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THE precise terms and circumstances under which the peasant proprietary was formed in Roumania, as communicated to us by Prince Jon Ghika, are as follows:

Before the `Convention of Balta Liman ' between Russia and Turkey, there were three classes of peasantry:

  • 1. Those who possessed four beasts of burden and one cow.
  • 2. " " " two " " " " " "
  • 3. " " one cow only.

By the Convention above named each class was to receive the following land, to be paid for in certain cases by twenty-two days' labour, 1/10th of the harvest and 1/5th of the hay.

CLASS 1.-(11 pogones, or 5 1/2 hectares), or about 14 acres, namely:
  • 3 pogones = about 3 8/10 acres arable.
  • 3 " = " 3 8/10 " hay.
  • 5 " = " 6 4/10 " pasturage.
CLASS 2.-7 8/10 pogones, or about 10 acres, viz.:
  • 3 8/10 acres arable.
  • 3 8/10 " pasturage.
  • 2 6/10 " hay; and
CLASS 3.-4 1/2 pogones, or about 5 1/2, acres, viz.:
  • 3 8/10 acres arable.
  • 1 2/10 " hay.
  • 2/10 " pasturage.

In 1864 these holdings, varying, therefore, from 5 to 14 acres, were converted into freeholds at about 2 l. per acre, repayable (as stated in the text) in fifteen years, with 10 per cent. interest.

Mr. White, our Minister at Bucarest, has favoured us with the following information on the same subject,:-

The peasant heads of families who were endowed with land (in 1864) received freeholds:

  • In Wallachia . .279,684, averaging 9.1 English acres.
  • " Moldavia . .127,214 " 12.08 " "
  • 406,898 holdings, average 10.6 "



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