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CHAPTER I.

GEOGRAPHICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE.

Limits, dimensions, and population of Roumania-Comparison with England -Configuration of the surface--Altitudes of towns- -Mountains-Appearance of the country-The region of the plains-Plants and agricultural condition--The peasantry-Female navvies--Costumes-wells--Subterranean dwellings-Marsh fever-Travelling, past and present-Zone of the hills-Plants, Hoovers, fruits, and cereals-Cheap fruits-Improved dwellings-Wages of labourers-Petroleum wells-Rock-salt-Mines The Carpathians -Character of the scenery-Alpine trees and plants-Sinai-The King's summer residence-The monastery-- Conveniences for visitors, baths, &c.-Occupations of visitors-Beautiful scenery--The new palace-The King and (queen-Geology of Roumania- Scanty-details-The chief deposits and their localities-Minerals-Salt-Petrolcum-Lignite-Ozokerit-Hæmatite- Undeveloped mineral wealth.

I.

The kingdom of Roumania is situated between 22° 29' and 29° 42' east of Greenwich, and between 43° 37' and 48° 13' north of the equator. Its general boundaries are, on the t and south, the Pruth and the Danube, with the exception of the Dobrudscha south of the latter river, at its embouchures, and on the west and north by the Carpathian mountains, along whose heights the boundary line runs. The it which separates it from Bulgaria on the south-east leaves the Danube just east of Slipstream, and runs irregularly a south-easterly direction until it reaches the Black Sea at nine miles and a half south of Magalia. (Northeast of this line runs the Roumanian Railway from Craved Constants or Kustendjie, and south-west of it the Bulgarian line from Rustchuk to Varna.) The kingdom presents form of an irregular blunted crescent, and it is very difficult to speak of its 'length' and `breadth ;' but so far as we able to estimate its dimensions they areas follows :-A straight line drawn from Verciorova, the boundary on the at the 'Iron Gates ' of the Danube, to the Sulina mouth [4] of the same river of the east, is about 358 wiles; and another from the boundary near Predeal in the Carpathians, on the line of railway from Ploiesti to Kronstadt, Transylvania, to the southernmost limit below Mangalia on the Black Sea, is about 188 miles. 1

The approximate area of Roumania is 49,250 square miles, and when it is added that the area, of England and Wales is nearly 51,000 square miles, the reader will be able to form an estimate of the extent of the country. 2 But having made this comparison, let us carry it a step further. According to the latest estimates of the population there are about 5,376,000 inhabitants in Roumania against 25,968,286 (according to last year's census) in England and Wales; in other words, with an area equal to that of England, Roumania has about one-fifth of its population, or about the same as Ireland. 3

The general configuration of the surface of the country may be described as an irregular inclined plane sloping down [5] from the summits of the Carpathians to the northern or left bank of the Danube, and it is traversed by numerous water- courses taking their rise in the mountains and falling into the great river, which render it well adapted for every kind of agricultural industry. The character of the gradients will be best understood by a reference to the map, with the aid of the following few figures. The towns of Galatz and Braila or Ibrail, situated on the Danube, are fifteen mètres above the sea-level, a mètre being, as the reader doubtless knows, equal to 1.095, or as nearly as possible 1 1/16 yard. At Bucarest, the capital, which, is thirty or forty miles inland, the land rises to a height of seventy-seven mètres ;4 still further inland, where the, elevation from the plain to the hill country becomes perceptible, the town of Ploiesti is 141 mètres above the sea, whilst Tirgovistea and Iasi (Jarsy), each receding farther into the hills, stand respectively at altitudes of 262 and 318 metres, the last-named city (the former capital of Moldavia) reaching therefore a height of over 1,000 feet above the sea-level. Or again, the plain which stretches along the whole extent of the southern part of the country nay be said to occupy, roughly speaking, about a third; then comes a region of hills rising to a height of about 1,500 feet ; and beyond these the Carpathian range, forming, as it were, a great rampart to the north and east, reckons amongst its eight or nine hundred peaks many that rise to a height of $,000 to 9,000 feet above the sea-level. The highest of those summits is either Pionul (in Moldavia) or Caraïman, near Sinaïa (Wallachia), the summer residence of the Court, which are nearly 9,000 feet high; the latter is easily accessible, even to ladies if they are fair climbers, and affords a magnificent view of the surrounding scenery.5The aspect of the country, as the traveller moves inland from the Danube to the heights of the Carpathians, is very striking; and as the winter travelled at one time or another along the greater part [6] of the river, both by land and water, and from the bank Giurgevo to the frontier in the mountains, a brief account his impressions and observations maybe found more interesting than a mere dry geographical description of the different zones.6

