Unit 1: Planning for Promotion
Section 1.3: Showcasing Your Work
and Soliciting Peer Review
Strategies for Making Your Work Visible
Generate Multiple Types of Products Across the Academic
Solicit Peer Review of Applied Products
Measure impact in the community and the academy
References & Resources
"When I was oriented here by the associate dean, he said, "Document,
document, document. You always need to be thinking about how you'll
have evidence that is real. He recognized that this was very difficult
to do in practice but that it was necessary. I really appreciated his
"If you want to be involved in community work, you need to
start out early. Create a mechanism for documenting in some form of
Faculty in the Scholarship
Project emphasized that it is critical to "document, document,
document." Over the course of the past decade, the higher education
literature has contributed to our understanding of how to document and
collect evidence of faculty impact. This section includes strategies for
increasing the visibility of your work and systematically soliciting peer
review for scholarly products other than manuscripts for journals.
STRATEGIES FOR MAKING THE WORK VISIBLE
Faculty need to make their community-engaged work visible. For service-minded
faculty, communicating the importance of your work may not come naturally.
But Scholarship Project faculty and
others have conveyed this as an essential strategy for achieving promotion
and/or tenure. (Gelmon and Agre-Kippenhan)
"Involve others in order to make the work visible."
"Know your institution and what is valued. If you are doing
something unique, let others know what you've done."
"Don't be afraid to toot your horn. Figure out how to do this
well. Get newspaper press. Figure out how to make what you do look glorious."
|"If I am not for myself, then who will be for me? And if
I am for myself only, then what am I? And if not now, when?"
Hillel, Rabbi from the 1st century
"The first part of the quote means I've realized that I have
to advocate for myself if I truly believe that the work I am doing
is holy, ethical and important. No one else will do it for me. There
has to be a genuine career or service reason for it; it is not about
money or prestige. My success at early promotion did not come about
however, only because of successful service initiatives. I also
had to frame my successes in ways that were compelling. I had to
show that what I've done is innovative, has had impact and was successful.
Particularly when you work on the margins of traditional paths,
whether it is in research, education or community service, you've
got to let others [department chair] know what you are doing clearly.
In community service in particular, do not assume that anyone will
immediately understand what is innovative about your work, how it
is achieved, recognized or rewarded. Community service is still
a fringe mission to academic departments, and few colleagues understand
its importance. Those of us doing it in part as a career path know
why we do it, why we are passionate about its link to our academic
mission, and how we can excel in its performance. Not only is it
appropriate for your career to frame how others see your work, it
helps transform the mission of the organization."
Publishing and Presenting Your Work
"I encourage faculty to work in communities. It isn't good
enough though, to do good work. Faculty need to think about how they
will turn it into an acceptable form of scholarship. Community-based
work should be rigorous and not evaluated at a lower standard to other
forms of scholarship."
"Write it and disseminate it. Writing is important."
Full Professor, Scholarship Project Faculty
Community-based work and program development by faculty takes time and
can detract from the time that is needed to write and publish in peer-reviewed
journals. However, even with cultural changes for community-engaged scholarship
and continued emphasis on the need for community involvement by the academy,
most health professional schools will continue to emphasize publishing
and presenting your scholarly work in reputable peer-reviewed journals.
Therefore, if you are a faculty member at such an institution, the strategies
below may enable you to meet institutional expectations with your community-engaged
- Work with like-minded people and recognize all
people involved through authorship. Be involved in a team effort
in writing and publishing. Involve multiple authors on papers, including
community partners. This enables peer-reviewed articles to be written
and published in a timely fashion. Resources are available that address
involving community partners in the writing process. The North
Carolina Public Health Initiative has Authorship Guidelines that
partnerships can use to guide the authorship process, order of authorship,
- Create a hybrid of CBPR and traditional research agendas. An
effective strategy identified by the Scholarship Project faculty [link
to Scholarship Project web page] included developing a research agenda
that included both community-based participatory research and more traditional
forms of research. Several faculty worked as co-investigators on traditional
research projects. The rationale faculty gave for using this strategy
"The turnaround time [for traditional research] is shorter and
allows skeptics to see that these faculty can do both types of research.
