Title


[iii]

HUNGARY

AND

TRANSYLVANIA;


WITH REMARKS ON THEIR CONDITION,

SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND ECONOMICAL.


BY

JOHN PAGET, ESQ.

__________

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS FROM SKETCHES BY MR. HERINO.

__________

Beata Ungheria I se non ei laecia
Pin malmcnare.

DANTE.

_______

A NEW EDITION.

_______

VOL. I.


LONDON:

JOLIN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.

1850.



[v]

DEDICATION

TO HER

FOR WHOSE PLEASURE THIS WORK WAS UNDERTAKEN,
BY WHOSE SMILES ITS PROGRESS HAS
BEEN ENCOURAGED,
AND AT WHOSE DESIRE IT IS NOW PUBLISHED,
I DEDICATE IT
IN TESTIMONY OF MY AFFECTION
AND ESTEEM.

J. P.

[vii]

PREFACE

PREFACE.

__________

BEFORE proceeding with this Work, there are one or two matters which I may as well explain to the reader. Such a mark of my confidence will, I trust, incline him not only to treat me more leniently, but enable him also to judge of me more fairly, and so accuse me only of those faults of which I am really guilty.

I would not willingly deceive him in anything. I am deeply interested in the welfare of Hungary, and I have thought that one great means of promoting it would be to extend the knowledge of that country in the west of Europe, and more especially in England. But although I naturally wish that others should partake of the interest which I feel, I have not thought it either just or wise to conceal, or to gloss over, faults existing either in the country, its institutions, or its [viii] inhabitants. I know there are those who think, that " to write up a country," a traveller should describe everything in its most favourable light; I am not of that opinion, - I do not believe that a false impression can ever effect any lasting good.

On the other hand, I must guard my Hungarian friends against the suspicion that I have " set down aught in malice." I know that many of them will feel sufficiently sore at seeing national defects held up to the gaze of foreigners ; but I think the wiser of them will easily forgive me, when they reflect that others would have been sure to find out these defects if I had not, and might perhaps have discussed them with less charity. I do not anticipate that my opinions will find favour in the eyes of any party or any sect, but they have been independently formed and honestly expressed : if correct, they may be of some use ; if erroneous, they will pass away and be forgotten without doing much harm. To one merit I may safely lay claim - I have not in a single instance betrayed a private confidence, nor, as far as I am aware, written a line which can give just cause of pain to any private individual. I have been [ix] admitted into a great number of houses, I have observed the habits and customs of many families ; but if any obnoxious remark was to be made, I have always removed it so far from the real scene of action as to render it impossible, even for the most malicious, to trace it to its source. That I have attacked parties and sects, that I have criticised bodies of men and national institutions, and that I have spoken freely of public characters, is true ; but, in having done so, I consider myself responsible to no one ; such matters are public property, and fair subjects for public animadversion.

That I have fallen into many errors I feel certain - not that 1 have spared either time or trouble to avoid them ; but seeing how many other travellers have committed, which I can detect, I cannot hope that I shall be able to escape clear from their scrutiny. Instead of asking them to spare me, I invite them to correct me. I may smart under the lash, but my object, the elucidation of truth, will be advanced, and if their remarks are made in a fair spirit I shall not complain.

With respect to the means I enjoyed for acquiring information, I may state that I have visited [x] Hungary on several occasions, that in all I have spent about a year and a half in the country, and that, during that time, I travelled over the greater part of it. Without being able to speak any of the three or four languages properly indigenous to Hungary, I was sufficiently master of German, which is spoken by every one above the rank of the peasantry, and often by them too, to enable me to converse with the Hungarians without difficulty or restraint. From many of them I received the greatest marks of confidence and friendship, and to them I owe it, that I have been able to enter so fully into the present position of Hungarian affairs. That I do not acknowledge these favours more particularly by naming those to whom I am obliged, the reader must not suppose the result of ingratitude on my part, as I am silent solely from a wish not to involve any one in the disagreeable consequences which might spring from his supposed agreement with the opinions which I have expressed.