1 The mode in which we ascertained these measurements was by comparing four, independently made. One was by Mr. Weller, the artist of one maps; the second by the author, being the average of four or five maps; the third by an English official friend in Roumania, who has all the best maps at his disposal; and the fourth from Baedeker. Designating these respectively as a, b, c, and d, we obtained the following very approximate results:-

From Verciorova to the Salina mouth. a. 355 miles b. 356 miles e. 358 miles d. 360 miles
From Predeal to boundary S. of Mangalia a. 185 miles b. 188 miles c. 189 miles d. 190 miles


From Fife-Cookson's map, in his work With the Armies of the Balkans, the measurements respectively arc 355 and 186 miles. 2 The area is obtained by a somewhat similar process to the line measurements, excepting that here we have been obliged to employ figure from various works (notably that of M. Aurelian and tare Deports of Consul Vivian and of the Roumanian Geographical Society), and to take into consideration the exchange of Bessarabia for the Dobrudscha, which has not been e done by Roumanian writers since that alteration was made. The Got? Almanack of 1881 gives the area as 129,947 square kilos. 3 There has been no census in Roumania since 1859-60, when the population is said to have been 4,424,961; now it is set down as above, and effort have been made to analyse this estimate and to classify the population according to nationalities arid religion. It is, however, quite impossible to do so with accuracy; indeed the consul of Galatz taken last your shows that the whole can hardly be regarded as approximate. What we know is that about 4,600,000 of the population are Roumanians and of the Orthodox Greek faith; probably 400,000 are Jews, 200,000 gipsies, and the rest Germans, Szeklers Servians and Bulgarians, Hungarians, Armenians, Russians, Greeks, Tar French, English, Swiss, &c. 4 Prince Jon Ghika says 87 mètres. 5 According to various works and maps, the heights of the mountain summits differ. In his work, Terra Nostra, edition of 1880, M. Aurelian gives the of Pionul as 2,720.1 metres, or about 8,934 English feet, and that of Caraïman as 2,650.2 metres, or 8,705 feet ; but some of the maps give measurements Differing from these. 6 Fuller details concerning the soil and agricultural productions will be found in the chapter devoted to those subjects.

II.

The appearance of the plain on leaving the flat monotonous banks of the Danube is anything but prepossessing Although the land begins to rise almost immediately, the surrounding scenery is flat and arid. The soil, which black or dark grey, is chiefly argillo-siliceous, and the plain is overrun with coarse grass, weeds, and stunted shrub diversified by fields of maize, patches of yellow gourds and kitchen vegetables. Here and there the railway run through or skirts plantations. The chief plants in this region (and this applies to the plains generally) are willows, alders, poplars, and tamarinds, but chiefly willows and poplars amongst the trees and larger plants ; maize, wheat, millet, and other cereals, and a variety of fruits and vegetables which will be spoken of in connection with the more elevated regions. The first impression which is made upon the traveller coming from our own beautiful hedgerows and pas tares, or from the richly cultivated plains of Transylvania, is that agriculture is slovenly and neglected, and that impression is never wholly lost in whatever direction he may travel although, as we shall see presently, the higher zones are much more carefully cultivated. 1

