Title


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CHAPTER XI.

THE SAXONS, AND THE SAXON LAND.

The Saxon Land. -- Settlement of the Saxons. -- Their Charter. -- Political and Municipal Privileges. -- Saxon Character. -- School Sickness. -- Kronstadt. -- A Hunting Party. -- Smuggling from Wallachia. -- The Bear and the General. -- Terzburg and the German Knights. -- Excursion to Bucses. -- The Kalibaschen. -- The Convent. -- The Valleys of Bucses. -- Virtue in Self-denial. -- The Alpine Horn. -- Fortified Churches and Infidel Invasions. -- Fogaras. -- Hermanstadt. -- Baron Bruchenthal. -- Rothen Thurm Pass. -- A Digression on Wallachia and Moldavia. -- Saxon Language. -- Beauty of Transylvania.

THE narrow waters of the Aluta separate two as distinct races of men, two as opposite systems of government, and for many years two as bitter national enemies as though mountains or oceans had for ages opposed a natural barrier of separation betwixt them. We crossed a simple wooden bridge thrown across a mere brook, and from the Szeklers we had passed to the land of the Saxons. Nor was the outward appearance of things less changed. Although it was the same plain we were traversing, and although the same green mountains bounded it, and the same brooks watered it, there was a [350] manifest difference in the part which man had acted on its surface.

I have already remarked that the Három-Szék was better cultivated than the rest of the Szekler land, but the Burzenland land, as this part of the Saxon land is called, appeared like a garden in comparison even with that. The whole plain seemed alive with ploughs and harrows -- in the Három-Szék they had not yet begun to break up the ground, -- and on every side teams were moving about, manure was spreading, and the seed was scattered abroad, with a busy hand. It was more like a scene in the best part of Belgium, than what one would expect on the borders of Turkey. It was striking, too, after the eye had been so long accustomed to the Hungarian dresses of the Szeklers, in all their picturesque rudeness, to have before it nothing but the stiff old-fashioned costumes which one still sees among the most primitive inhabitants of Germany. How it has happened that the Saxons, who have been so far separated from the rest of the great German fandly, should have hit upon the self-same ugly costume -- for it certainly did not exist when they emigrated -- would be a puzzle for the most erudite of philosophising tailors, and is, I must confess, far beyond me. But the most startling feature in the picture was the very active part taken by the women in the operations so busily carried on before us. Some were sowing corn, others using the fork and spade, others [351] again holding the plough, and -- believe or not, as you will, reader -- there, ton, was the stout Saxon Haus Frau seated, en cavalier, on the near wheeler, and driving four-in-hand, as composedly as possible. Nor was decency put to the blush by the slightest exposure. The Saxon women have borrowed the long boots from their Hungarian neighbours, which, with their own thick woollen petticoats covered their whole persons most effectually. The dress of these women is much the same as that which the broom girls have made fandliar to our streets, -- a cloth petticoat with most ample folds, surmounted hy a cloth stomacher buttoned or laced in front, and a small cap, fitting closely on the head ; or for the unmarried girls, a long braid of flaxen hair hanging down the back, with a straw hat of small crown and preposterously broad brim. Such stout maids as some of these hats shaded, and so unpoetically employed, I never saw; but I have no doubt their round, fat, good-tempered faces, and laughing blue eyes, have not the less charms for the Saxon youth because they are united to a strong and healthy body, and to habits of industry, albeit coarse in their kind. The Saxons are a canny folk, and if not very romantic and chivalrous, they are prudent and laborious. But before I discuss more of their character, let me say a word or two of their history.

It was to the Servian Princess Helena, the wife of the Blind Bela, who ruled in Hungary about [352] the middle of the twelfth century, during the minority of her son Geysa the Second, that Transylvania owed the repeopling her wastes with industrious German colonists. Taking advantage of the peace which she had concluded with the Emperor of Germany, slie invited the peasants of that country to emigrate, and promised them lands and liberties within the boundaries of Hungary. 1143 is commonly assigned as the date of their first settlement -- some of them in the North of Hungary, and others in Transylvania. Under Andrew the Second, in 1224, two years after the Bulla Aurca, those of Transylvania obtained a charter of their liberties, of which the chief articles seem to have been as follows : --

"They might elect from their own body a chief, or Comes, who should be their judge in peace, and leader in war.

"No change to be made in the coin within their boundaries, but they consented to pay for this privilege a yearly tax of five hundred marks of silver.

"They agreed to furnish five hundred soldiers for a defensive war, and one hundred for an offensive, if the army was commanded by the king in person, but only fifty if commanded by an Hungarian magnate.

"The free election of their own clergy, and their undisturbed enjoyment of the tithe.

"Right of pasture and wood-cutting in the forests of the Wallacks and Byssenians.

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"Freedom from more than twice entertaining the Woivode in the course of the year.

"Removal of market-tolls from their district, and freedom of their trade-companies from all tolls."

It was not likely that a foreign nation should be allowed to take up its dwelling among a people so wild and so jealous of foreigners as the Magyars, without having to fight hard for its possessions; and frequent were the contests to which the German settlers were exposed. The king, however, was always ready to lend his aid to his faithful Saxons, and with his help, and by their own industry, they throve in spite of all opposition. When Transylvania was contending for an independent sovereignty, the Saxons joined the Hungarian nobles in opposition to Austria, and a union of the Magyars, Szeklers, and Saxons was formed, by which each party was secured in its own rights and privileges, and to each was given a fair share in the common legislative assembly. They still, however, retained their own laws and municipal institutions.

One of the fundamental laws of the Saxons is the equality of every individual of the Saxon nation. They have no nobles, no peasants. Not but that many of the Saxons have received letters of nobility, and deck themselves out in. all its plumes; yet, as every true Saxon will tell you, that is only as Hungarian nobles, not as Saxons.

Their municipal government was entirely in their [354] own hands; every village chose its own officers, and managed its own affairs, without the interference of any higher power. A few years ago, however, a great and completely arbitrary change was made in this institution, which, though it almost escaped notice at the time, has since excited the most bitter complaints. The whole of this transaction was managed without the consent either of the Diet or the Saxon nation. Its effects have been to deprive the Saxon communities of the free exercise of their privileges, and to deliver them into the power of a corrupt bureaucracy, over which they have little or no control.