As I have always felt that written descriptions of the physical characteristics of a country and people convey, after all, but imperfect notions [xi] of them, I thought myself very fortunate when Mr. Hering agreed to accompany me for the purpose of illustrating whatever might be distinctive, or curious, or beautiful. On my return to England, circumstances occurred which rendered it so doubtful when I should be enabled to complete my work that, anxious that Mr. Hering should have an opportunity to make known his talents, and willing in any way to spread an acquaintance with Hungary among the English, I placed the sketch-book at his disposal, and requested him to make use of it in any way he saw fit. The result has been the beautiful volume of "Sketches on the Danube, in Hungary and Transylvania." I have thought myself justified, in three or four instances, in reproducing the sketches already published by Mr. Bering; and, twice I have borrowed from the productions of native artists (in the Pest races and Fiume); but, with these exceptions, the illustrations here given are quite new. The reader must not accuse me of plagiarism if he finds strong marks of similarity between some passages of these volumes, and the introductory pages of the " Sketches." At Mr. Hering's request, I wrote for him those [xii] short notices of the subjects of his engravings ; and I have preferred repeating them here, to breaking the thread of the narrative by referring the reader to another work.

The map is coloured somewhat in imitation of that of Csaplovics, to whom any merit it may possess is due ; and, although I am aware that it is not strictly accurate, yet it is a sufficiently near approximation to the truth, to give a clear idea of one of the greatest national questions in Hungary,—the division of its population into several distinct races, for the most part inhabiting different districts.

To save the trouble of quoting in the body of the Work the authors from whom I have derived information, and to indicate to such as are desirous of a further acquaintance with Hungary, the means by which they may acquire it, I add a list of those Authors, with the titles of their books, in this place.

Geschichte des Ungarischen Reichs, von Johann Christian von Engel, 5 vols. 8vo. 1834.-Die Ge schichte Ungarns, von Dr. J. F. Schneller, 12mo. 1829. - Gemalde von Ungarn, von Johann von Csaplovics, 2 vols. 8vo. 1829.-Neuste statistisch- [xiii] geographische Beschrcibung des Konigreichs Ungarn, Croatien, Slavonien und der Ungarischen Militair-grenze, 1 vol. 8vo. 1832.- Erlauterungen der Grundgesetze fur die Militar-grenze, von Mathias Stopfer, k. k. G6,nz-Werwaltungs-Obcrlieutenant, 1 vol. 8vo. 1831. - Ungarns gesetzgebende Korper auf dem Reichstage zu Pressburg im Jahr 1830, von Joseph Orosz, 2 vols. 8vo. 1831. - Terra Incognita, Notizen uber Ungarn, von J. Orosz, 1 vol. Svo. 1835. - Ueber den Credit, vom Grafen Stephan Szechenyi ; aus dem Ungarischen ubersetzt von Joseph Vojdisek ; 2nd. ed. 1 vol. 8vo. 1830. - Malerische Reise auf dem Waagflusse, von Freyherrn von Mednyansky, 1 vol. 4to. 1826. - Erzahlungen, Sagen, and I,egenden aus Ungarns Vorzeit, von Freyherrn, von Mednyansky, 1 vol. 8vo. 1829. As guide-book I always used Rudolph von Jenny's Handbuch fur Reisende in dem osterreichischen Kaiserstaate, Zweite Auflage, von Adolf Schmidt, 1835. The second volume treats of Hungary, and is a work of great labour and wonderful accuracy. To the English traveller down the Danube, especially if he does not read German, Mr. Murray's "Handbook for Southern Germany" will be found exceedingly useful.

[xiv]

To the artists and engravers who have been employed in this Work, I have to return my best thanks for the manner in which they have executed their several duties, and particularly to Mr. Alexander Fussel, who has transferred Mr. Hering's sketches to the wood, and to Mr. Orrin Smith, who has cut them. Nor can I in justice refuse my printer his share in these thanks, for the success of wood-cuts depends almost as much on the skill and attention of the printer as on those of the artist and engraver.

LONDON, SEPTEMBER, 1839. [xv]

CONTENTS

CONTENTS

OF THE FIRST VOLUME.

__________

CHAPTER I.

PRESBURG.

Viennese Reports of Hungary. — Presburg. — Castle. — Inhabitants. — Members of the Diet. — Dinner Party. — Youth of Hungary. — Theben. — Theatre. — Promenade. — Booksellers. — Journals.

Page 1

CHAPTER II.

THE DIET OF 1835.

Ball-room Studies. — Chamber of Deputies. — Deák. — Debate on Wesselényi's Process. — Kossúth.— MS. Journal.- Prorogation. — Tour to the Neusiedler Lake. — Posting. - Bauern Post. — Lake. — Ruszt and its Wine. — Prince Eszterházy's Palaces. — Eisenstadt. — Eszterház. — Haydn. — Wild Boy. — Castle of Forchtenstein. — Eszterházy Jewels. — Watchman at Edenburg.