The peasantry at work in the fields present a novel, and interesting appearance to the stranger, and still more striking are some of their habitations. The men generally wear, a long white coarse linen blouse with trousers of the same material. The blouse is drawn in at the waist by a coil of cords or by a belt, and frequently sandals are worn, in which case the cords fastening them are wound some distance up [7] the leg. Hats of common felt, cheap cloth, or high cylindrical caps of sheepskin, complete external attire. In winter sheepskins take the place of the coarse linen tunic. There are two types of face to be met with amongst them, both of which are here depicted. The one has long moustaches and shaven face; the other type, which is said to resemble the Dacians of Trajan's Column, has the hair growing all over the face The latter appeared to the author to resemble the generality of Russian peasants, and this view was confirmed by one or two leading observers in the country.3

ROUMANIAN YEASANTS IN WORKING DRESS [8]

The women, as in many other continental countries, are the chief workers in the fields, and they are said to be much more industrious than the men. They are not alone engaged in agricultural pursuits, but perform the work of navvies making roads, and along with the men digging railway embankments. They usually wear a kerchief rather gracefully folded over the head and under the chin; the upper part of the body is clothed in a loose-fitting jacket or bodice, sometimes white, but often of very bright showy material, and the lower limbs are covered with a skirt which is usually of a darker colour than the jacket; but this is also frequently made of a bright-coloured fabric. This is their every-day dress, and thus habited the men work with square-bladed spades resembling our own, whilst those of the women have handles as long as a broomstick and bent spade- or heart- shaped blades. The gala or holiday dresses of the peasantry [9] are very handsome, each district having its own peculiar costume, but of these we will say a few words hereafter. Sometimes; as one walks or drives through the country, he may see he peasants gossiping at the well, which is a hole dug in the ground and fenced in with planks, the bucket being raised and lowered by means of a very primitive contrivance. This consists of a horizontal tree-trunk swinging upon anther tall vertical one forked at the top; a chain depends from one end of the horizontal beam or bar, to which the bucket is attached, whilst the other end is counterpoised by means of stones. Some of the wells are worked with a windlass and fly-wheel, but the one just described frequently attracts the traveller's notice.

PEASANTS AT A WELL

More primitive even than the wells are some of the peasants' houses in the plains, if the hovels which serve as habitations can be so dignified. A large hole, somewhat rambling in shape an old-fashioned saw-pit, but of course of greater dimensions, is dug deep into the ground. This is lined with clay, if necessary, and from the ground or immediately above it a roof is formed of branches and. twigs, in the centre of which a hole is left for the issue of smoke. Sometimes a primitive doorway forms the entrance, and the people descend either by steps or an inclined plane, whilst at e opposite end a window is inserted. Occasionally, but not. ways, a small drain is cut round these semi-subterranean dwellings, which, as already stated, are chiefly to be found on plains, for the purpose of carrying off surface water. It hardly necessary to say that in these underground cells women, and children live together higgledy-piggledy, that the result of such an existence is widespread disease. h fever is one of the most prevalent and malignant maladies of the plains ; there is hardly a family (and the families of the peasantry are very numerous) in which one or more children have not been carried off by this fever. Still e are those who maintain that the subterranean houses not unhealthy, and they are not necessarily an indication poverty. Such hovels; it is said, were first constructed in order that they might escape the observation of those bands [10] of marauders, first of one nation, then of another, who have at various times overrun and pillaged the fair Danubian territory; that they were originally surrounded by trees which have been cut down for firewood; and that the spirit of conservatism causes many peasants, otherwise well-to-do, to prefer these underground dwellings to the cottages of modern construction which constitute the villages of the higher lands. This seems a plausible explanation of their presence; but in a country which is largely cultivated, as we shall hear, by a peasant proprietary, such a primitive mode of existence, worthy of the days when the barbarians ravaged Roumanian territory, is not likely long to continue.

SUBTERRANEAN DWELLINGS WITH PEASANTS

So far as the peasantry are concerned, they are a fine healthy body of men and women, and we shall have an opportunity further on of enquiring into their habits and condition.