The Saxons, however, are a slow people, suspicious of their neighbours, and caring more for material than political interests; and though they have long complained, they have scarcely ever ventured to demand a restitution of their rights. Hitherto, the Saxons have been among the most certain adherents of the Crown; and, whether from a recollection of former wrongs, or irritated by an insolent bearing on the part of the Hungarians, or afraid of losing their own privileges by aiding the objects of others, they have rarely joined the Liberal party. In the last Diet, however, even the Saxons, -- prudentes et circumspecti although they be entitled, -- could not altogether resist the tide of public opinion, and, egged on a little perhaps by their own wrongs, they too joined the opposition. Not that they altogether belied their title even [355] then, for they are said to have done it so cautiously, that it was often difficult to know to which side they really leaned. When it was determined to send a deputation to the Emperor, to remonstrate against the proceedings of the Arch-Duke, two Saxon deputies were included amongst the number of those selected. All manner of excuses were urged to enable them to escape from the perilous honour; but the Hungarians mischievously enjoyed their dilh'culty, and would admit of no apology. When they arrived at Vienna, and the day came for the dreaded audience, the Saxon deputies were both taken suddenly ill, and protested they could not leave their beds, but they desired the rest of the deputation to proceed without them, declaring at the same time that they would wait on his Majesty alone when sufficiently recovered. As this lame apology for their absence was offered to the Emperor, he burst into a hearty laugh, and exclaimed, "Ah ! ah ! a school sickness ! a school sickness ! My poor Saxons! they don't like to bring me disagreeable news."

For the rest, the Saxons are undoubtedly the most industrious, steady, and frugal of all the inhabitants of Transylvania, and they are consequently the best lodged, best clothed, and best instructed.

Kronstadt was the object we were now making for, and we had almost entered it before we were aware of its proximity, so completely is it imbedded in the mountains, which bound this plain to the [356] south. The first glimpse was sufficient to show us that we were approaching something different from what we had seen before. The outskirts of the town were occupied by pretty villas, surrounded by well-kept gardens, strongly indicative of commerce, and the wealth and tastes it brings with it, and very different from the straggling houses and neglected court-yards of the poor Szekler nobles. Before the gates of the town is a large open esplanade, forming a promenade, ornamented with avenues of trees and a Turkish kiosk. The gates themselves are still standing, three deep, and looking as terrible as when Kronstadt was still a place of strength, and when its brave magistrate, Michael Weiss, held it with so much glory against the faithless Báthori Gábor, and all the forces which Transylvania could bring against it.

KRONSTADT
FORT OVERLOOKING KRONSTADT

If the reader will understand the situation of Kronstadt, let him imagine an opening in the long line of mountains which separate Transylvania from Wallachia in the form of a triangle, between the legs of which stands an isolated hill. Within this triangle, lies the town of Kronstadt, and on the top of the isolated hill there is a modern fortress of some strength. The mountains come so close down on the little valley, that the walls are in many places built part of the way up their sides. The town itself is regularly and well built, and its towers and walls and bristling spires, standing out against the mountain sides, -- [357] themselves well covered with wood, and fretted with limestone peaks, -- form one of the most picturesque scenes the artist could desire.

A rapid stream rushes in various channels through the streets; and besides serving to keep the Saxons clean, makes itself useful to a host of dyers, fellmongers, tanners, and millers, with which this little Manchester abounds. Kronstadt and its neighbourhood arc in fact the only parts of Transylvania in which any manufactured produce is prepared for exportation, and here it is carried on to a considerable extent. The chief articles produced are woollen cloths, of a coarse description, such as are used for the dresses of the peasants, linen and cotton goods, stockings, [358] skins, leather, wooden bottles of a peculiar form and very much esteemed, and light waggons on wooden springs. The principal part of its exports are to Wallachia and Moldavia. A considerable transit commerce between Vienna and the Principalities is likewise carried on through Kronstadt, which is chiefly in the hands of a privileged company of Greek merchants. This trade is said to have fallen off of late years; it is likely to be still further diminished as the Danube opens better channels of communication.

The population of Kronstadt amounts to thirty-six thousand, by far the greatest of any town in Transylvania, and it is composed of as motley a crew as can well be imagined. The sober plodding Saxon is jostled by the light and cunning Greek; the smooth-faced Armenian, the quaker of the East, in his fur cloak, and high kalpak, moots his match at a bargain in the humble-looking Jew ; and the dirty Boyar from Jassy, proud of his wealth and his nobility, meets his equal in pride in the peasant noble of the Szekler-land. Hungarian magnates and Turkish merchants, Wallack shepherds and gipsy vagabonds make up the motley groups which give life and animation to the streets of Kronstadt.

Our first visit was to the old church, a venerable Gothic structure of elegant proportions. Although the church now belongs to the Lutherans, the national religion of the Saxons, its buttresses [359] bear the somewhat time-eaten statues of Catholic saints, each in its separate niche. The door-ways, rounder than the Gothic arch of that age (1400) with us, are well carved in bold compartments, -- and rare good taste ; the doors themselves are richly worked in the same style. The interior is bold and pure, though rather simple.

All the trades in Transylvania are under the rule of companies and corporations ; and I was much amused by their chartered pride as illustrated in this church. The women occupy rows of benches up the centre of the aisle; but on the sides are arranged a number of seats in regular gradation for the men, divided off into different sets, each set being appropriated to a particular corporation. The heads of the corporation are seated in front of the rest, and their stalls are ornamented with rich Persian carpets, after the manner of the East. In a gallery above, the apprentices of these trades are placed in similar order; first, the tanners, then the shoe-makers, then the masons, and so on, with their arms and insignia painted in gay colours on the front.

As we left the church, the Lutheran college was pointed out to us, and, in a few minutes after, we saw a number of students and professors issuing from its doors in the oddest costume academic fancy ever contrived. The student is clothed in a long, straight-out black coat, reaching below his knees, and fastened from the neck to the waist [360] by a row of broad silver hooks, each two inches long, and so closely set together, that they look like a facing of solid silver. Above this is a black cloak fastened by a huge antique-looking silver chain ; below a pair of black knee-boots, and, to crowu the whole, a monstrous cocked-hat. Except that their cloak was of silk instead of cloth, the professors wore nearly the same dress. Every one as he passed us raised his huge cocked-hat to salute the strangers, and it kept us for full five minutes bare-headed to return this shower of unexpected civilities.51

51 Besides this college, the Saxons have Gymnasia, in Hermannstadt, Schlossburg, Muhlenhach, Mediasch, Bistritz, Groszschenk, and Birthalm.

Beyond the walls of the old town we were shown the great Wallack church, the handsomest belonging to that body in the country, and, what is still moro worthy of remark, rebuilt by an Empress of Russia in 1751. The interior is, as usual in Wallack churches, completely covered with paintings of saints and devils, the latter playing every sort of trick, to cheat the angel, and to overload the balance on the side of sin at the last judgment, which it was possible for the united imaginations of artist and priest to conceive. There is something very eastern in the Greek custom of excluding the women from the body of the church: here they were thrust into an outer part, where they could scarcely even hear the service. We observed [361] several small silver crosses richly ornamented with precious stones, and each pretending to enclose a portion of the true cross.