Page 26

CHAPTER III.

VALLEY OF THE WAAO.

Valley of the Waag.—Hungarian Travelling Waggons.—Freystadtl. Country Houses. — Erdüdy Horses. — Vorspanu : its origin — advantages and disadvantages.—Haiduk.—The River Waag.—Pillory.—Pistjan.—Numbering the Houses and Kaiser Joseph. — Csejta. — Murders of Elizabeth Báthori.—Betzko: its origin.—The Fate of Stibor.-Trentsin.—Stephan : his virtues and vices.—St.Stephen's day.—Peasant Costumes.

Page 53

[xvi]

CHAPTER IV.

VALLEY OF THE WAAG.

The Sclavacks : their History, Character, Habits, and Appearance. Monastery of Skalka. — Philosophy of Drunkenness.— Imaginary Dangers. — Castle of Trentsin. — The Legend of the Lovers' Well. — Travelling Expenses in Hungary. — Trentsin Bath. — Hungarian Tinkers. — Castle Architecture. — Vagh-Besztercze. — Ennobled Jews. — Traveller's Troubles. — Lipsky's Map. — Szulyon. — Hrisco. — Szolna. — Teplitz. — Sophia Bosnyák.—Catholic Priests : their Hospitality.

Page 82

CHAPTER V.

VALLEY OF THE WAAG.

A Specimen of Vorspann Driving.—The Jew of Tyerhova and Sir Walter Scott.—Diffusion of English Literature.—Valley of Wratna. — A Jewish Landlady. — Sheep and Cattle of Northern Hungary. — The Pupor. — Roads in Arva. — The Alas and the Juden Knipe. — County of Arva. — Castle of Arva. — Peter Varda. — George Thurzo. — Flogging Block. — Rosenberg. — Church of St. Marie. — Inn at St. Miklús. — Cavern of Demenfalva. — Ice Pillars. — Hradek. —Wood Cutting and Floating.

Page 118

CHAPTER VI.

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE HUNGARIAN CHAMBERS.

Functions of the Diet. — History of the Diet under Maria Theresa ; under Joseph II.; his revolutionary Measures opposed and defeated ; under Leopold II. ; under Francis I.—Gravamina and Preferentialia. — Reform Party. — Diet of 1832. —Urbarial [xvii] Reforms. — Chamber of Deputies.—Sessio Circularis. — Petition in Favour of Poland. —Deputies' Salaries. — Composition of the Lower Chamber.—County Members.—Delegate System—its Advantages in Hungary. — Borough Members. — Members of the Clergy —of Magnates, and of Widows of Magnates.—Business of the Diet. — Proposed Reforms in the Lower Chamber. —Chamber of Magnates.—The Palatine.—Debate.—Ferdinand the First or Fifth ?—Trick of the Government.—Character of the Chamber —composed of Prelates, Barons, and Counts of the Kingdom, and Titular Nobles.—Anomalous Position of the Chamber.— Reforms essential to its Independence and Usefulness.

Page 153

CHAPTER VII.

DANUBE FROM PRESBURO TO PEST.

Departure from Presburg.—The Danube.—Regulation of its Course.—Mills.—The Islands Great and Little Schutt.—Raab. —Komorn. — Neszmély and its Wine. —Gran. — Crusaders and Turks.—The Dinner.—Contrast with a Voyage on the Danube before the Introduction of Steam.—Miserable Boats.—Company. —Journey.—Spitz. —Sleeping Accommodations. —The Toilette. — Wissegrfld, and Wissegrúdi Clara. — Beautiful Scenery. — Waitzen.—Approach to Pest

Page 185

CHAPTER VIII.

COUNT SZÉCHENYI ISTVAN.

Count Széchenyi, an Officer of Hussars, a traveller, a Reformer. — Improvement in the Breed of Horses. — Races. — Magyar Language. — Széchenyi's Writings — the " Credit "— his Judgment on England—Character of his Writings.—Establishment of Casino. — Bridge over the Danube. — Nobles taxed. — Steam Navigation.—Political Career.—Prudence.—M. Tasner.

Page 204

[xviii]

CHAPTER IX.

BUDA-PEST.

