture, and garden land, together with the vineyards, gives 4,697,744 joch, or 11,744,360 acres.

As the Roumains and the gipsies too, may be considered as the not-meat-eating part of the population, and supposing all the others to use flesh food, we should have 969,894 to provide for, "living in plenty on meat and vegetables." If, for each such individual, three acres are necessary, 2,909,682 acres would be required for the support of them all.

This would leave 8,834,678 acres for the bread-eaters. But for them we only want 1,306,199 acres, being an acre per man, so that we have a surplus of 7,528,479 acres, whose produce could support human life.

And even if we suppose that every individual in Transylvania "lives in plenty (according to English notions) on meat and vegetables," and allow him, accordingly, three acres for his support, we should want, even then, but 6,187,137 acres for the purpose, and there would still be 5,557,223 acres left, whose crops there was no population to consume.

In size, Transylvania ranks third of the Austrian Crown lands. It is one of the least populous in the whole em- pire ; but the above calculation shows how much greater is the number of inhabitants that the land could feed.

Such is the country : here, there is no " elemental war;" it is not subject to hurricanes, and no frequent tempests render vain the labour of the husbandman. Men's passions alone have hitherto done this, in their uncontrolled fury devastating the, fair surface of the land. Mountain barriers protect it from destroying winds; and from the rocks where gold and silver are won, no fires burst forth to scathe vegetation with their lava heat. When the green plains and flourishing hamlets have been turned into arid deserts, it was a fiercer fire than that of volcanoes, which swept onward to destroy.

How fertile the province is, how rich in natural products, we have seen. The greatest commercial enterio'ses might here be undertaken with success. For the roan with brains as well as money; for one capable of comprehending capabilities, with large views, and able to look beyond the immediate present, or the close-lying boundary line, Transylvania presents such a field for activity as, perhaps, is not to be found again in the world. For here the sphore of action is in Europe, among civilized people; free from all the difficulties of distance and pains of separation, from the dangers of wild districts, and all the misfortunes which attend the first explorers of a new country. Here, the man of enterprise has not to be the pioneer, but an organizer; he has not to contend with the opposition of nature, or of inimical aborigines; here, on the contrary, both would unite to aid him, and his advent would be hailed with gladness and with welcomings.

Transylvanian corn is heavier than Hungarian; it is one of the best sorts in Europe ; an English baker tried it, and found it to be so. How good the wine is, and the hemp, how excellent the horses, we already know. But it is in other directions-in fabricating the raw produce -that so much could be achieved : chemical products*38_30 might be made, glue, starch, glass, and earthenware (the finer sorts of each), paper, leather (both the common and the finer sorts), good bricks for building; agricultural implements also,t-j-38_31 which are every day coming more into use ; introduced as they have been by the Hungarian gentlemen,$-j--j-38_32 and all of which are now either brought from Pesth or London. There are no cabinet-makers either; and all the better furniture in the houses at Klausenburg is sent from Pesth or Vienna. How abundant coal and iron are has already been said. And, finally, let those who may read this, not forget the words of my Hungarian acquaintance, when speaking of the possibility of men coming to the country with a view to commercial enterprise : " We will do all we possibly can to help them, for it is our interest they should succeed."

38_30 * In Saxony there are 11.7 laboratories, employing 7843 men.

38_31-j- t In Saxony there are 113 machine establishments ; value of machinery made, £675,000. In Transylvania, machinery is especially useful, as it economizes human labour, which it is difficult to get.

38_32 -j--j-+ On the estate at Gernyeszeg I saw good ploughs, chaff cutters, clodbreakers, turnip-cutting and turnip-sowing machines, the best harrows, drills, apparatus for steaming food for cattle, threshing machines; and at another friend's farm, besides these, one also for disengaging the grain from maize pods.




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