INDEX.

A.

Aaron of Moldavia, 52

Actium, battle of, 5

Akermann, convention of, 91

Albania, under Simeon, 138,
under Samuel, 152; language and customs, 164; under John Asên II., 175; opposes Montenegro, 465; blood-feuds, 467

Alexander I. of Bulgaria, elected Prince, 219; character, 219; political difficulties, 220; coup d'état, 221; "Prince of North and South Bulgaria," 223; his popularity, 224; "hero of Slivnitza," 226; conspiracies against, 227; kidnapped, 227 returns, 230; abdicates, 230 "Count Hartman," 231

Alexander of Macedon defeats Getæ, 2

Alexander John I. of Roumania, see Couza

Alexander I., King of Servia,  arrests the Regents, 350; suspends constitution, 351

Alexis, Czar of Russia, 70

Amurath I., defeats Serbs at Kossovo, 288; assassinated, 289

Amurath II., claims Servian throne, 292; defeated by Hunyad, 293

Andrew II, of Hungary, 261

Anne, Empress of Russia, 78

32

Antoninus Pius, 22

Antony, Mark, 5

Apollodorus, architect of Trajan's bridge, 11; of Trajan's column, 15

Arsenius, Serb Patriarch, migration of, 305

Asên, John I., his revolution, 164; crowned "Czar of the Bulgarians and Greeks," 166; his wars, 168; assassinated, 169

Asen, John II., his prosperous reign, 175; extent of his empire, 175; increase of trade, 177; his capital, 178; refounds National Church, 179; dies, 179

Asa, John III., 182

Asên, Michael, 180

Asên, Peter, 164, 169

Augustus, Roman Emperor, 5

Aurelian evacuates Dacia, 24

Austria, obtains Bucovina, 81; and Dalmatia, 412; her relations with Montenegro, 540, 460, 467

Avars in Roumania, 29

B.

Babylas, Prince-Bishop of

Montenegro, 381

Bajazet I., 289

Baldwin of Flanders, 172

Balsha I., 361

469 470 INDEX.

Balsha II., 362

Balta-Liman, convention of, 97

Basil, the "Bulgar-Slayer," 33; his campaigns, 155; his cruelty, 156; his conquests,158

Basil "the Wolf"; his criminal code, 66; his wars, 68; his flight, 68

Bassarab, Matthew, his government of Moldavia, 66; feud with Basil, 68; death, 69

Bassarab, Neagoe, 46

Basta, Italian general, 56

Bathori, Andrew, 54

Bathori, Sigismund, Prince of Transylvania, 53

Belgrade, part of Bulgarian Empire, 138, 154, 170; captured by Hungary, 284; "City of the Holy War," 295; seat of Turkish Government, 301; entirely free, 337

Beltcheff, murder of, 241

Berlin, treaty of, and Roumania,116; and Bulgaria, 213; and Servia, 345; and Montenegro, 464

Bessarabia devastated by Simeon, 31; annexed by Russia, 85; southern part joined to Moldavia, 101; again Russian, 117; refuge of Bulgarians, 202

Bibescou, George, 95, 96

Bismarck advises Prince Charles, 108; and Prince Alexander, 219

Black George, hero of modern Servia, 311; frees his country, 313; "supreme chief," 315; leaves Servia, 316; murdered, 319

"Black Legion," 303

Bœrebistes, Dacian king, 4

Bogdan, 44

Bogomile heresy, 146, 147; serious results of, 149

Bolizza, Mariano, his account of Montenegro, 387

Boljars, Bulgarian nobles, 157, 158, 192

Boril, Bulgarian Czar, 174

Boris I.,converted to Christianity, 131; Roman or Orthodox? 133; retires to a cloister, 134

Boris II., 150, 151, 154

Boris, Baby, his "conversion," 243

Bosnia, united to Servia, 258; conquered by Dušan, 284; independent, 284; Turkish, 297; occupied by Austria, 345

Boyards, Roumanian nobles, their privileges, 47; revolts of, 62; laws relating to, 67; decline of, 77

Brancovano, Constantine, 70 Brankovic, George, builds Semendria, 293; in Montenegro,367

Branković, Paul, 254

Branković, Vouk, traitor of Kossovo, 288

Bratiano, John, 96, 111

Brigandage, 199, 225, 302, 307

Bucovina, cession of, 81

Bulgari, their origin, 123; their customs, 125

Bulgarian atrocities, 207, 209 constitution, 216; literature, under Simeon, 141; under John Alexander, 187; revival of, 203

C.