After travelling inland in imagination for the best part of a day-for a Roumanian railway train does not emulate the `Flying Dutchman' in rapidity, although it is a considerable advance upon the old mode of progression when a dozen horses were often requisite to drag a single car. carriage along the muddy- roads--and having left the city of [11] Bucarest with its many cupolas and spires behind us for the present, we approach the second, more elevated tract of country.1

As the distance from the Danube increases, we enter upon a much more diversified and smiling landscape, and almost every plant growth of the sub-tropical and temperate cones is to be found there. Amongst trees the oak, elm, and beech are the most conspicuous ; but besides these the maple, sycamore, mountain ash, lime, horse-chestnut, acacia; and of fruit trees, the walnut, hazel nut, plum, medlar, cherry, apple, pear, and vine are frequent. Fields of maize are interspersed with beds of bright yellow gourds. Wheat, oats, millet, and other cereals are common, and, in the gardens, roses, geraniums, verbenas, asters, mignonette, and a great variety of other well-known flowers of the temperate cone, add beauty and variety to the scene. Indeed, so far as natural productions are concerned, this part of Roumania ayes nothing to be desired, and that these blessings of the soil are as plentiful as they are good is to be found in the cheapness of the fruits offered for sale. Little baskets confining twenty or thirty fine purple plums may be had for a [12] penny, and beautiful peaches or large bunches of fine grapes, of natural growth of course, are purchasable at a proportionately low price. Neither of the latter fruits is equal to those forced in our houses, but they are well-flavoured and tender.

And so, too, the peasantry and their habitations wear the appearance of comfort and prosperity. No more subterranean dwellings, but, in place thereof, villages consisting habitations which resemble more or less the cottages a chälets of Switzerland and the Tyrol, although they are not generally so well built nor yet so picturesque. They are usually constructed of wood, bricks, and plaster, and are we whitewashed, their roofs consisting of little wooden or baked clay tiles or slates, and they have every convenience belonging to such dwellings. The roadside cabarets, or public-house are often very picturesque, the roof being frequently ornamented with festoons of vines indicative of the creature com forts dispensed within.

ENTRANCE TO CARPATHIAN VILLAGE

As we enter into the hill country, groups of peasants men and women, may be seen on the roads and railways keeping them in order, cutting banks and repairing bridges [13] and the women working with the peculiar-shaped long spades of which mention has already been made.

The wages of such labourers, it may be remarked in sing, are, for men, 2f. 50c., and for women 1f 5Oc., respectively per day. Here, too, we begin to have indications of something besides agricultural industry. The smell of petroleum assails the olfactory organs, and we often see carts drawn by oxen or buffaloes, containing one or more barrels of the mineral oil; whilst on the hills are to be seen the rude wooden structures which cover the wells, and roads or tramways along which the oil is carried into the valley below. As we advance further into the mountains, evidences of or mineral treasure present themselves. This is rock of which cartloads may be seen moving to the railway s or piled up in various places. This valuable mineral in no way resembles our rock-salt, and the large blocks might easily be mistaken for granite or rough unpolished marble. The appearance and mode of working one of the mines of the country will be described hereafter; and the chief localities in which salt and petroleum are [14] raised will be found on our geographical map. The principal salt mines are the Doftana (Prahova) near Camping, Poiana, and Slanic (Prahova), Ocnele Mari (Ramnicu), Targu Ocna (Bacau). The chief petroleum wells are also near Campina at Colibasu, Pacuri, Doftanet, Telega, &c., Moineste, &c., (Bacau). There are refineries at Tirgovistea, Peatra, Ploiesti, &c.

