Title


[ii]

SUSPENSION BRIDGE OVER THE DANUBE
SUSPENSION BRIDGE OVER THE DANUBE, AT PESTH

[iii]

HUNGARY

AND

TRANSYLVANIA;


WITH REMARKS ON THEIR CONDITION,

SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND ECONOMICAL.


BY

JOHN PAGET, ESQ.

__________

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS FROM SKETCHES BY MR. HERINO.

__________

Beata Ungheria! se non si lascia
Più malmenare.

DANTE.

_______

A NEW EDITION.

_______

VOL. II.


LONDON:

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.

1850.



[iv]

LONDON:
Printed by S. and J. BENTLEY & HENRY FLEY,
Bangor House, Shoe Lane.

[v]

CONTENTS

CONTENTS

OF THE SECOND VOLUME.

__________

CHAPTER I.

DANUBE FROM PETS TO MOLDOVA.

The Zriny. -- The Country below Pest. -- Waste Lands. -- An Accident. -- Mohacs. -- Peterwardein. -- Karlowitz. -- The Drave. -- Semlin. -- The Crusaders. -- The Save. -- Belgrade. -- Danube Navigation. -- The Border Guard : their Laws and Organization. -- The Theiss and Temcs. -- Semendria. -- Georgo Dosa. -- Danube Scenery. -- Servia, and Russian Policy.

Page 1

CHAPTER II.

DANUBE FROM MOLDOVA TO ORSOVA.

Babakay. -- The Vultures. -- Golumbatz. -- St. George's Cavern. -- The Rapids. -- First Roman Inscription. -- Kazan. -- New Road. -- Sterbeczu Almare. -- Trajan's Tablet. -- Via Trajana. -- Orsova. -- New Orsova. -- The Crusaders. -- Visit to the Pasha. -- The Quarantine. -- The Iron Gates. -- Trajan's Bridge.-- its History and Construction. -- Valley of the Cserna. -- Turkish Aqueduct. -- Mehadia -- its Baths and Bathers.

Page 36

CHAPTER III.

BANAT.

Szegedin. -- The Banat -- its History. -- Fertility. -- State of Agriculture. -- Climate. -- Mines.-- Population -- Prosperous Villages. -- The Peasant and the Bishop of Agram. -- The New Urbarium. -- The Kammeral Administration. -- Temesvar. -- Roads. -- Baron Wenkheim's Reforms. -- A Wolf Hunt.

Page 71

[vi]

CHAPTER IV.

THE VALLEY OF HATSZEG.

Valley of the Temes. -- Wallack Beauty. -- Ovid's Tower. -- Iron Works at Ruskberg. -- Effects of regular Work and regular Pay. -- Reformers in Hungary. -- Iron Bridge. -- Iron-gate Pass, between Hungary and Transylvania. -- Hospitality. -- Varhely the Ulpia Trajana of the Romans. -- The Dacians under their native kings -- conquered by Trajan. -- Wallack Language like the Italian. -- Wallacks of Dacian, not Roman, Origin. -- Roman Remains at Várhely. -- Amphitheatre. -- Mosaics.

Page 94

CHAPTER V.

VALLEY OF HATSZEG.

Demsus. -- The Leiter-Wagen. -- Roman Temple -- its Form and probable History. -- Paintings in Wallack Churches. -- Wallack Priests and their Wives. -- Russian Influence over the Members of the Greek Church. -- Origin of the United Greek Church. -- Religious Oppression. -- Education of the Greek Priesthood. -- Village of Várhely. -- The Wallack Women. -- Wallacks and Scotchmen. -- Wallack Vices and Wallack Virtues. -- -The Devil's Dancers. -- Our Host's Family. -- Household Arrangements. -- The Buffalo.

Page 119

CHAPTER VI.

ROUTE TO KLAUSENBERG.

Valley of Hatszeg. -- Wallack Gallantry. -- Transylvanian Travelling. -- Arrival at Vayda Hunyad. -- The Gipsy Girl. -- Hunyadi János. -- Castle of Hunyad. -- The painted Tower. -- A Deputation. -- A Rogue found out. -- Deva. -- Valley of the Maros. -- H----- taken for a Spy. -- Visit to the Mines of Nagy Ag. -- Politeness from a Stranger. -- Transylvania Post-office. -- Sandstone of the Felek.

Page 153

[vii]

CHAPTER VII.