Though the walls and gates of Kronstadt have been for the most part preserved, -- as indeed they well deserve, for many of the towers are exceedingly picturesque, -- the ditch has been wisely converted to the purposes of a public promenade, and a very beautiful one it makes.

The proximity to Turkey, and the frequent intercourse of its inhabitants with this place, have given to Kronstadt something of Turkish habits and manners. The amber mouth-piece, the long chibouque, the odoriferous tobacco, the delicious dolchazza, and the various other sweetmeats of a Turkish confectioner's -- the coffee-house in the form of a kiosk, the bazaar, and many other peculiarities, remind the traveller of the customs of the East.

As we were walking about after dinner, making some few purchases preparatory to leaving, and more especially of some of the excellent liqueurs for which Kronstadt is so celebrated, W------ found in one of the Kronstadters, an old college-companion, by whom he was heartily welcomed to the town. This was all very pleasant, but then came the difficulty of getting away. We had seen nothing at all, he told us ; and the country was full of wonderful sights which it was quite impossible we should leave without visiting. We remained firm notwithstanding, and returned back to our [362] inn, and ordered the horses to he ready for the next morning. We were scarcely seated, however, before our Kronstadter broke in upon us with his friend Herr v. L------, a gentleman of the neighbourhood, who would not hear of our leaving without a promise of paying him a visit in our way. Besides a fine country to show us, he had the best grounds for chamois and bear-hunting of any in Transylvania, and was himself a most enthusiastic sportsman. This was not to be resisted, and he accordingly bade us good night that he might hasten home and make preparations for the nest morning, we agreeing to be with him at an early hour.

We were off by six, and on our way to Zer-nyest, full of hopes, in which chamois and bears held a conspicuous place. We passed a rich and flourishing village, Rosenau, where, on the hill above, were very extensive ruins of an old castle, formerly one of the strongest in the country. We found Herr v. L---- waiting for us with a whole train of Wallack52 peasants, armed and ready for the sport. After a hearty breakfast, we mounted some small ponies aud followed a clear crystal brook -- Herr v. L------. says, containing the finest-flavoured trout in. the country -- along the foot of the mountain, till we came at last to the base [363] of the Königsberg, one of the highest of this range on which the hunt was to take place. From this point the ascent began, but for another hour we could still ride; so we threw the reins on the ponies' necks, and allowed them to scramble on among the rooks and stones as best they could. These animals seemed so well accustomed to the work, that I could not help thinking they had often been employed at it before, though, perhaps, with other burthens. On inquiring of our host he confirmed the opinion, and said they bad probably been much further; for this was one of the favourite roads of the smugglers, and some of our jägers were among the most notorious of that profession in the country. "You see that old man with the white head," he observed; "he frequently crosses into Wallachia and back again on such errands, and sometimes passes the Danube into Roumelia. On one occasion, he went even as far as Adrianople. The ordinary station, however, is Kimpolung, about one day's journey across the border: there the goods arc delivered to their agent by some house in Bucharest, and are retained in safety till the smuggler arrives, shows the countersign agreed on, receives them, and transports them to the merchant in Kronstadt. The whole affair is arranged in a perfectly businesslike manner, and a very few zwanzigers are considered sufficient payment for the risk. Only a short time since, a gentleman of this neighbourhood sent our old white-headed friend to bring [364] him some cachmere shawls from Kimpolung. The old man threw his gun over his shoulder, filled his wallet with malaj (maize bread), and went out as if in pursuit of game only. As he was returning the officers caught sight of him; and as they knew his character, though they never were able to convict him, they seized and exandned him. He was too sharp for them; before they came up the shawls were hidden under some well-marked rock, and a brace of moor fowl was all his hag contained. Nevertheless, they felt so sure of his guilt, that they threw him into prison. Of course, I could not allow my peasant to be confined without a cause, and I accordingly demanded that lie should, be released if no proof could be brought against him. He was set free, and the next day the gentleman received his shawls."

52 Zernyest is a fief of Kronstadt, and held by peasants (Wallacks), in the same manner as in the Hungarian counties. Our host had taken it on a lease.

And is there no danger of these men betraying their employers? I asked. "None; there is no example of it -- no flogging can get their secret from them. For the rest, the punishment is but slight, and with a good friend and our judges, a little present will generally settle the matter."

"Do you mean," I asked, "that regular smuggling can be carried on over these mountains in spite of the Borderers ?"

"Either in spite of them, or with their consent ; there is no difficulty in either; they are so wretchedly poor, that the smallest bribe will purchase them."

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"And can bulky articles be obtained in this way ?"

"Oh, yes ! the staple commodity is salt, although articles of French, English, and Turkish manufacture are common too. If one horse won't carry them, two will, and it only requires a little more care."

"So," I added, "if I wanted a Turkey carpet in Klausenburg, without paying sixty per cent, duty on it, I could have it?"

"Ho, Juan!" said Herr v. L----- addressing the smuggler, "this gentleman wishes to know if you could get him a Turkey carpet safe over the borders from Bucharest?"

The old man looked up from under his bushy eye-brows with a cunning smile, and for answer, asked quietly, "By what day does the Dumnie wish to have it?"

Herr v. L------seemed quite proud of the skill and courage of his old Wallack peasant. "I could do nothing without him," he observed; "he is the best huntsman, and best mountaineer in the whole country." There is a sort of natural sympathy between sportsmen and smugglers and poachers, -- indeed, the same qualities of mind and habits of body, tend to form the one as the other; and I feel sure that all our best sportsmen would have been poachers or smugglers in other circumstances.

We now dismounted, and leaving our ponies to [366] the care of a peasant, sent off the jägers to beat the side of the mountain, while we prepared to take up our position above. We had still two hours' climbing before us. Our path lay straight up the mountain in a cleft, formed either by the water, or some crack in the rocks, and enclosed on either side by huge cliffs, which towered so straight above our heads, that it made us dizzy to trace their sharp peaks as they succeeded each other. The path was not one of the smoothest, and it often brought us on our hands and knees before we arrived at our position. At last, the gun was fired by the treibers and jiigers to warn us that their beat was begun, and we concealed ourselves, and waited with open ears and eyes and with ready gun the wished-for sound of hoofs on the hard rock. This beat lasted two long hours.

