Title


Story of the Nations

A Series of Historical Studies intended to present in graphic narratives the stories of the different nations that have attained prominence in history.

In the story form the current of each national life is distinctly indicated, and its picturesque and noteworthy periods and episodes are presented for the reader in their philosophical relations to each other as well as to universal history.

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FOR FULL LIST SEE END OF THIS VOLUME. THE STORY OF THE NATIONS



THE BALKANS

GPPS woodcarving



 
 

Nicholas I Prince of Montenegro

Nicholas I. Prince of Montenegro



THE BALKANS

ROUMANIA, BULGARIA, SERVIA AND MONTENEGRO

BY

WILLIAM MILLER, M.A. (OXON.) OF THE INNER TEMPLE, BARRISTER-AT-LAW

NEW YORK
G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS
LONDON : T. FISHER UNWIN
1907

COPYRIGHT, 1896

BY

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

Entered at Stationers' Hall, London
By T. FISHER UNWIN
The Knickerbocker press, New York
258433

PREFACE.

THIS is the first attempt which has been made to present English readers with a concise account of the story of the four Balkan States. Yet the Balkan peninsula has been in modern times what the Low Countries were in the Middle Ages—the cockpit of Europe. It is there that the eternal Eastern question has its origin ; it is there too that the West and the East, the Cross and the Crescent, meet. But it is impossible to understand the great problems, which still await solution in South-eastern Europe and are once more pressing themselves upon the attention of all thoughtful men, without some knowledge of Balkan history. The mutual jealousies of Bulgarian and Serb, the struggle of various races for supremacy in Macedonia, the alternate friendship and enmity of the Russian and the Turk are all facts, which have their root deep down in the past annals of the Balkan lands. Few persons in Western Europe remember what has never been forgotten in the Peninsula, that there was a time when the Servian and Bulgarian Empires were great Powers, and their respective rulers governed with the proud title of Czar a vast realm, which is still the dream of ardent patriots. Perusal of the following pages will probably convince the reader, that the only true settlement of the mutually conflicting claims of these historic states, which periodically endanger the peace of Europe, is a Balkan Confederation, such as was sketched by the late M. Tricoupis.

Two events seemed to render the publication of the book particularly appropriate in the present year. The Bicentenary of the reigning dynasty of Montenegro and the Hungarian Millenary are both largely concerned with Balkan history, and both occur in -1896.

The facts are taken from all the principal foreign works on the various countries and from my personal knowledge of the Balkan Peninsula. I am specially indebted to H.H. Prince Nicholas of Montenegro for the portrait of himself; to Mr. R. J. Kennedy, C.M.G., British chargé d'affaires at Cetinje, for much valuable assistance ; and to Mr. Hagberg Wright, of the London Library.

W. M.


PART I.

ROUMANIA.
I.

DACIA BEFORE THE ROMAN CONQUEST (106 A.D.) 1-18

The Getas, or Dacians—Their wars with the Macedonian kings—First contact with the Romans—Bcerebistes and Cotiso—Decebalus and Domitian—Trajan's two Dacian campaigns—His column at Rome—Manners and customs of the Dacians.

II.

THE ROMANS IN ROUMANIA (A.D. 106-274) . 19-25

Extent of the new province—Amalgamation of the colonists and natives — Origin of modern Roumanians — Their language derived from Latin—Gothic invasions—Evacuation of the province by the Romans—"Aurelian's Dacia " —Influence of the Roman occupation.

III.

THE BARBARIANS IN ROMANIA (274-about 1250)........ 26-34

The barbarian invaders :—the Goths ; the Huns ; the Gepidae ; the Lombards and Avars ; the Bulgarians in Roumania ; the Hungarians ; the Kumani—Origin of the Wallachs—Final disappearance of the barbarians.

IV.

THE TWO PRINCIPALITIES (1290-1601) . . 35-61

Foundation of Wallachia and Moldavia—Mirtschea the Old— Wallachia tributary to the Turks —Vlad the Impaler and Stephen the Great—Moldavia submits—State of society at this period—John the Terrible and Michael the Brave.

V.

THE PHANARIOTES IN ROUMANIA . . . 62-89

Matthew Bassarab and Basil "the Wolf "—Peter the Great and the Principalities—The Phanariote governors —The Russian wars and occupation—Treaty of Kainardji —Loss of Bucovina—Treaties of Jassy and Bucharest— End of Phanariote rule.