Cæsar, Julius, 4

Cantacuzene, Scherhan, 69

Cantacuzene, Stephen, 73

Cantemir, Demetrius, 70

Caracalla, edict of, 21; victory of, 23

"Carmen Sylva," 109

Catherine II. of Russia, her Roumanian. policy, 79, 81; writes to Montenegro, 405

Cattaro, Romans at, 356; capture of, 417; revolt at, 460

Česlav, Servian prince, 145, 256

Cetinje, becomes Montenegrin capital, 371; captured by Turks, 389, 391, 399

Charles I., King of Roumania, elected prince, 107; marries,

471 INDEX.
109; reforms army, 112; at Plevna, 114; proclaimed king, 117

Cimpulung, old Wallachian capital, 48

Claudius, Roman Emperor, 24

Clement, Metropolitan, 227

Constantine, Roman Emperor, his bridge, 27

Constantine and Methodius, apostles of the Balkans, 132, 252

Constantine, Bulgarian Czar, 180

Cotiso, 5

Courtea d'Ardges, cathedral of, 46, 69

Couza, Prince of Roumania, 104; his rule, 105; deposed, 107

Cristić, Servian Minister, 348

Crnoiević, George I., 379, 380

Crnoiević, George II., 381

Crnoiević, Stephen I., 366-9

Crnoiević, Stephen II., 380, 381

D.

Dacia old name of Roumania, 1

"Dacia Aureliani," 25, 121

Dacians, earliest inhabitants of Roumania, 1; first conflict with Romans, 2; their exploits, 5; subdued by Trajan, 12; their characteristics, 16

Dalmatia, union with Servia, 261; assigned to Austria, 412

Dandolo, Venetian doge, 172

Danilo, Archbishop, Serb historian, 266, 269, 280

Danilo I. of Montenegro, first hereditary Vladika, 391; his massacre of the Turks, 396; his victory at Tsarevlaz, 398; his death, 400

Danilo II., last Vladika, divests himself of ecclesiastical power, 438; his victories over the Turks, 439 his army reforms, 440; his unpopularity, 445 the "Code Danilo," 447; his assassination, 448

Darinka, Princess of Montenegro, 438, 458

Decebalus, Dacian king, his victories over the Romans, 6; his defeat, 10; his death, 12

Deljan, Peter, revolt of, 161

Desnica, old Serb capital, 254

Despots, Serb, in Hungary, 303

Dioclea resk ence of Serb rulers, 258; Roman remains at, 356

Dobroslav, Serb prince, 257

Dobrudža, The, 2, 116, 124

Domitian, wars with

Dacians,6; his road, 9

Dondukoff- Korsakoff, Prince, Russian Commissary in Bulgaria, 215

Dragoche, 35

Dromichætes, Getic king, 3

Dulcigno, demonstration at, 465

Dušan, Czar Stephen, rebels against his father, 270;; succeeds to throne, 271; his vast empire, 274, 278; his code, 278; marches on Constantinople, 281; dies, 282; his memory invoked, 225

E.

English influence in Balkans, in the time of Michael the Brave, 54; appointment of British Consul at Bucharest, 84; Lord Palmerston and Roumania, 98; sympathy with Bulgaria, 202; Mr. Gladstone and Bulgaria, 209; Sir W. White and Bulgaria, 224; England and Servia, 323, 336; England, ally of Montenegro, 418; gratitude of Montenegro, 465

F.

Ferdinand I., Prince of Bulgaria, is offered the throne, 235; his accession, 236; his character, 236; his relations with Stambuloff, 238; plots against him, 241; his marriage, 242; birth

472 INDEX.
of an heir, 243; dismisses Stambuloff, 244

Flanders, Count of, 107

French Revolution, effect of, on Balkans, 83

G.