I shall not plague you, reader, with all my reflections on the pleasure of sitting on a cold stone directly in the way of a cutting wind, which rushed from the snow mountain just above us to the sunny plains below, we having been heated with two hours' previous climbing; I shall only say, as Herr v. L------ did, "it requires a little seasoning before one can relish it." For the third time, we were doomed to a blank day; not a chamois was to be found. We were repaid, however, for our trouble, by the beautiful scenery which this mountain offers. It is bold and grand to the highest degree. From my hiding-place, I had a view over [367] nearly the half of Transylvania. I saw three separate elevations of hill and vale, sinking below each other as they receded from the high lands.

As the reader may believe, we were not very much tempted by an offer of our host's of a bear hunt the next day, especially as for that purpose it would have been necessary to remain in the mountains for three days at least. Although our host assured us that bears were very plentiful, and that he generally killed seven or eight in the course of the year, we had heard too much of the extreme probability of a disappointment to try it. I know many Transylvanian gentlemen who never miss a year without going out once or twice on a bear hunt; but, except our host, I know only one other who has ever shot a bear, though I know many that never even saw one.53

53 I have not been able to satisfy myself if the wild goat really exists in these mountains. In Wallachia, I was assured that it did ; but Herr von L------said he had never met either with the wild goat or stein-bock, or indeed with any game of that kind, except the chamois, in the course of his experience. The wild goat, however, is very commonly spoken of, and I have heard many say they have eaten it. It may exist more to the north.

Herr v. L------ told us an excellent story of a bear hunt, which took place in these very mountains, and in his own presence. General V------, the Austrian commander of the forces in this district, had come to Kronstadt to inspect the troops, and had been invited by our friend, in compliment to his rank, to join him in a bear hunt. Now, the [368] General, though more accustomed to drilling than hunting, accepted the invitation, and appeared in due time in a cocked hat and long grey great-coat, the uniform of an Austrian general. When they had taken up their places, the General, with half-a-dozen rifles arrayed before him, paid such devoted attention to a bottle of spirits lie had brought with him, that he quite forgot the object of his coming. At last, however, a huge bear burst suddenly from the cover of the pine forest directly in front of him. At that moment, the bottle was raised so high, that it quite obscured the General's vision, and he did not perceive the intruder till he was close upon him;- -- down went the bottle, up jumped the astonished soldier, and, forgetful of his guns, oft' he started, with the bear clutching at the tails of his great-coat as he ran away. What strange confusion of ideas was muddling the General's intellect at the moment, it is difficult to say; but I suspect he had some notion that the attack was an act of insubordination on the part of bruin, for he called out most lustily, as he ran along, "Back ! rascal, back ! I am a general!" Luckily a poor Wallack peasant had more respect for the epaulettes than the bear, and throwing himself in the way, with nothing but a spear for his defence, he kept the enemy at bay, till our friend and the jägers came up and finished the contest with their rifles.

Although we declined the bear-hunt, we could [369] not resist the offer of Herr v. L------to accompany us in an excursion just across the borders to a Wallachian hermitage, which he described as romantic, wild, and picturesque in the highest degree. It was. too far for one day's journey from Zernyest, so wo left immediately after dinner for Terzbarg, a small village on the very borders of Transylvania, by which our route would lead us. As the parents of our host's lady, an Armenian, lived there, he took us at once to their house and found us accommodations.

Before W------ could be persuaded to leave his bed next morning, I had accompanied our friend to visit the old castle of Terzburg, which is still inhabited and in good preservation. It occupies the point of an isolated rock, of no great height, indeed, but very steep on every side. It is in a singular style, half Byzantine, half Gothic. Its importance in former times was so great, that the Kronstadters received valuable privileges for having built it. At this point begins one of the few practicable passes between Wallachia and Transylvania, and the command of it must often therefore have decided the result of an incursion. Even in the very earliest times, Terzburg seems to have been a chosen point of defence, and it is said to take its German name of Diedrichstein from Theodoric, the chief of the order of German knights, to whom the whole of this district was given by King Andreas, on condition of their defending the frontiers. The many [370] castles, often in ruins, with which the Burzen-land -- as this portion of the Saxon-land is called, from the little river Burze, which flows through it -- abounds, are generally referable to this period; but that of Terzburg, at least as it now stands, has a later origin.

We gained the interior of the castle by a small portal, nearly half way up the tower. A fixed wooden stair now leads to this opening, though it was formerly to be reached only by a ladder, which was always drawn up at night. The ancient door, cased in iron, still exists. It is constructed like a drawbridge, and lets down by iron chains, so as to form a landing-place before the entrance. A little court-yard occupies the centre of the building, and, as usual, it is surrounded by open galleries, communicating with the different apartments. Everything remains in its pristine state, though some of the parts are no longer applied to their original purposes. One strong bastion has been made into a hen-roost, a respectable-looking tower is treated even less respectfully, port-holes serve to trundle mops in, and dishcloths hang where spears were wont to rest. The rooms are small and almost without ornament. On the whole, I was much pleased with Terzburg; for although there is little to describe, there are few old castles which give one a better idea of the times when they were erected, or of the manner of life for which they were adapted, than Terzburg.

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W------ was up on our return; and after taking coffee with this homely Armenian fandly, we mounted our ponies, and set off for Bucses. Just on the other side of the castle we found the quarantine establishment for travellers coming from Turkey; for though the confines of Transylvania really extend four hours beyond this point, yet that part is considered in sporco, and its inhabitants are not allowed to pass without undergoing quarantine. The inhabitants of this district, extra terminos, are a strange wild set of creatures, originally settlers from Wallachia, and as near as possible to a state of barbarism. They are called Kalibaschen from the fCaltdan, or huts in which they live, and arc subject to the jurisdiction of the commander of the castle of Terzburg. They live chiefly by the pasturage of cattle, for which these mountains and valleys offer a tolerable supply; and, although we were told they had been much improved of late years, and had even been collected into villages, yet in appearance they are little less wild than the bears and wolves, their only neighbours.