MEN AND WOMEN ROAD-MAKING

1 The Roumanians recognise that a great part of the country is much neglected, and that weeds are allowed to grow to the detriment of agriculture The Indépendance Roumaine, September 13 [26], 1881, had a strong article on the subject. 2 We do not intend to discuss this question, which is so interesting to Roumanians, but we cannot help drawing attention to Paget's remarks on the subject. He says, in one of his headings, 'Wallacks of Dacian, not Roman origin;' then (p. 112) he gives woodcuts of two heads with moustache only sketched without any reference to the question), and somewhat resembling our cut, and leaves his readers to compare thorn with the figures on Trajan's Column. He says that he feels satisfied they will agree with his view. They Do not, however, in the least resemble either the Romans with bare, or the with bearded faces, on the column, and throw no light whatever upon the vexed question. The general opinion of persons who have observed the peasantry is that those of the mountain districts afford, in their type of face, habits, and some words, the best illustrations in support of the Daco-Roman hypothesis. 3 Wilkinson's account of travelling in his day (l820) is worth quoting. The mode of travelling,' he says, 'in the two principalities is so expeditious that in this respect it is not equalled in any other country. Their post establishments are well organised ; there are post-houses in all directions, and they abundantly provided with horses. Every idea of comfort must, however, set aside by those who are willing to conform themselves to the common method of riding post. A kind of vehicle is given which is not unlike a very 1 crate of earthenware fastened to lour small wheels by means of wooden and altogether not higher than a common wheelbarrow. It is filled straw, and the traveller sits in the middle of it, keeping the upper part his body in an erect position, and finding great difficulty to cram his legs Four horses are attached to it by cords, which form the whole harness, and driven by one postilion on horseback, they set off at full speed neither stop nor slacken their pace until they reach the next post-house. Within the distance of half a mile from it, the postilion gives warning of his by a repeated and great cracking of his whip, so that by the time of another cart is got ready to receive the traveller' (p. 93). (This is the system in practice in some parts of Russia, and the author travelled In this fashion, in the winter of 1849-50, from St. Petersburg to the Prussian frontier.) Fifty years later matters seem to have retrograded in Roumania, for Kunisch, an amusing German writer, describes his journey from Giurgevo rarest, now effected in two or three hours by rail, which it then took him twenty-four hours to accomplish, at first with sixteen horses and four positions, and during the later stages with eighteen and twenty-two horses. (Reisbilder, pp. 73-81. Berlin : Effert and Lindtner.)

III.

But we must dwell no longer in this realm of fruitfulness, and must pass on to the alpine regions beyond. In so doing we change our altitude much more rapidly than heretofore, and as we travel through the ascending valleys into the pine-clad rocks and mountains it is difficult to know with what European highlands to draw a comparison. ` Is it Wales? ' the English realer will naturally enquire. ` No, for the mountains are too sharp and rocky, and yet not nearly so barren as those of our principality.' `Are we in the Pyrenees?' Certainly not; the vegetation is not so rich, few waterfalls are visible, and there is a slovenly appearance about the clayey or sandy surface, reddened here and there by ferruginous streamlets, and covered with weedy-looking brushwood which is quite at variance with the sloping gardens of the sunny south of France. Is the scenery Dolomitic? In a sense it is. The summits of the mountains are often very jagged, Rosszähne or horses' teeth as they are called, but they are dark grey and not white or yellow as the Dolomites. The trees are the same as in other alpine lands, firs, pines, larch, and birch growing thickly to a height of about 5,000 or 6,000 feet above the sea-level; then come grass and alpine flowers, and finally the rough jagged summit. Whatever region it may resemble, and perhaps its nearest analogues are the wilder portions of the Bavarian Alps or the less rugged parts of the Tyrol, it is lovely and romantic, and needs only to be visited by a few Western tourists to become an extension of the playground of Europe; for, in combination with beautiful scenery, there are charming costumes, primitive manners, and some interesting [15] phases of Oriental life. And should his way lead him to Sinaia, the summer residence of the Court, and the sanatorium to which the people of Bucarest resort, not as yet in great numbers, the visitor will readily admit that there few spots in Europe better calculated to afford rest and reshment to the wearied mind.1