Gabriel Roman, Bulgarian Czar, 156

Galitzin, 79

Gepidæ, 28

German, Montenegrin Vladika, 384

Getæ earliest inhabitants of Roumania, 1; attacked by Philip of Macedon, 2; defeat Lysimachus, 3

Ghika, Gregory I., 78

Ghika, Gregory II, 89

Giurgevo, 48, 100

Gladstone, Mr., and Bulgaria, 209; on Montenegro, 353, 370; gratitude of Montenegrins to, 418, 465

Golescou, Constantine, 94

Golescou, General, 106

Goths, invade Roumania, 23; repulsed by Constantine, 27; ravage Bulgaria, 122

Gradina, Trajan's tablet, near, 9

Grahovo, battle of, 446

Greek War of Independenrte, 86

H.

Hadji Mustapha, "Mother of the Serbs," 309

Hadrian, 22

Helis, 3

Heraclius, defeats Avars, 29, 124; encourages Serbs, 250, 358

Herodotus, on Getæ, 1, 15; on Illyrians, 119

Herzegovina, The, united to Servia, 278; conquered by Turks, 370; insurrection of, 205, 461; occupied by Austria, 345, 467

Hungarians, invade Roumania, 30; invade Bulgaria, 136, 144; wars with Servia, 269, 277 claim Bulgaria, 298

Huns, invade Roumania, 28; their King Attila, 28; invade Bulgaria, 122

Hunyad, John, "White Knight of Wallachia," 293; aids Serbs, 295

I.

Illyrians, old inhabitants of Bulgaria, 119; traces of their language, 123; on Adriatic coast, 250; defeated by Romans, 356

Innocent III., 170

Ivajlo, 181

Ivan the Black, of Montenegro, makes Cetinje his capital, 371; founds printing-press, 372; his letter to the Doge, 374

J.

Jahja, "Count of Montenegro," 389

Janissaries at Belgrade, 309; defeated, 312

Jassy, becomes Moldavian capital, 48; printing-press at, 68; University of, 106

John Alexander, Bulgarian Czar, 185

John "the Terrible," of Moldavia, 49

Joseph II., his scheme for partition of Turkey, 82; helps Serbs, 306

Julia, Princess of Servia, 336

Julianus, 7

Justinian, "Restorer of Dacia," 29

Justinian II, wars with Bulgaria, 126

K.

Kalafat, Russians at, 100; bombarded, 113

Kaliman I., Bulgarian Czar, 180

Kalitnan II., Bulgarian Czar, 180

Kalojan, Bulgarian Czar, his correspondence with the Pope, 170; captures Baldwin, 173; his death, 174

473 INDEX.

Kara George, see Black George Karageorgević, Alexander, Prince of Servia, 325; conspiracy against, 328; deposed, 330

Karageorgević, Peter, Servian Pretender, 339, 348

Karakal, 23

Kaulbars, Major-General, 233

Kossovo, battle of, 38, 287, 362

Krum, Bulgarian chief, invades Roumania, 30; captures Sofia, 128; kills Greek emperor, 129; besieges Constantinople, 130

Kumani, invade Roumania, 31; in Bulgaria, 163

Kurt, or Kuvrat, Bulgarian chief, 30, 124

L.

Lazar, Servian Czar, tributary to Turks, 286; killed at Kossovo, 288

Lazarević, Stephen, vassal of Sultan, 290; fortifies Belgrade, 291

Leo, Greek Emperor, 136

Lombards, invasion of, 29

Lysimachus, 3

M.

Macedonia, part of first Bulgarian Empire, 152; in treaty of San Stefano, 211; Bulgarian Bishops in, 240; Serbs in, 270

Marie-Louise, Princess of Bulgaria, 242

Martial, on Dacians, 8

Mavrocordato, Constantine, 77

Mavrocordato, Nicholas, 73, 77

Mavroghéni, Nicholas, 82

Michael, Bulgarian Czar, defeats Serbs, 184, 269

Michael III., Greek Emperor, 132

Michael Obrenović III., Prince of Servia, his first reign, 324; his second reign, 332; his reforms, 334; assassination, 338