We took an officer of the quarantine with us to protect us from detention on our return; and pushing on for a short distance along the regular road which conducts from Kronstadt to Kimpo-lung over the pass of Terzburg, we soon deviated to the east, and, following the course of a shallow brook, made its stony bed our road for the first hour. We were next obliged to ascend the [372] mountain by a zig-zag path, worked out by the feet of the sheep and cattle which browse along its sides. About two-thirds up we found a narrow pathway, which conducted us along tbe steep sides of the mountain, and which was eventually to be our road across the frontier. For three hours did we traverse these rocks -- of course, only at a foot pace, for the road was rarely more than two feet wide, and often less -- sometimes proceeding through deep hanging woods, sometimes along the edges of bare precipices, which it made one dizzy to look down. Our ponies were weak; and though accustomed to the mountains, by no means equal to the difficulties of such a road as this. The heat, however, was so oppressive, and rendered us so indisposed for exertion, that we preferred the dangers of riding to the trouble of a safer means of advancing. I had nearly paid dearly for my laziness. As my horse was picking his way over a very tlifficult place where a gap occurred in the rocks, and where he had nothing but their smooth surfaces to fix his feet on, he slipped and fell. Luckily I was cool enough to give him his head, and remain perfectly still: the poor beast, too, kept his balance, and, aware of his danger, instead of all the rush and bustle which a horse commonly makes in recovering himself, he quietly pushed himself up with his nose, raised one leg, felt about till he was sure of a safe footing, and then slowly moved the other. Had either of us swerved but the merest trifle to [373] one side, our lives must have paid for it. As a mass of stone loosened by our fall was rolled over the edge of the precipice, and bounded from rock to rock till it was lost in the mass of black pines which tilled up the bottom of the ravine, I could not help feeling a little uncomfortable at the prospect I had just had of making a similar excursion. Nevertheless I continued to ride on; for, as I said before, the heat was oppressive, and the chance of a broken neck was at the moment less disagreeable than the trouble of exertion.

We passed a fine flock of sheep, consisting of several hundreds of the long-woolled, curly-horned sheep of Transylvania, which were on their road to pasture in Wallachia for the winter. These sheep were the property of a rich peasant. It is no uncommon thing here, to send sheep or cattle not only into Wallachia, but even across the Danube into Turkey for winter grazing; so great a difference is there in the severity of the climate on the north and south sides of this part of the Carpathians.

As we gained the frontier, which is on the very summit of this mountain ridge, and which is marked by a modest wooden cross, we had an extensive view over the Burzen-land, and even over some part of the Szekler-land. The Wallachian sentry, who had left his solitary post to fotch water from a neighbouring spring, -- and a very odd spring that is, too, -- hastened back as he observed our approach, not, as we feared, to oppose our passage, but to pay us [374] the compliment of a military salute, and beg something for his trouble. A pair of tight woollen trousers, a shirt, and sheep-skin cap, formed his uniform, a cross-belt, and a well-cleaned musket, his accoutrements. His guard-room was a sorry shed formed of branches of trees and a few logs; his rations a little Indian corn. The guard ought to consist of six men ; but his comrades, he said, were gone out hunting. A chamois or a roebuck must form an acceptable addition to their meagre fare. These men belong to the Waltachian frontier guard, and are intended to protect the country from border robbers, and to prevent smuggling; though, indeed, where the duty is only five per cent, as in Walla-chia, that is little to be feared. How far their organization extends, or what similarity they may present to those on the other side, I was not able to learn.

The greater part of the pine forests which once covered the mountain we wore now descending, on the Wallachian territory, presented an extraordinary spectacle. During a tremendous storm which occurred some twenty years ago among these mountains, the whole forest had been swept down by a gust of wind -- not singly, but in one mass -- and there lie still the prostrate trunks, bared of their bark and whitened in the sun, covering the whole mountain side with their ruins, and looking as if they were cut down, stripped, and laid out ready for removal. Whether they had been broken off, or uprooted, we [375] were too far off to distinguish ; probably the latter, as the soil was thin, and the pine is more apt to spread its roots than strike them deeply into the soil. It is not impossible that some of those half-fossilized forests buried in our bogs, as well as the bogs themselves, have been thus formed. It is no argument to the contrary, that we never experience storms capable of producing such effects at the present day; for in a country cultivated as ours is, its forests opened, its morasses drained, and its whole climate consequently modified, we have no idea of what the winds arc capable of in the wild mountains and trackless plains of such a district as this : -- in England civilization has tamed the very elements!

An hour's descent on the Walladiian side brought us to the bottom of the first valley, where a clear rivulet, the course of which we followed, led us on to a second, which was terminated by a narrow cleft of the rocks, something like what we have already seen in the Thordai Hasadek, and the cavern of Almas. Here, almost for the first time since we had left Terzburg, did we meet with a sign of man's domination. At the entrance to the cleft, a fence of firs and a little gate, showed that there was something within considered worth protection ; and a small cross, placed at the risk of life on the very highest pinnacle of the rock, looked as though gratitude to the Dispenser of that something, had been there to hallow the possession. We passed the [376] gate, and mounting a steep and narrow foot-path, soon came in sight of the cavern and hermitage of Bucses.

And is it possible that any human beings can have selected so wild and solitary a spot as this, for their residence? -- was the inquiry of all when we first caught a glimpse of the gaping cave, and of the small line of white buildings, which encloses it from without. Our guide soon furnished an answer to the question; for he knocked so loudly at the little door, that an old monk speedily answered the summons; and, learning the object of our visit, welcomed us in Wallachian, and invited us to [377] enter the callugerie or hermitage. In the interior, under the arched vault of the cavern, we found a small Greek chapel, and two other low buildings of wood, containing cells for seven or eight hermits.

HERMITAGE OF BUCSES
HERMITAGE INSIDE THE BUCSES CAVE

At the present time there were only three of them at home -- two old men, whose grey beards we took as testimonies to their virtue, and one neophyte, a half-cunning, half-foolish-looking lad of sixteen. One of them was busily employed in superintending the boiling of a pot, which hung from three sticks, over a wood fire in the open air, and formed their only kitchen, while another was cutting mushrooms and some other species of fungus54 into slices, and hanging them up to dry. I at first imagined all this preparation was for making Schwamm for tinder; but no, it was a winter stock of provisions they were laying up. Our friend assured us that, except this dried fungus and Indian corn, and a little goat's milk, these men probably tasted nothing but water the whole winter through, and they were happy when they had a sufficiency of these. In summer, the shepherds sometimes bring them fresh food, and they themselves collect fruits and roots among the mountains near; but their chief support [378] is derived from the proceeds of their begging, in the form of maize, with which the wanderers return in autumn. All they could offer us to aid our own supplies, was some of this fungus toasted, with a little grease and salt. The fungus was decidedly good, as far as it went, though I believe we could have eaten up the whole store, without feeling satisfied.

54 On the Continent several species of fungus are used in cookery, beside the mushroom, which, if not so delicate, are still well worth attention. One of these reaches the size of an ordinary plate, and cannot weigh less than a pound.