TRANSYLVANIA. -- HISTORY AND POLITICS.

Transylvania. -- Its Population. -- Settlement of the Szeklers, -- of the Magyars, -- of the Saxons, -- under Woiwodes. -- Zápolya. -- Native Princes. -- Bethlen Gábor. -- Aristocratic Democracy. -- Union with Austria. -- Diploma Leopoldinum. -- Confirmed by Maria Theresa. -- Actual Form of Government. -- Constitution infringed. -- Opposition. -- Baron Wesselényi. -- County Meetings. -- Grievances. -- General Vlasita. -- Diet of 1834. -- Archduke Ferdinand. -- History of the Diet. -- Violent Dissolution. -- Moral Opposition.

Page 181

CHAPTER VIII.

NORTH OF TRANSYLVANIA.

Transylvanian Roads. -- A Solitary Inn. -- Drág. -- Zsibo. -- Horse-breeding. -- Old Transylvanian Breed. -- Count Bánffy's Stud. -- English Breed. -- Baron Wesselényi's Stud. -- A Cross. -- Bábolna Arabs -- Interesting Experiment -- Rákótzy. -- Robot. -- Ride to Hadad. -- The Vintage. -- Transylvanian Wines. -- Oak Woods. -- Scotch Farmer. -- A Reformer's Trials. -- State of the Peasantry. -- Urharium. -- Stewards. -- Establishments of the Nobles. -- Social Anomalies. -- Old Fashions. -- The Dinner. -- Drive to Nagy Banya. -- Gipsies. -- Gold Mines. -- Private Speculations. -- Keturn.

Page 211

CHAPTER IX.

THE SALT MINES AND GOLDMINES.

Horse Pair at Klausenburg. -- Moldavian Horses. -- Cholera in Klausenberg. -- Thorda. -- Valley of the Aranyos. -- Miklós and his Peccadilloes. -- A Transylvanian Invitation. -- The Wallack [viii] Judge. -- Thoroczko. -- The Unitarian Clergyman. -- St. Qyörgy. -- A Transylvanian Widow. -- Peasants' Cottages. -- The Cholera. -- A Lady's Road. -- Thordai Hasadék. -- The Salt Mines of Szamos Ujvár. -- The Salt Tax. - -- Karlsburg. -- The Cathedral and krumme Peter. -- Wallack Charity. -- Zalatna. -- Abrud Bánya. -- The Gold Mines of Vörös Patak. -- Csetatie. -- Detonata. -- Return. -- College of Nagy Enyed. -- English Fund. -- System of Education.

Page 255

CHAPTER X.

THE SZEKLERS AND THE SZEKLER-LAND.

The Szeklers -- their ancient Eights and modern Position. -- The Mezöség. -- Maros Vásárhely. -- Chancellor Teleki and his Library. -- A Szekler Inn. -- The Szekler Character. -- Salt Rocks at Szováta. -- The Cholera and the spare Bed. -- Miseria cum aceto. -- Glories of Grock. -- Salt-Mines of Parayd. -- Udvarhely. -- St. Pál. -- Excursion to Almás. -- Superstition. -- - The CaverD. -- Sepsi St. György. -- Kesdi Vásárhely. -- The Trench Brewer. -- The Szekler Schools. -- Szekler Hospitality. -- The Budos. -- The Három-Szék.

Page 312

CHAPTER XI.

THE SAXONS AND THE SAXON LAND.

The Saxon Land. -- Settlement of the Saxons. -- Their Charter. -- Political and Municipal Privileges. -- Saxon Character. -- School Sickness. -- Kronstadt. -- A Hunting Party. -- Smuggling from Wallachia. -- The Bear and the General. -- Terzburg and the German Knights. -- Excursion to Bucses. -- The Kalibaschen. -- The Convent. -- The Valleys of Bucses. -- Virtue in Self-denial. -- The Alpine Horn. -- Fortified Churches and Infidel Invasions. -- Fogaras. -- Hermanstadt. -- Baron Bruchenthal. -- Rothen Thurm Pass. -- A Digression on Wallachia and Moldavia. -- Saxon Language. -- Beauty of Transylvania.

Page 281

[ix]

CHAPTER XII.

KLAUSENBERG IN WINTER.