Sinaia presents many attractions for the tourist. Nestling on the slopes of hills at the junction of three valleys, and immediately surrounded by mountains which vary in fight from 3,000 to 8,000 or 9,000 feet above the sea-level, and are easily accessible to an ordinary mountaineer, it consists of a fine old monastery, the temporary residence of Court, two good old-fashioned hotels, and a large number of pretty villas, the property of wealthy landed proprietors, officials, and merchants of Bucarest. There is a casino, or reading-room, and small concert hall, a beautiful bathing establishment, and a garden in which a military band discourses lively and lovely music every evening within hearing the guests whilst they are at dinner under verandahs front of the hotels. The monastery is situated upon high hill approached from the valley below by sloping walks and drives, and it consists of two large curtilages surrounded by low dwellings, which were formerly (and are still to some extent) occupied by monks, and now serve as the residences of the Court and its attendants. The two curtilages are really one divided across the centre, and in each ion is a small Byzantine church, in which the service e Orthodox Greek faith is conducted. At the further extremity of the convent are the apartments of the King [16] and Queen, and it is hardly necessary to add that everything is done to render this old building suitable for the abode of royalty.2 At the side of the monastery is a verdant plateau, from which there is a beautiful view, and whereon the peasantry, as well as many officers and ladies of the Court, may be seen, usually on Sunday afternoon, dancing the national dances of the country, and more particularly the national dance, the `Hora,' of which some account will be given hereafter. Behind the monastery a small valley penetrates into the mountains. This valley is, in reality, an extensive wood, containing some magnificent forest trees and replete with ferns and wild flowers, whilst through the centre of it a river rushes headlong, forming, as it descends; three beautiful cascades, the last or highest being surmounted by a towering rock, to ascend which, alone, is a good morning's healthful enjoyment. Behind this rock rise the Carpathian peaks, Caraiman, Verful, &c., and from the summits of these, which may be reached in two or three hours, it is said that on a clear day the distant Balkans are visible across the Danube.

But if Sinaia, with its surroundings, is beautiful to-day what will it be in the future? Close to the railway station on a conspicuous eminence, a magnificent hotel is in course of erection to meet the wants of the increasing number o visitors. At present the King only possesses, besides his temporary residence in the monastery, a small chalet known as the ` Pavillon de Chasse,' situated in the woods behind the monastery. Although this is externally an unassuming little villa, the interior is beautifully decorated with carve oak, and is furnished with exquisite articles of the same material, and generally with a taste for which the first lady of the land is so widely reputed. But the King is also erecting, in a favoured situation close at hand, a beautiful summer palace, which will command a magnificent view of the surrounding scenery ; and there he and his Queen will [17] no doubt continue, as they do in their temporary residence, dispense a generous hospitality to visitors, and to secure goodwill and popularity amongst their subjects.' 3

But we must apologise for this digression, and return to our general survey.

1 Sinaia may be visited either from Bucarest or Transylvania. If from Bucarest, the traveller may go by the railway from Vienna to that city in thirty hours, and forward to Sinaia in about four hours more, or he may land at Giurgevo either on his way from Constantinople by Varna and Rustchuk, or from the steamer down the Danube from Pesth. If he approaches Transylvania, it is from Kronstadt, which is only a couple of hours from Although a visit to Sinaia only is here described, as being the most accessible to ordinary travellers, there are many beautiful tours to be made in the Carpathians, and some of the more hardy of the young Roumanians have visited Western Europe assured the author that the outlying districts Carpathians afford features of interest to pedestrians which are not to in any of our known mountain districts. 2 The monastery of Sinaia was founded by the Grand Sparthar Michael Cantacuzene, brother of Voivode Sherban Cantacuzene, in the year 1695. 3 It is curious to note, in passing, that of about 400 men who were at work on e last year, 150 were Germans, and nearly all the rest were Italians.

IV.