The cave of Bucses, though high and fine, is not extensive; at least, it is not possible to penetrate more than a hundred yards from its entrance, however much farther it may really go. The monks pointed out to us the opening in the direction in which the rest of the cavern extends, and by which a small brook makes its way out to the day; but they have blocked it up so high, to render their cave warmer, that it is no longer possible to reach it.

VALLEY OF BUCSES
VALLEY OF BUCSES

After looking at everything within the hermitage -- the simple church, the yet simpler dwellings, and the most simple dwellers therein -- and after partaking of their rude fare, we left guides and horses to their rest, and wandered out into the valley to admire the extraordinary and savage beauty of the scene. Immediately about the cavern the rocks assumed the form of bold cliffs; on the opposite side, a high pinnacle of rock raised its cross-crowned head to the skies, and further on the black pine covered the mountain sides, and rendered the valley dark and sombre. The stream [379] which separates the two sides of the mountain forms a succession of such beautiful little water-falls, with their glassy clear green basins a-bove, and white foandng spray below, that I could have spent hours in watching them. Reclining on a soft mossy bank by the side of one of these falls, I had delayed as long as possible, under the plea of getting a sketch of this scene, when a noise of quarrelling at the opening of the valley, called me away to see what could possibly have disturbed the repose of a spot, which I had supposed the residence of silence and contentment. Before I could get up, a change had come over the spirit of the scene ; the sounds of quarrelling had ceased, and those of boisterous merriment had taken their place, and the first view [380] got of the picture showed the whole of our party in a full chorus of laughter, with the three hermits standing aside, and though silent, exchanging most angry looks with one another. W -- - soon explained the mystery. It is the custom for visitors to give some trifling sum to the monks in return for such matters as they can furnish them with, which is joyfully accepted by them, and put into the common purse. As we had no small silver, W------had given them a ducat, and to render the present less ostentatious, had slipped it among the salt. One of the elder hermits had received the salt, and bowed an acknowledgment for the gift; the surprise of W------ therefore, was very great on arriving at the bottom of the valley, to find the two others following with melancholy faces, and soon after to hear their complaints, that we had given them nothing. "What, do you consider the gold piece I gave your companion as nothing ?" asked W------, angrily. "Gold ! companion!" burst from the astonished hermits, and in a few seconds they had flown to the cavern, dragged out the offending monk, and were hauling him by the collar to be corrected by W------, buffeting and abusing him handsomely by the way, when I first heard them. The change to a laugh may easily be understood: -- the old rogue was obliged to disgorge his treasure, and we were left to reflect on the moral; -- the which, probably, every one turned to support his own pet theory of morals in general. Musing on such matters we silently [381] retraced our steps through the wild valley, repassed the sentinel, and were again on the narrow mountain road leading to Terzburg.

The sun was just setting as we crossed the frontier, and we had still a long ride before us, with the prospect of passing a considerable part of it in the dark. Notwithstanding all the haste we could make, darkness overtook us; but instead of increased danger, as we had feared, increased safety came with it, for the horses had become so cautious, that they scarcely made a false step the whole of our ride back.

As we approached the rude villages of the Kali-baschen, the notes of a very simple mountain air were borne on the winds, and fell so soft and sweet on the ear, that we could scarcely believe ourselves in such a savage neighbourhood. " Ah !" said Herr von L------, as he caught the sounds, " the young Kalibaschen lovers are not inclined to lose this fine evening: the music you hear, is from their Alpine horns, and is an invitation to their sweethearts to come out to some well-known rendezvous to meet them. The Alpine horn is the Kalisbaschcn's substitute for billets-doux and waiting maids." We little thought, as we passed these savages in the morning, that they had been capable of so much poetry; but what cannot love make poetical? Our friend said the horns were the same as those used by the Swiss peasants; and he described them as long wooden pipes made by the people themselves, [382] and producing very harsh sounds if heard near. It was late when wo arrived at Terzburg; but tho carriages were waiting for us, and, after thanking Herr von L------for his attention and politeness, we pushed on, and were soon deposited at our inn in Kronstadt.

Our route to Hermanstadt led us along the foot of the Carpathians nearly the whole distance. In many parts, the aspect of the country is curious, for the secondary ridges and valleys, running at right angles from the centre chain, are most numerous, and present, on a gigantic scale, tho idea of ridge and furrow, rather than of a succession of mountains.

We passed several trains of waggons on the road, heavily laden with articles of luxury from Vienna, going to Kronstadt and the neighbourhood. Colonial produce seemed to form the bulk of their contents. Most of the waggons wore drawn by twelve horses each. We were much struck with the number of fortified churches we observed in this country. Almost every village churchyard is surrounded by a strong wall, with battlements and port-holes, and they are often strengthened by towers and other means of defence. The history of Transylvania gives but too clear an explanation of the causes of these precautions, and their frequent occurrence brought the picture of former times very forcibly before us. It requires little imagination to conceive the wild Moslem hordes pouring [383] down the passes of the Carpathians -- perhaps sent to enforce the tribute which some bold, but luckless prince had ventured to refuse, or perhaps urged by the love of plunder only -- sweeping over the smiling plains of the Három-Szék and Burzenland and driving away in one mingled crowd the simple inhabitants and their flocks and herds. It is easy to imagine them, as these incursions become more frequent, raising round the village church the village fortress -- the watchman taking his stand on the little tower, and every peasant listening as he drives his plough for the sound of the alarm-bell. The first glimpse of the turban on the mountain-top is sufficient. The warning has gone out -- and now the crowd of frighted women and children, the panting cattle, and the anxious, but firm peasants, headed probably by their humble pastor -- for the Saxons boasted no lordly chivalry -- all bend their hurried steps towards the consecrated fortress. The forces of the enemy are composed of cavalry, and, resistless as they are in the open field, they find the Saxon peasantry a formidable enemy behind their churchyard wall, for they are ready to die to save their wives and daughters from the feared and hated infidel. Exposed on one side to the Tartar, and on the other to the Turk, this beautiful but unhappy country was subject to every misery which the warfare of savages can inflict -- how frightful a list! Many a romance of real life must these villages have witnessed ! To this day the Transylvanian [384] mother stills her restless child with threats of the Tartars coming -- "Ihon jönnek a Tatárok !"55

55 It is said to have been an amusement of the Tartars, to set the Hungarian children before their own little ones, that they might exercise themselves in cutting off heads -- an important practical branch of Tartar education.