Transylvanian Hospitality. -- Klausenburg. -- Transylvanian Incomes. -- Money Matters. -- The Gipsy Band. -- Our Quarters. -- The Stove. -- The Great Square. -- The Recruiting tarty. -- A Soirée. -- The Clergy. -- The Reformed Church. -- Religious Opinions. -- The Consistory. -- Domestic Service. -- County Meeting. -- Count Betlilen János. -- Progress of Public Opinion. -- The Arch-Duke. -- The Students and Officers. -- Climate. -- Separation of three Counties. -- The Unitarians. -- Habits of Society. -- The Ladies. -- Education. -- Children and Parents. -- Divorces. -- Casino and Smoking. -- Funerals. -- Schools. -- The Theatre.

Page 396

CHAPTER XIII.

WINTER JOURNEY ACROSS THE PUSZTA.

Return to Pest. -- A Poet. -- Travelling comforts. -- The Carriers -- Gross Wardein. -- Prince Hohenlohe. -- The Italian. -- Paprika Hendel. -- Great Cumania----The Cumaniana and Jazygers. -- The worst Road in Hungary.

Page 437

CHAPTER XIV.

THE CARNIVAL IN PEST.

A Ball. -- Ladies' Costume. -- Luxury and Barbarism. -- University of Pest. -- Number of Schools. -- Austrian System of Education -- its Effects. -- Corruption of Justice. -- Delays of the Law. -- Literature. -- Mr. Kölcsy. -- Baron Josika. -- Arts and Artists. -- The Theatre. -- Magyar Language. -- Mr. Körösi and his Expedition to Thibet. -- Trade Companies. -- Popular Jokes. -- Austria, Hungary, and Russia. -- Blunders of Mr. Quin and other English Writers on Hungary. -- The last Ball of the Carnival. -- The Masquerade. -- The breaking up of the Ice.

Page 448

[x]

CHAPTER XV.

FROM PEST TO FIUME.

Departure from Pest. -- Notary of Tetény. -- Volcanic District. -- Bakonyer Forest. -- Subri. -- Hungarian Robbers. -- Conscription -- Wine of Sorulyo. -- Keszthely.- -- Signs of Civilization. -- Costume of Nagy Kánisa. -- The Drave. -- Death of Zriny. -- Croatia and Sclavonia. -- Slate of the Peasantry. -- Agram. -- Croatian Language. -- Public Feeling in Croatia. -- Smuggling. -- Karlstadt. -- Save and Kulpa.- -- -The Ludovica Road -- its Importance. -- Fiume. -- English Paper Mill. -- . Commerce. -- Productions of Hungary. -- Demand for English Goods in Hungary. -- Causes which impede Commerce, and the means of their removal.

Page 492

[xi]

ILLUSTRATIONS

TO THE SECOND VOLUME.

__________

NEW BRIDGE BETWEEN BUDA AND PEST, TO FACE TITLE PAGE.
BELGRADE 1
BORDER GUARD-HOUSES 17
BABAKAY 36
DANUBE, NEAR KAZAN 41
STERBECZU ALMARE 43
TRAJAN'S TABLET 44
PLAN OF VIA TRAJANA 46
WALLACKS 47
PASHA'S HOUSE AT ORSOVA 50
THE IRON GATES 58
PLAN OF TRAJAN'S BRIDGE ib.
COIN OF TRAJAN'S BRIDGE 60
TURKISH AQUEDUCT 65
VALLEY OF MEHADIA 70
OVID'S TOWER 94
TWO WALLACK HEADS 112
ROMANS AND DACIANS, FROM TRAJAN'S COLUMN 118
ROMAN TEMPLE AT DEMSUS 120
VILLAGE OF VARHELY 131
WALLACK WOMEN 134
[xii]
GIPSY GIRL 159
CASTLE OF HUNYAD 165
VALLEY OF THE MAROS, FROM DEVA CASTLE 180
SOLITARY INN 211
ZSIBO 222
VALLEY OF THE ARANYOS, AT BARE 255
BAYLUKA 276
A SECOND CAVERN ib.
THE DETONATA 302
VALLEY OF ALMÁS 331
KRONSTADT 357
HERMITAGE OF BUCSES 376
VALLEY OF BUCSES 379
TRANSYLVANIAN GROOM AND HOUSEMAID 396
OLD TOWER AT KLAUSENBERG 436
HUNGARIAN LADY IN HER NATIONAL COSTUME 448
WOMEN'S HEAD-DRESSES 502
FIUME FROM THE PORTA UNGARICA 547

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