Michael the Brave of Wallachia, reign of, 51; annexes Transylvania and

Moldavia, 54; collapse of his "big Roumania," 55; his death, 58

Midhat Pasha, 203

Mihnea, Radou, 62

Milan Obrenović II., Prince of Servia, 324

Milan Obrenović IV., Prince of Servia, 340; declares war on Turkey, 342; proclaimed king, 346; attacks Bulgaria, 224, 348; abdicates, 349

Milosh Obrenović I., origin of, 316; "supreme chief," 318; recognised hereditary prince, 321; his autocratic rule, 321; grants constitution, 322; abdicates, 324; returns, 330

Mirko, "sword of Montenegro," 445, 446, 450, 453, 454, 455

Mirtschea the Old, of Wallachia, 36, 38, 39

Mœsia, present Bulgaria, 23, 120

Mohammed I., 292

Mohammed II., 42, 294, 369

Moldavia founded, 36

Montenegrin cap, 363; education, 459; literature, 435, 451; military organisation, 440, 455—457

Montenegro, origin of name, 353; printing-press in, 372, 384, 434, 468; its elective Vladikas, 383; its hereditary Vladikas, 392

N.

Napoleon I., Balkan policy of, 85; relations with Montenegro, 413—417

Napoleon III., supports Roumania, 102; friendship with Montenegro, 455

Natalie, Queen of Servia, 349

Nemanja, Stephen, unites Bosnia with Servia, 258; his interview with Barbarossa, 260; abdicates, 260

Nicholas I., Prince of Montenegro, his education, 451; his writings, 451; his first Turkish

474 INDEX.
war, 452; his father's death, 455; his military reforms, 455; his ministers, 458; his second Turkish war, 461; captures

Nikšić 461; builds roads, 466; celebrates bicentenary of his dynasty, 468

Nicopolis, battle of, 38, 189, 290

Novibazar, Austrians in, 345, 467

O.

Obilić, Milosh, 289

Obradović, Serb poet, 306

Obrenović, see Michael, Milan, and Milosh

Octavius, see Augustus

Oltenitza, 100

Omar Pasha, in Roumania, 100; in Montenegro, 439

Omladina, Servian Society, 339

Omortag, Bulgarian chief, 130

Orsova, Roman road near, 9

Osman Pasha, defends Plevna, 116

Ostrog, Montenegrin monastery, defence of, 453

Ovid, in the Balkans, 5, 17, 121

P.

Panitza, Major, conspiracy of, 241

Paris, Convention of, 103

Paris, Treaty of, 101, 327

Pasvanoglu, of Vidin, brigand chief, 84, 201, 310

Patzinakitai, invade Roumania, 31; and Bulgaria, 145; their settlements, 163

Peace of Adrianople, 91, 320

Peace of Belgrade, 79, 201, 305, 401

Peace, First, of Bucharest (1812), 85, 316

Peace, Second, of Bucharest (1886), 226

Peace of Campo Formio, 412

Peace of Jassy, 83

Peace of Kutchuk-Kaïnardji, 80

Peace of Pressburg, 413

Peace of Tilsit, 85, 201, 415

Peter, Bulgarian Czar, 142

Peter I. of Montenegro, his character, 408; his successes over Turks, 410; his war with the French, 414; rejects Napoleon's overtures, 416; captures Cattaro, 418; his code, 421; his death, 422

Peter II. of Montenegro, his accession, 424; abolishes office of civil governor, 431; establishes senate, 432; restores the press, 434; his writings, 435; his shrine, 437

Peter the Great of Russia, enters Roumania, 72; sends envoy to Montenegro, 397; subsidises Montenegro, 399

Phanariotes, origin of their name, 73; their political influence in Roumania, 73; their luxury, 75; their had influence, 76; their fall, 89; their ecclesiastical power in Bulgaria, 197; struggle against them, 205

Philip of Macedon, in Roumania, 2; in Bulgaria, 120

Philippopolis, capital of South Bulgaria, outbreak of revolution at, 223

Pius IX. and Montenegro, 454

Plautus, Getic slaves in, 3

Pliny the Elder on Getæ, 1

Pliny the Younger on Dacian war, 11

Podgorica, ceded to Montenegro, 464

Pomaks, Bulgarian Mussulmans, 195

Prêslav, old Bulgarian capital, described, 139

Pristina, old Serb capital, 259, 264

R.