We got no further than Fogaras that evening, and it was with the greatest difficulty that we could procure any accommodation there. I think the inns are worse in this part of Transylvania than anywhere else, notwithstanding the much greater prosperity of the country in general. Perhaps I remarked this deficiency the more, because I stood the more in need of their accommodation ; for, in crossing a small river in the dark, the driver had managed to overturn my carriage, and I had got a sound ducking in consequence. Although inhabited by Saxons, and surrounded by the Saxon-land, Fogaras belongs to the Hungarian counties. On this subject the Saxons are very sore, and they say, and with much appearance of reason, that in depriving them of this district, Government has violated the conditions of several grants and charters in their favour.

We reached Hermanstadt early enough to walk round its pretty promenades, and admire the almost Dutch neatness with which everything is kept. The town itself -- the capital of the Saxon-land -- .though tolerably well built, and possessing a handsome square, has a dull and stagnant appearance. [385] Hermanstadt is the head-quarters of the commander-m-chief of the troops in Transylvania, and of course of the staff. Several departments of the Government, as the Customs, Post-superintendence, &c., are located here, but notwithstanding these helps, Hermanstadt is not what it was. The overland trade through Wallachia has almost disappeared, and with it the best days of Hermanstadt.

The first objects we visited on the morning after our arrival were the museum and gallery of Baron Bruckenthal. It has always been one of the peculiar privileges of greatness to choose great instruments for effecting its purposes, and in none was this more remarkable: than in Waria Theresa. This prudent queen, setting aside all the prejudice which exists in Transylvania against the Saxons, raised for the first time in the history of that country, a Saxon -- Baron Bruckenthal -- to the supreme administration. Hcrmanstadt became the seat of Government, Bruckenthal built a splendid palace; formed a large collection of pictures, and a very valuable library of thirteen thousand volumes, and at his death bequeathed the use of them to the public. We found the pictures scarcely deserving the high character we had heard of them, but they are quite as good as those found in many second-rate German and French towns, and they are well worth attention, as they form the only collection in the country. The library is in excellent order, and [386] most freely open to all comers. In the museum we were most struck with the specimens of washed gold; indeed, it is probably in this particular the most complete existing, and contains in itself an explanation of the whole subject of gold washing.

I should recommend all lovers of fine scenery who may visit Hermanstadt, to extend their rambles as far as the Rothen Thurm Pass, one of the most romantic of the valleys which connect Transylvania and Wallachia. Not that I did visit it on the present occasion, for I had seen it before, and the recollection of ten days' dangerous illness spent in the quarantine there, was hardly an inducement to make me return. The valley, however, is most beautiful, the rocks are bold and precipitous, the woods rich, and hanging over the sides of the mountains, and occasionally the most beautiful green glades intervene, that either poet or painter could desire. It is by tins beautiful valley that the Aluta makes its escape to the Danube, and it forms one of the most curious instances I know, of a river passing completely through the centre of a vast mountain chum. At present, the Aluta is of little value ; for, in spite of the orders for removal of mills, by the Prince of Wallachia, its course is entirely obstructed by them. Whether this river could ever be made navigable as far as Transylvania I much question, -- its bed is for miles and miles nothing but a succession of rocks, -- but in Wallachia itself, it will become of the greatest importance.

[387]

I scarcely know whether I ought to make a digression here, and tell my readers something of Wallachia and Moldavia, or pass on without further notice of them ; I trust, however, I may be allowed to intrude a short notice of these Principalities ; for, though I know the subject may be called foreign to the title of my book, yet the fate of these two countries has been so intimately associated with that of Hungary, and for the future, must, I believe, be still more so, that a few words on the matter may not be thrown away.

Wallachia, Moldavia, and Bessarabia, lying between ancient Poland, Hungary, the Danube, and the Black Sea, have in turns, for many centuries past, acknowledged the supremacy of one or other of the great powers on which they border. Hungary, I believe, still claims a right to the suzerainty, though Austria yielded up her claim about a century ago to Turkey. Of late years, these provinces have been governed by princes nominated by the Porte from among the worthless intriguing Greeks of the Fanar. By the treaty of Ackermann, however, Bessarabia was given up to Russia, and with it the command of the mouths of the Danube ; and still more recently, Russia has extended her protection -- under the plea of similarity of religion -- to the other two provinces, and obtained a declaration of their independence from the Porte, in which however, Russia and Turkey are named as protecting powers. By this act, they are allowed to elect their [388] own princes, vote and levy their own taxes, and in fact govern themselves entirely according to their own fancies, provided always, tliat nothing is done contrary to the interests of the protecting powers. From the moment this act was signed, Russia has never ceased her endeavours to extend her own influence, and destroy that of Turkey in these provinces; they now seem at every moment in danger of falling completely into her bands. Gratitude for assistance given to enable them to escape the Moslem yoke, at first rendered the extension of this influence an easy task, but as the Wallachians and Moldavians began to feel a new burthen galling their shoulders, and saw that every day bound it only the more tightly to them, they hesitated, remonstrated, and finally positively refused to support it longer. A constant series of acts of oppression and injustice had rendered the morality of the Boyars, -- as the nobles of these countries are called, -- both private and political, a subject of mockery even for Russians ; but the insolence of Baron lluckmann, the Russian Consul-general, has found the means of awakening them to a sense of their duty, and they have at last staunchly refused to sanction acts which they declare contrary to their rights and liberties. Of course, all resistance, except that of moral power, is impossible. Turkey can offer no assistance, and, as they say, "England and France are a long way off."

The population of Wallachia, Moldavia, and Bessarabia [389] is almost exclusively of Dacian origin ; that of the two former provinces amounts to nearly 1,500,000, that of the latter probably is not more than 20,000. I have travelled over a considerable part of Wallachia and Moldavia, and I never saw two countries, of their extent, so rich in productions, so fruitful in resources. The land is of the very richest quality; the greater part of it an alluvial plain, like the Banat of Hungary, with a climate the most favourable for production. Yet with all these advantages, I never saw a country so thinly populated, nor a population so excessively poor and miserable. I had pitied the Wallacks of Transylvania till I saw their brethren of the Principalities, and found that there were those who might envy them their lot. Years of monopoly, oppression, and insecurity have worked out these consequences. With respect to Bessarabia I cannot speak from personal observation, except of that part which borders the Sulina branch of the Danube, and it is little better than a vast morass. The greater part of the country is, I believe, of much the same nature, and it could be valuable to Russia therefore only in as far as it gave her a command of the mouths of the Danube, and tended to make the Black Sea a Russian Lake.

My readers will probably see now why Wallachia, Moldavia, and Bessarabia concern Hungary. One of them is already in the hands of Russia, and commands the only exit for the productions of [390] Hungary; the other two are ready to fall into the hands of Russia whenever she chooses to seize them, and they form the frontiers of Hungary on the east.