Drive round the Town.— Fiacres. — New Bridge. — Casino.— Redout.—Quays and Streets.—Sand-storms.—Increase of Pest. — Museum.— Learned Society. — Meyer Höfe.—Neugebkude.— Plain of Rákos. —Ancient Diets. — Modern Reviews. — Races.— Shop Signs. — Bridge of Boats. — Tolls. — Rowing. — Elizabeth Island. — Buda. — Public Buildings. —Royal Statthalterei. — Austrian Policy. — Fortress. — Turks in Hungary. — Turkish Remains. — Environs of Buda. — Love for the Picturesque. — Gödölö.—Bureaucracy.—Blocksberg.

Page 229

CHAPTER X.

FÜRED AND THE BALATON.

Excursion to Füred.—Inn at Márton Vásár.—Houses under ground. — Style of Travelling. — Stuhlweissenburg. —Veszprim. — Minaret. — Bishop. —Treading out the corn.—Füred — our Reception — Theatre.—The Balaton. — Dinner Party. — Soirée. — Hungarian Beauty. — Ball.— Waltzing. — H_'s Adventures at Tihany. — Supper at the Restaurant's—its Consequences.— Serenade. —Gipsy Band. — Four-in-hand Driving. — Tihany. — Monastery.—Fossils.—Tradition of the Peasants.—Second Ball. — The Polonaise.—The Hungarian Dance.—Return.

Page 255

CHAPTER XI.

COUNTRY LIFE AND PEASANTRY.

Occupations of the Hungarian country Gentleman.—Silk-growing. — Merino Sheep. —Granary. — English Horses. — Hunting. — Peasants. — Peasant Cottages at Z—. — Arrangement — Furniture — Plenty and Comfort. — Contrast with other Vil- [xix] lages.—Former State of Peasantry.—Urbarium of Maria Theresa. — Improved Urbarium of 1835. — Peasants not Serfs. — Evil Effects of present System.—Similarity of Urbarial Tenure to English Copyhold.—Grievances of the Peasantry.—Prospect of Improvement.

Page 281

CHAPTER XII.

SCHEMNITZ AND THE MINER OF HUNGARY.

Waitzen Schlag-baum. — Bishop and Bigotry. — Deaf and Dumb School.—Austrian Financial Measures. — Tobacco.—Inn at Terény and Magyar Host. — Nemeti. — The Hack-bred. — Entrance to Schemnitz. — The Calvary Hill. — Legend of the Miner's Daughter.— Mines.—School of Mines.— Mining Students.— Visit to the Mines.—Roman Mines.—Method of Mining among the Romans.—Direction and Management of the Mines. —Pay of the Miners.—Joseph the Second's Adit.—Washing Mills. — Prince Coburg's House.—Magistrates of Schemnita.— Impertinence of an Ober-notair.—The Castle.—The Dwarf and his Spurs.—The Iíaiduk's Roguery

Page 317

CHAPTER XIII.

SCHEMNITZ AND THE MINES OF HUNGARY.

Departure from Schemnitz.—Sunday Dress of the Miners and their Wives.—Neusohl.—The Landlord's Room. —The Market.— The Sclavack Belt.—Dyetva Peasants.—Visit to a Country Gentleman.—Kind Reception.— Smelting-house.—Collection of Minerals.— Beetroot Sugar.—Manufactures in Hungary. — Castle of Lipcse. — Field Nursing. — Mysteries of the Castle. — Sliács. — Bathing in Company.— Altsohl.— Mathias Corvinus. -- Prisons and Prisoners. — Flogging. —Werböczy.— Burnt Village.— The Veil.— Kremnitz.— Mines.— Mountain Fall.— Mint.— The Silberblick

Page 353

[xx]

CHAPTER XIV.

THE HUNGARIAN NOBLES.

Nobility in Hungary a Privilege, not a Rank.—Bulla Aurea, similar to our Magna Charta.—Privileges of Nobles.—Tenure of Property not Feudal. —The Insurrection. —Non-payment of Taxes.—Classes of Nobility.—The Magnates.—Count Crachat. —The Gentry.- The "One-house" Nobles : their Hospitality. —The Constituency of Hungary compared to that of other constitutional Nations.— The Costume of the Nobles.

Page 398

CHAPTER XV.

THE NORTHERN CARPATHIANS.

The Carpathians.—The Krivan.—The Lomnitzer head.— Schmöcks, a Bathing-place.—Excursion to the Valleys of the Kahlbach, and Five Lakes.—A Country Gentleman of the Old School. — Hungarian Freedom compared with English. — A Chamois Hunt.—A Scene in the Mountains.—The Jagers, and their Story of the Bear and the Wood-ranger.—Kcsmark and the Tökölys.— The Zipser Prostestants.— Caraffa's Persecutions.— Mysterious Adventure at Leutschau.