Racova, battle of, 43

Radou Negrou, founds Wallachia, 35

Radoulescou, John Heliade, Roumanian writer, 94, 98

475 INDEX.

Ragusa, outlet of Balkan trade, 177; the "South Slavonic Athens," 195; old Illyrian capital, 250; its merchants encouraged by Dušan, 279; besieged by Montenegrins, 414

Ristić, Servian Regent, 341, 349

Romans, in Bulgaria, 121; in Roumania, 4, 19; traces of their language there, 22; they evacuate Roumania, 25

Rosetti, Constantine, 96, 111

Roumanian language, 22; literature, 68; press, 94

Roumelia, Eastern, under Berlin treaty, 213; its union with Bulgaria, 222; called South Bulgaria, 226

Russians, in Bulgaria, 202, 215, 221, 224, 230, 239; in Montenegro, 399, 402, 405, 413, 420, 457, 467; in Roumania, 70, 92, 113

Russo-Turkish wars (of 1711), 70, 72; (of 1736), 78; (of 1768), 79; (of 1787), 82; (of 1807), 85; (of 1828), 91; (of 1854), 99; (of 1877), 113, 210, 343

S.

Samuel, Bulgarian Czar, his accession, 151; extent of his empire, 152; his wars with Basil II., 154; destroys Dioclea, 359; his death, 156

San Stefano, treaty of, and Roumania, 116; and Bulgaria, 211; and

Servia, 345; and Montenegro, 464

Sarmizegethusa, Dacian capital, 7, 11, 17

Sava, Saint, 260

Sava, Vladika of Montenegro, 400; visits Russia, 402; ousted by

Stephen the Little, 403; restored, 406; dies, 407

Selim III., his treatment of the Janissaries, 309, 310

Simeon, Bulgarian Czar, 134; extent of his empire, 138; devastates Servia, 137, 255; defeats Hungarians, 31; his titles, 139; his palace, 139; patronises learning, 141; his death, 142

Šišman, of Trnovo, 145

Šišman, John III., of Vidin, 187

Šišman, Michael, of Vidin, 183

Skanderbeg, Albanian hero, 368

Skodra, or Scutari in Albania, capital of Praevalitana, 355; divided West from East of Europe, 356; Balsha's capital, 362; convention of, 454

Slavs, first mentioned in Bulgaria, 122; their origin and character, 123; contrasted with old Bulgarians, 125; enter Illyria, 358

Slivnitza, battle of, 225, 348

Sofia, captured by Krum, 128; conquered by Bulgarians, 168; residence of Turkish governor, 195; present Bulgarian capital, 247

Stambuloff, Bulgarian statesman, his efforts against Turks, 206; Speaker of Sobranje 223; appeals to Bulgarians, 229; one of the Regents, 231; Prime Minister, 237; his character, 237; his Turkish policy, 239; orders execution of Panitza, 241; his relations with Prince Ferdinand, 244; his dismissal, 245; his murder, 246

Stanicha, story of, 374

Stephen the Great of Moldavia, 40

Stephen VI. of Servia, 263

Stephen VII. (Uroš III.), 269; overthrows Bulgarian Empire, 184, 270

Stephen the Little, or Mali, imposture of, in Montenegro, 403

Stirbefu Barba, 99, 103

Stoiloff, M., present Bulgarian Premier, 245

Suceava, old Moldavian capital, 48, 81

Svetslav, Bulgarian Czar, 183

476 INDEX.

T.

Tacitus, on Dacians, 6

Takovo, 318

Tapæ, battles at; 7, 10

Tartars, 33

Telec, 128

Tennyson on Montenegro, 353

Terence, Getic slaves in, 3

Terterij I., Bulgarian Czar, 182

Terterij II., 183

Tervel, 127

Theodoric, 124

Thrace, 120

Thucydides, on Getæ, 2

Tirgovischtea, Wallachian capital, 48

Trajan, in Dacia, 8; his bridge, 11, 22; his column, 13

Transylvania, Roumanians in, 19, 118; annexed to Hungary, 31; conquered by Michael the Brave, 54; revolts, 56

Trnovo, old Bulgarian capital, "Baldwin's Tower" at, 173; Church of 40 Martyrs, 176; captured by Turks, 188

Tsarevlaz, battle of, 398

Turnu-Severin, Trajan's bridge at, 11

Tvartko, Stephen, King of Bosnia, 284

U.