VI.

THE UNION OF THE PRINCIPALITIES (1822-1866) 90-108

Restoration of native Hospodars—Growth of Russian influence — Russian occupation, 1828-34 —Tne national movement — Revolution of 1848 — The Crimean War— Treaty of Paris—The principalities united under Couza— His deposition—Election of Prince Charles.

VII.

ROUMANIA AN INDEPENDENT KINGDOM . .109-118

Prince Charles and " Carmen Sylva "—The constitution of 1866—New army organisation—The war of 1877—Siege of Plevna—The Grivica Redoubt—Exchange of South Bessarabia for Dobrudza—Roumania a kingdom.

PART II.

BULGARIA.
I.

FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE CONVERSION OF THE BULGARIANS (864 A.D.) . . . 119-134

The Thracians—Philip of Macedon—Mcesia, a Roman province—Becomes Dacia Aureliani—Barbarian inroads— The Slavs—The old Bulgarians—Their amalgamation with the Slavs—The Bulgarian princes, Krum and Omortag— Boris I.—Conversion of the Bulgarians to Christianity.

II.

THE FIRST BULGARIAN EMPIRE (893-1018) . 135-158

The zenith of Bulgaria—The Czar Simeon—His vast Empire—Literature of the period—The Czar Peter—First appearance of Russians in Bulgaria—Division of the country : SisSman—The hermits and Bogomiles—Boris II. : his capture and deposition—Downfall of East Bulgaria— The Czar Samuel in West Bulgaria—Basil "the Bulgar-slayer"—Death of Samuel—End of the First Bulgarian Empire.

III.

BULGARIA UNDER THE GREEKS (1018-1186) . 159-166

Administration of Bulgaria under the Greek Emperors— Revolts of Deljan and Bodin—Inroads of barbarians— Persecution of the Bogomiles—First mention of Albanians —Peter and John Asen—A costly slap in the face—Restoration of the Bulgarian Empire.

IV.

THE SECOND BULGARIAN EMPIRE (1186-1398) .167-193

John Asen I.—Peter—Kalojan—His "union" with Rome— His'capture of the Emperor Baldwin—The "slayer of the Greeks"—Boril—John Asen II.—Greatness of Bulgaria— Rapid decline under his successors—The Terterij dynasty —The Sismans of Vidin—Battle of Velbuzd : the supremacy of Servia—John Alexander : his d'vided realm— First appearance of the Turks—Capture of Trnovo—The last of the Czars—Society under the Empire

V.

BULGARIA UNDER THE TURKS (1398-1878) . 194-214

Organisation of the country—Condition of the Christians— The Vojniks—The church under Greek influence—Spiritual tyranny of the Phanariotes—Brigandage : Pasvanoglu— The Russians in Bulgaria : 1810 and 1829—Turkish reforms—The first Bulgarian school—The Church question— The Bulgarian atrocities—The war of 1877—Bulgaria free.

VI.

THE UNION UNDER PRINCE ALEXANDER (1878-1886)........215-232

The Russian interregnum—The Bulgarian Constitution— Prince Alexander—The coup d'etat of 1881—Friction with Russia—Union of the two Bulgarias—Fury of the Czar— The Servian War—The Battle of Slivnitza and its results— Kidnapping of the Prince—His return and abdication.

VII.

PRINCE FERDINAND (1887-1896) . . . 233-248

Kaulbars at Sofia—The Czar's election-agent—Wanted : a Prince—Election of Prince Ferdinand—-The Stambuloff Ministry—The " Bulgarian Bismarck "—Foreign policy—[225] The Bulgarian Bishops—The Bourgas and Panitza Plots— Murder of Beltjheff and Vulkovic "—State" of the country— Stambuloff's fall and assassination—Conclusion.

PART III.

SERVIA.
I.

ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY OF THE SERBS (TO A.D. 1336) ...... 249-271

Origin of the Serbs—Their first appearance in the Balkans —Their government : fcupans and Grand Zupans—Their conversion to Christianity—Conflicts with the Bulgarians— Nadir of Servia in 924—Voislav the Liberator—Stephen Nemanja and his descendants—Saint Sava—Overthrow of Bulgaria by Stephen Uros.

II.

THE ZENITH OF SERVIA UNDER STEPHEN DUSAN (1336-1356).......272-282

Character and conquests of DuSan—Extent and organisation of his Empire—Proclaims himself Emperor—A Serb Patriarch—War with Hungary—Annexation of Bosnia—Stephen's code—His march on Constantinople and death.