Page 422

CHAPTER XVI

The Church of Kirchdrauf.—Cholera Troubles in Zips.—The Stadt-Hauptmann of Eperies.—Kaschau.—Austrian Officers.— Stephan's Dismissal. — Mines of Schmölnitz. — Cementwasser. —German Settlers.—Rosenau.—Mustaches. —Castle of Murány. —Wesselényi's Wooing of Szécsi Maria.—Requisites for Tra- velling in Hungary.—Cavern of Aggtelek.— A Bivouac.—Miskolcz.— Tokay.—The Theiss.--The Wine of Tokay.

Page 449

[xxi]

CHAPTER XVII.

THE PUSZTA.

The Puszta—its Extent and Formation.—Fertility.—Animals. —A Sunset on the Plains. — The Mirage. — Puszta Village.— Horse-mills.—The Puszta Shepherd—his Morality.—The Bunda. — The Shepherd's Dog. — Debreczen. — The Magyars : their Pride.—Contempt of other Nations—Idleness.—Excitability. — Dancing. — Music and Popular Poetry. — Self-respect. — Love of Country.—Hospitality. — The Hungarian Hussars.—Manufactures of Debreczen. — Reformed College. — Protestantism in Hungary.—Protestant Colleges.— College of Debreczen.—Review. —English Officers in the Austrian Service.—Water-Melons.— Beggars.—The Szolga Biro of Szolnok.

Page 481

CHAPTER XVIII.

MUNICIPALITIES AND TAXATION.

County Meeting at Pest.—Origin of Hungarian Municipalities. —The Municipal Government of Counties.—Municipal Officers. —Fö Ispíln. —Vice-Ispán.— Szolga-biro.—Payment and Election of Magistrates. — County Meetings : their Powers.— Restaurations. — Municipal Government of Towns. — Senatus and Község. — Abuse of Candidation .— Municipal Government of Villages. — Advantages of Decentralization.— The Biro.— Taxation. — Mode of Levying Taxes. Amount of Revenue. — Errors of the System.

Page 535

ILLUSTRATIONS

[xxiii]
[xxiv]

ILLUSTRATIONS

TO THE FIRST VOLUME.

__________

COLOURED MAP TO FACE PAGE 1
PRESBURG 1
SCLAVACK PEASANTS 9
THEBEN ON THE DANUBE 18
FORCHTENSTEIN 47
VORSPANN 53
HAIDUK 62
PILLORY 65
CASTLE OF CSEJTA 71
BETZKO 73
TRENTSIN 81
HUNGARIAN TINKERS 96
STRECSNO 116
ARVA 128
KUBIN 136
BYZANTINE CAPITAL AT ST. MARIA 139
GOTHIC NICHE AT ST. MARIA 140
ICE GROTTO OF DEMENFALVA 143
CASTLE OF WISSFGRAD 198
PEST 229
PEST RACES 242
BUDA, FROM TILE BLOCKSBERG 254
HOUSES UNDER GROUND 256
FURED 260
TIHANY FOSSILS 278
INTERIOR OF PEASANT'S COTTAGE 288
TOLL-BAR NEAR WAITZEN 317
NEMETI 326
MINING STUDENTS OF SCREMNITZ 335
DYETVA PEASANTS 359
FIELD NURSING 367
A BATHING PARTY AT SLIACS 373
GATEWAY AT ALTSOHL CASTLE 380
VEILED PEASANT WOMAN 389
FALL OF MOUNTAIN AT KREMNITZ 393
SMELTING-HOUSE AT KREMNITZ 397
NOBLE AND SERVANT IN FULL COSTUME 421
VALLEY OF THE FIVE LAKES 428
A GENTLEMAN OF THE OLD SCHOOL 432
HUNTING SCENE IN THE CARPATHIANS 438
A ZIPSER GIRL 446
GERMAN SETTLERS OF SCHMOLNITZ 460
CASTLE OF MURANY 470
TOKAY 483
PUSZTA AT SUNSET 484
PUSZTA SHEPHERDS 497
HORSE-MILL 534

_________________________

Erratum. —VOL. I., page 485, line 10, for five thousand square miles, read twenty-two thousand English square miles.




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