Ubicini, historian of Roumania, 98

Uroš, Stephen, of Servia, 260

Uroš V., of Servia, 283

Utza, story of, 47

V.

Vacarescou, Roumanian poet, 101

Vassili, Montenegrin Prince-Bishop, 401

Varna, battle of, 199, 294

Velbužd, hattle of, 184, 270

Venice, confers title on Dušan, 276; at war with Montenegrins, 365; Venetian marriages of Montenegrin rulers, 375, 380, 381; loses Dalmatia, 412

Vespasian, 6

Vidin, an independent principality, 183; capture of, 262

Vlad "the Impaler," in Wallachia, 40

Vladikas, Montenegrin Prince-Bishops, elective, 383; hereditary, 392; last of, 438

Vladimirescou, Toudor, 87

Voukačin, Servian usurper, 284

Vulković, Dr., assassination of, 242

W.

Waldemar, Prince of Denmark, refuses Bulgarian throne, 234

Wallachia, foundation of, 35

"Wallachian Vespers," 52

Wallachs, origin of, 32

Y.

Ypsilanti, Alexander, 87

Ypsilanti, Demetrius, 88

Z.

Žabljak, old Montenegrin capital, 368; abandoned, 371; seized by the Koutchi, 427; ceded to Montenegro, 464

Zankoff, Bulgarian Liberal politician, 220; Russophil leader, 225, 229

Zeta, principality of, 359

Župans, Servian chiefs, 251, 358

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CHARLES XII. By R. Nisbet Bain.

LORENZO DE' MEDICI. By Edward Armstrong.

JEANNE D'ARC. By Mrs. Oliphant.

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. By Washington Irving.

ROBERT THE BRUCE. By Sir Herbert Maxwell.

HANNIBAL. By W. O'Connor Morris.

ULYSSES S. GRANT. By William Conant Church.

ROBERT E. LEE. By Henry Alexander White.

THE CID CAMPEADOR. By H. Butler Clarke.

SALADIN. By Stanley Lane-Poole.

BISMARCK. By J. W. Headlam.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT. By Benjamin I. Wheeler.

CHARLEMAGNE. By H. W. C. Davis.

OLIVER CROMWELL. By Charles Firth.

RICHELIEU. By James B. Perkins.

DANIEL O'CONNELL. By Robert Dunlop.

SAINT LOUIS (Louis IX. of France). By Frederick Perry.

LORD CHATHAM. By Walford Davis Green.

OWEN GLYNDWR. By Arthur G. Bradley. $1.35 net.

HENRY V. By Charles L. Kingsford. $1.35 net.

EDWARD I. By Edward Jenks. $1.35 net.

AUGUSTUS CÆSAR. By J. B. Firth. $1.35 net.

FREDERICK THE GREAT. By W. F. Reddaway.

WELLINGTON. By W. O'Connor Morris.

CONSTANTINE THE GREAT. By J. B. Firth.

HEROES OF THE NATIONS

MOHAMMED. By D. S. Margoliouth.

WASHINGTON. By J. A. Harrison.

Other volumes in preparation are:

MOLTKE. By Spencer Wilkinson.

JUDAS MACCABÆUS. By Israel Abrahams.

SOBIESKI. By F. A. Pollard.

ALFRED THE TRUTHTELLER. By Frederick Perry.

FREDERICK II. By A. L. Smith.

MARLBOROUGH. By C. W. C. Oman.

RICHARD THE LION-HEARTED By T. A. Archer.

WILLIAM THE SILENT. By Ruth Putnam.

CHARLES THE BOLD. By Ruth Putnam.

GREGORY VII, By F. Urquhart.

MAHOMET. By D. S. Margoliouth

New York—G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS, PUBLISHERS—London