III.

THE DECLINE AND FALL OF SERVIA (1356-1459) 283-298

Loss of Bosnia and Albania—Victories of the Turks— Lazar's campaigns—Battle of Kossovo, 1389—Servia tributary to the Turks under " despots" of her own— Stephen Laxarevic and George Brankovid—Temporary triumph of Servia—Her fall.

IV.

SERVIA UNDER THE TURKS (1459-1804) . . 299-308

Condition of the Serbs under Turkish rule: civil and religious government of the country—Hungarian Serbs under " despots " of their own—Attempts to free Servia— The " Black Legion "—Migration of the Patriarch Arsenius —The Serbs in Russia—The war of 1788—The Treaty of Sistova—Revival of national feeling.

V.

THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE (1804-1860)309-331

Cruelty of the Janissaries : the massacre of 1804—Kara George : the war of 1806-7—Servia practically free— Flight of Black George—The return of the Turks—Milosh Obrenovic—Black George's murder—Servia recognised as a Principality in 1830—The Constitutions of 1835 and 1838—Fall of Milosh—Reigns of his sons Milan and Michael—Alexander Karageorgevic—Restoration and death of Milosh.

VI.

THE FINAL EMANCIPATION OF SERVIA (1860-1878) 332-346

Restoration of Michael—His domestic reforms—Evacuation of Belgrade by the Turkish garrison—Murder of Michael—The Regency : Constitution of 1869—Milan— War with Turkey in 1876-8—Servia as affected by the treaties of San Stefano and Berlin—Milan proclaimed King.

VII.

THE MODERN KINGDOM OF SERVIA (1882-1896) 347-351

The war with Bulgaria—The Royal divorce—The Constitution of 1888—Abdication of Milan—The Regency— The coups d'etat of 1893-4—King Alexander I.

PART IV.

MONTENEGRO.
I.

FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE BATTLE OF Kossovo (1389)...... . 353-363

Montenegro : origin of the name—Its early history—The Romans in Illyria—Dioclea—The Serb kings—Montenegro a part of Serb Empire—The battle of Kossovo.

II.

FROM THE BATTLE OF Kossovo TO THE LAST OF THE BLACK PRINCES (1389-1516) . 364-382

The Balshas—Montenegro the refuge of the Serbs—The first Turkish invasion—Stephen Crnoievic—Skanderbeg— Ivan the Black—The first Slavonic printing-press—Cetinje the capital—The story of Stanicha—The influence of Venice—Abdication of the last of the Black Princes.

III.

THE ELECTIVE VLADIKAS (1516-1696) . 383-391

Montenegro ruled by elective Bishops—The civil governors —Troubles with Turks and renegades—Destruction of the Press—The tribute for slippers—State of the country in seventeenth century—A new crusade—Story of Jahja— Cetinje twice captured.

IV.

THE FIRST THREE HEREDITARY PRINCE-BISHOPS (1696-1782) ...... 392-407

The hereditary Vladikas—Danilo I.—The " Montenegrin Vespers "—Expulsion of the renegades—The first connection with Russia—Peter the Great and Montenegro— Turkish invasions—The battle of Tsarevlaz—Sava and Vassili—The Russian indemnity—The story of Stephen the Little—The Perkin Warbeck of the Black Mountain.

V.

PETER I.—THE BONAPARTE OF THE BLACK MOUNTAIN (1782-1830) .... 408-423

Defeat and death of Kara Mahmoud—Formal incorporation of the Berda—Effects cf the Treaty of Campo Formio—War with France—Siege of Ragusa—Napoleon's overtures— The "red" mountain—England and Montenegro—Capture of Cattaro; its surrender to Austria—The long peace— Internal reforms—Death and canonisation of the Vladika.

VI.

PETER II. AND DANILO II. (1830-1860) . .424-449

The last of the Vladikas—Turkish offer refused—Struggles with the Turks and Austrians—Treachery of Radonic— Abolition of civil governor—A Montenegrin Senate—Peter restores the Press—His poems—The " Billiard-Table "— Danilo II.—Separation of ecclesiastical and temporal power —The " Code Danilo "—The battle of Grahovo—-The " Sword of Montenegro "—Assassination of Danilo.

VII.