In speaking of the appearance of the surface it has been mentioned that it is sandy or clayey, and it may be useful now to say a few words concerning the geological formations the country. Little has been done by the native geologists in this direction, and the knowledge which we possess is derived from the observations of a few foreigners who have published works dealing incidentally with this region. 1 The whole of Roumania may be said to form the northern portion of the basin of the Lower Danube. In Bulgaria, the southern side of the river, where the banks often to a height of 300 or 400 feet, there are distinct traces the miocene formation; but there, as on the northern banks, before the hills are reached, there is a wide plain of loess, tertiary alluvial deposit. On the northern or Roumanian bank, beginning close to the Iron Gates in west, and extending to the eastern embouchures of the Danube, in fact over the whole zone of the plain already referred to, this alluvial deposit is found, and at the foot of the Carpathians it sometimes attains the depth of from 150 to 300 feet, and imparts to the country a neglected desert appearance where the surface is not richly wooded or agriculturally clothed in green. The second zone-that is to say, the lower hills and mountains--is chiefly of miocene formation; but beneath this, and showing itself at the surface in various parts, are strata of what Lyell calls `a subordinate member of that vast deposit of sandstone and [18] shale which is provincially called 'flysch," and which is believed to form part of the Eocene series.' 2 In this region, which is called by the Roumanians the region of vines, are to be found marl, sandstone, chalk, and gypsum, with rocksalt, petroleum, and lignite. The last-named is an important product of the country, being used along with wood on the railways, and in brick and lime kilns.

The southern slopes of the Carpathians consist of various older strata-secondary, primary, and metamorphic-and the rocks of which they are composed are limestone, marble, schist (mica-schist and slate), and gneiss. On the summits are found conglomerates formed of quartz, limestone, an sandstone.

To this meagre and superficial outline of the geological formations of the country we have only to add that the inclination of the strata is generally downwards in the direction of the Danube, and that they are often contorted in a very remarkable manner.3

We have already spoken of the deposits of salt, petroleum, and lignite, and in association with the second is found the substance known as ozokerit or fossil wax. This is a brownish-yellow translucent crystalline hydrocarbon which softens with the warmth of the hand, and burns with a bright light. It has never been industrially applied, except in small quantities by the peasantry, who then selves fabricate rude candles from it; but this is owing rather to want of enterprise than to scarcity of the deposit. Anthracite, too, is present in various places, but it is not worked. Of the existence of iron there is no doubt whatever. Not only are there indications of it in the ferruginous [19] brooks and springs, but it has been found in association with coal in various parts of the country.4 Specimens of hæmatite have several times been submitted to analysis, but the results were very unsatisfactory. One sample tested by M. Hanon gave only 35.5 per cent., and another by Dr. Bernath yielded 40 per cent., of metallic iron. That gold has been found and was worked in the Carpathians as far back as the Dacian age is well known; and, according to modern writers, cobalt, sulphur, arsenic, copper,5 and lead also present in different districts, but the workable minerals of Roumania are at present limited to salt, petroleunm, and lignite; and, looking to the importance of the subject, it is much to be regretted that the Government does not take the same means to instruct the population practical geology and mineralogy as are employed to diseminate agricultural knowledge at the excellent institution which reference will be made hereafter. If the people only allowed to develop their industries in peace, it will doubt soon become apparent that the strata are charged with considerable stores of mineral wealth.

1 The chief are R. F. Peters (Die Donau und ihr Gebiet. Leipzig : Brockhaus, 1876. Cap. xii. p. 313), Fuchs, Bernath, and D. T. Ansted. There have also been isolated memoirs published by Roumanians, but, so far as we could ascertain, no systematic work is extant. The best general works, touching also on geology, are those of Aurelian and Obedenare. 2 Principles of Geology, vol. i. p. 209. 3 We believe this is really all that is known of the general stratitication and although little that is positive has been revealed, writers have made up for the deficiency by any amount of negative description. Such writers a Aurelian and Obedenare simply deplore the paucity of information, whit Fuchs, an able and industrious geologist, says: 'It is difficult to describe the country because there are such vast tracts which have a character of desparing monotony; because fossils are rare and badly preserved, if not entirely wanting ; and the different elevations present exactly similar petrographic appearances ;' in fact, he says that the prominent data are wanting to enable a geologist to make a classification of the various strata. 4 See Obedenare,16-19. Also Cantacnzeno, Cenni slla Roumania, Bucarest, 1875; and Ansted. 5 Copper exists at Baia d'Arana.




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