THE ' CAPITULATIONS.'
THE original ' Capitulation' of Mircea I. of Wallachia to the Sultan Bajazid I. at Nicopolis, 1393 A.D., is contained in a ' Hatthoumaioun' of the latter, said to have been preserved in Constantinople, and there seen by a Roumanian called Kitzorano, who was attached to the Wallachian Embassy, and who took a copy of it (along with others), which he sent to the Great Ban Takanitza Vacaresco. The Greek historian, Dionysius Pbotino, also saw it at the Porte, and published a copy of it in his 'History of Dacia,' vol. ii. cap. v. p. 369, a work which the reader will find in the British Museum. This runs as follows :
' We order, in our great condescension, that the country of Wallachia, which has lately submitted to our invincible arms, shall be governed by its own laws, and that the Voivode shall have the power of making war and peace with his neighbours and of life and death over his subjects. All Christians belonging to the countries subject to our rule who would emigrate to Wallachia shall be allowed the free exercise of their religion. All Wallachians visiting our empire on business shall be allowed to do so without interference in the same or in their garments. The Christian voivodes to be elected by the metropolitan and the boyards. In return for our great condescension in having accepted this rayah (the Voivode of Wallachia) amongst the other subjects of our empire, he will be bound to pay into our treasury, every year, the sum of 6,000 red piastres of the country.'
Translations of this capitulation are to be found in the French histories of Roumania, but they are not always trustworthy ; for example, Beaure and Mathorel (Appendix, p. 203) profess to give a verbatim copy, in which the last article declares that the Sultan promises never to deliver a firman to a Wallachian subject, nor to summon him to Constantinople. A moment's reflection would have shown the inaccuracy of this statement, for Constantinople was at that time still the capital of the Eastern Empire, and only fell into the Ottoman power in 1453. The stipulation in question is the last in the treaty with Vlad (V. ?), 1460.
The ' Capitulation' of Bogdan of Moldavia to Scum I., 1513, was in some respects more favourable to the vassal State. Amongst other stipulations, it provided for the residence in Constantinople of a Moldavian envoy, and permitted a Christian church to be erected there. The annual tribute was, however, raised and consisted of 11,000 piastres, forty falcons, and forty mares in foal, ` all by way of present.' In both countries, after each war or insurrection fresh stipulations, including a constantly increasing tribute, were added.
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