MONTENEGRO UNDER NICHOLAS I. (1860-1896) 450-468

Character of the new prince—His education—The Turkish War of 1862—Ostrog—Death of Mirko—Military reform— " Constitution " of 1868—The first Montenegrin ministry— The new schools—The Cattaro rising—The Turkish war of 1876—Montenegro after the Berlin Treaty—The Dulcigno demonstration—Albanian feuds—The Prince as road-maker—The New Code—The 4OOth anniversary of the Press—The Bicentenary of the Dynasty.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

NICHOLAS I., PRINCE OF MONTENEGRO.      …      Frontispiece

DECEBALUS. From a bust at St. Petersburg      …      7

BATTLE OF THE ROMANS AND DACIANS. From Trajan's Column at Rome      …      13

DACIANS SETTING FIRE TO THEIR CAPITAL. From Trajan's Column at Rome      …      14

THE ROUMANIAN ARMS.      …      18

MIRTSCHEA THE GREAT. From the series of historical MSS. published by the Roumanian Government      …      37

STEPHEN THE GREAT OF MOLDAVIA. From the series of historical MSS. published by the Roumanian Government      …      41

MiCHAEL THE BRAVE. From the series of historical MSS. published by the Roumanian Government      …      50

MOLDAVIAN COINS. From the series of historical [225] MSS. published by the Roumanian Government      …      59

BASIL "THE WOLF." From the series of historical MSS. published by the Roumanian Government      …      64

MATTHEW BASSARAB. From the [225] series of historical MSS. published by the Roumanian Government      …      65

OLD ROUMANIAN SEAL. From the series of historical MSS. published by the Roumanian Government      …      88

ROMAN SCULPTURE AT NICOPOLIS. From Kanitz, " Donau-Bulgarien"      …      121

BULGARIAN ATTACK ON CONSTANTINOPLE IN 813. From Kanitz, " Donaii-Bulgarien "      …      129

THE FIRST BULGARIAN EMPIRE.      …      138

RUINS OF PRESLAV. From Kanitz, " Donau-Bulgarien"      …      140

THE DIKILITA  AT JALAR. From Kanitz, " Donau-Bulgarien"      …      153

OLD RELIEF AT VARNA. From Kanitz, "Donau-Bulgarien"      …      165

COINS OF ASEN. From Kanitz, " Donau-Bulgarien"      …      171

THE BULGARIAN ARMS.      …      176

STATUE OF PAN AT VARNA. From Kanitz, "Donau-Bulgarien"      …      191

OLD BULGARIAN BRIDGE. From Kanitz, " Donau-Bulgarien"      …      207

ROMAN RELIEF AT MADARA. From Kanitz, " Donau-Bulgarien"      …      228

THE SERVIAN ARMS.      …      253

CORONATION CHURCH OF THE OLD SERVIAN CZARS. From Kanitz, "Serbien"      …      265

SERVIA UNDER DUSAN, C. 1350.      …      274

FORTRESS OF UŽICA. From Kanitz, " Serbian"      …      279

MILOSH OBRENOVIC. From Citnibert, " Essai sur la Serbie"      …      317

THE OLDEST CHURCH IN SERVIA. From Kanitz, " Serbien "      …      329

SARCOPHAGUS AT DRMNO. From Kanitz, " Serbien "      …      344

ROSE WINDOW AT KRUSEVAC. From Kanitz, " Serbien"      …      350

RUINS OF DIOCLEA. From a photo, by Mr. C. A. Miller      …      357

MONTENEGRIN MILITARY INSIGNIA.      …      376

MONTENEGRIN MILITARY INSIGNIA.      …      377

MONTENEGRIN MILITARY INSIGNIA.      …      379

A TYPICAL BIT OF MONTENEGRIN SCENERY. From a photo, by Mr. C. A. Miller      …      388

THE "TURKS' TOWER," CETINJE, IN 1848. From Sir Gardner Wilkinson, " Dalmatia and Montenegro" ..... . . .411

THE VLADIKA, PETER II., IN CIVIL DRESS. From Sir Gardner Wilkinson, " Dalmatia and Montenegro "      …      434

THE VLADIKA, PETER II., IN HIS PRIESTLY ROBES. From Sir Gardner Wilkinson, " Dalmatia and Montenegro"      …      435

MAP OF MONTENEGRO.      …      463

MAP OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA, PRESENT DAY      …      Opposite page i [MISSING]




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