While I am writing this, the news of a great treaty concluded between England and Austria56 has just reached me; and I find by one of the articles that vessels coming from the ports of Wallachia and Moldavia, are to be received on the same terms as if coming from Austrian ports.

56 Of course I allude to the commercial treaty, negotiated with so much talent by Mr. Macgregor. It is with, great regret and astonishment I have seen a question raised in the House of Commons about the meaning of the article referring to Wallachia, and still further confusing the question by mixing it up with the new Turkish treaty, It has been askod, if Turkey will consent to, or if Turkey can, extend her new customs to the Principalities. Turkey has nothing whatever to do with the Principalities in such matters, they are entirely free to make any regulations or treaties of commerce they please with any foreign power.

At last, then, Austria has roused herself and engaged England fairly in the cause. The meaning of that article is simply tins : -- " Russia shall not extend her possessions on the Danube further than she has done already." The necessity for the provision is absolute. Hungary possesses no port on the Danube, that is, no vessel from the Black Sea can possibly come up to any Hungarian town on the Danube and discharge her cargo; if, therefore Hungary is desirous to establish an outlet for her productions by means of the Danube, it can only be [391] done by keeping the ports below the Iron Gates open to her merchants. This has been threatened, first by the duties Russia attempted to impose on vessels entering the Danube, and, on the failure of that, by the gradual filling up of the Sulina mouth, by neglecting the cleansing which was always carried on by the Turks, and latterly, it is said, by the sinking, as if by accident, of some flat-bottomed boats. This scheme was again threatened with counteraction by the formation of a canal or railroad from the Danube to the Black Sea, and it was therefore but reasonable to suppose that Russia would exert her influence with the Princes to throw still further impediments in the way, much as it would have been to their injury. There were only two ways of opposing this, either by engaging England in the maintenance of the security of these provinces, or in at once seizing on them herself. The first has been adopted for the present; let us inquire if the second may not become necessary hereafter. The interests of Europe, of humanity, require that the ambition of Russia should receive a check: I will not waste one line in arguing a proposition which is not questioned by a single man of sense and feeling in Europe. She is preparing the way for future conquest in the south of Europe, and to these conquests Wallachia and Moldavia are the high road. These countries have no force which would enable them to resist her invading army a single day, nor is [392] it possible that for centuries they can have: they have neither the physical means which a mountainous and wooded country afford, nor have they those moral aids -- proud historical recollections, legends of liberty, or the character which long habits of independence give^ -- and which have enabled small knots of men to retain their place as nations when threatened by the most powerful with extinction. For their armies they have a few hundred men each -- " not for fighting," as one of their own officials told me ; " that others do for us," -- but for keeping up a system of quarantine which, as far as possible, destroys their trade and cuts them off from all communication with the Turks. Independent, therefore, these provinces cannot be: the question then is, to whom shall they belong. Turkey is not only unable to hold them, from the ancient hatred they bear to the enemies of their faith, but the extension of her frontiers beyond the Danube rather tends to weaken than strengthen her. No one who is anxious to save Europe from the flood of barbarism which threatens to overflow her from the North, would leave them in the grasp of Russia. Hungary, then, is the only power which could hold them with safety to herself and others. Let Hungary offer the Principalities a frank union, a fair share in the advantages of her constitution, and an equality of rights and privileges, and I have no doubt the Wallachians would gladly join themselves to a country which [393] could guarantee them a national existence, civil and religious freedom, and an identity of material interests. Hungary too would gladly accept a share in the trade of the Black Sea, and might probably be induced to give up her claims on Gallicia for such a compensation, -- aud then, with constitutional Poland reinstated in her integrity on the one side, and constitutional Hungary intervening on the other, the fears of invasion from absolute Russia would be an idle bugbear unworthy a moment's fear; but from no other combination can Europe ever be safe.

But to return to Hermanstadt and the biederef Sachsen. The Hermandstadters are said to be of Flemish origin, and they have got a strange notion that the extraordinary dialect they commonly converse in has a strong resemblance to English, It might have been Hebrew for all I could understand of it. I believe there are not less than seven distinct dialects among these Saxons, all supposed to have been derived from the different parts of Germany from which they originally came. They all spell and write German as it is now spoken. Here as elsewhere, Luther's Bible has formed the language after its own image, but even in reading the Bible they translate it into the common dialect. It is a common joke against the Saxons to ask them how they spell boffleisch, -- their name for bacon, -- and they answer by spelling the classical German word s-p-e-c-k, calling it at the same time boffleisch. [394] Even in the pulpit the clergyman reads in the vulgar dialect.

When we left Hermanstadt and passed through more of the Saxon-land, we had still further reason to admire the habits and character of this people as exhibited by outward appearances. Never in my life did I see more nourishing villages than theirs; even the Wallacks who have settled among them have caught something of their spirit, and look almost comfortable and happy. The houses are well built, and though only of one story, they are always raised some feet above the ground, and are reached by a flight of steps. The gable end, wliich is turned towards the street, generally bears the date of its erection, the cipher of the builder, and, according to a good old Puritan custom, a verse from the Bible, recommending its inhabitants to the care of Providence. The people were well dressed, and we passed in the course of the day a great number of smart lads and lasses, the former with bunches of flowers in their broad-brimmed hats; the latter with showy jackets and their hair braided and ornamented with flowers most tastefully.

And now, reader, we have passed Reismark and Möhlenbach, said adieu to the land of the Saxons, and are again among the Magyars at Karlsburg in my favourite valley of the Maros. I have no need to describe our route any further, as we have passed over it twice before. T believe we have now visited the greater part of Transylvania, very [395] imperfectly of course, and I can safely say of it, in the words of a German writer -- "There is perhaps no country which has not some beauties to exhibit, but I never saw any which, like Transylvania, is all beauty," -- welches so wie Siebenbürgen ganz Schönheit wäre. And many as were the little discomforts and inconveniences we have been obliged to put up with, we have managed to provide against them tolerably well. While writing up my notes of this past day, I cannot, if I look round me, complain of any great misery, or at least, I cannot feel very unhappy about it, do what I will. Krumme Peter's apartment is certainly far inferior to his entertainment, but it contains three beds, and the servants have just covered tbem with our own linen; a supper of roast fowls and salad has satisfied our hunger, and the wine is neither sour nor weak ; and now that I see Niklós has filled my chibouque with choice Latakia, and rested its delicate amber mouthpiece on my pillow, mixed my cool draught of eau sucré and placed it with a novel by my bedside -- why I believe I shall go to bed and read, and smoke for the next hour in as perfect a state of ecstasy as if my couch was down, and its hangings of most costly materials.

Chapters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 P.S.




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