If you get involved in traditional research you are showing respect
and making other people open to [less traditional] CBPR work."
(Professor, Scholarship Project Faculty)
- Write about Process. Writing manuscripts about the process
of developing and sustaining partnerships is very important since, as
one faculty put it, you "can't wait until all the data comes in."
This can include descriptive articles about:
- Ethical challenges and issues
- How the project developed and was implemented.
- Community perspectives on community-based participatory research
or service learning
- Reflective or critical thinking monographs
- Write about the impact of your work in communities and the lives
of the people served. As the fields of service-learning and community-based
research progress, journals will be looking for articles on the impact
on students and communities and policy. Thus, writing about the process
and impact of community involvement are important to the field.
- Submit to journals that publish CBPR and service-learning
and other forms of community-engaged scholarship. The Community-Campus
Partnerships for Health website has lists and links to journals
that publish such articles and recent
journal theme issues. The National Service Learning Clearinghouse
has fact sheets on Opportunities
for Service-Learning Research and Scholarship in Higher Education
and Presenting on Higher Education Service-Learning.
- Keep an eye out for "call for papers"
for journal theme issues on CBPR, service-learning and other forms of
community-engaged scholarship. Recent examples
include the Journal of General Internal Medicine July 2003 and the Journal
of Interprofessional Care October 2004 theme issues on community-based
participatory research CBPR research articles in July 2003. Becoming
a member of Community-Campus
Partnerships for Health and subscribing to key listservs
can help you to stay on top of publication opportunities
- Disseminate your work in multiple ways to multiple audiences.
The skilled faculty member learns to use the work that they do for multiple
purposes, often without requiring significantly more time. One faculty
recommended "turning teaching into consulting and presentations
and consulting into teaching and presentations and papers."
Long-term Investment Strategies: Creating a Strong Portfolio
"Tenure is awarded on the perceived value of that individual
to the university. One way to raise awareness is [to] present at professional
organizations and serve on federal review panels."
"Find something you are passionate about and make it your avocation.
Be focused early and go with your passion."
The life of the faculty member requires a long-term view and actively
thinking about one's career development. The toolkit sections on Vision
and Mentors are designed to support
you in creating and maintaining your vision within your institutional
setting and to guide you in developing mentoring relationships that support
your growth. In addition to these long-term strategies, Scholarship
Project faculty have recommended that faculty:
- Seek positions where you can have the 1st year to prepare your
career and develop community partnerships.
"Junior faculty need to be engaged in this work from the beginning.
Set your direction early."
With budgets all across higher education tightening, it may not be possible
to negotiate a full year on the university's payroll to publish your
doctoral, postdoctoral or fellowship work, developing community partnerships
and writing grants without teaching responsibilities. However, scholarship
project faculty highlighted this as a critical strategy for faculty
committed to CBPR. For faculty whose teaching is community-based, a
lighter teaching load will also support the development of community
- "Know what the system is and see if you are willing to live
with it." Be realistic about your vision and goals. There may
be cases where your institutional culture is a true mismatch with your
vision for community-engaged scholarship. Be honest with yourself about
how willing you are to either adjust to your current institution or
your willingness to seek a faculty position at a different institution.
As one faculty stated, "don't try to do projects or initiatives
if it becomes impossible. It is important to have realistic aspirations."
- Consider taking time off the tenure track. For tenure track
faculty, this strategy allows faculty to extend the tenure track clock
and build up the needed portfolio. At many institutions, non-tenure
track faculty have the option to delay the promotion process by one
or two years.
- Involve students in community-based work. Students understand
why this work is important and give it energy. The students benefit
as do the communities.
- Involve your promotion and tenure committee or senior faculty in
what you do. Faculty emphasized that involving committee members
in small but important ways in your community-based work can be an important
strategy for gaining promotion and tenure. It helps to educate them
and also allows them to see first hand your commitment to improving
the health of communities and your scholarly contributions
- Attend workshops on reappointment, promotion and/or tenure.
Increasingly, institutions are giving workshops on the promotion and
tenure process. These workshops are a good way to learn about the specific
expectations at your institution and allow you to begin asking questions
early in the process.
- If possible, seek a joint appointment with a School
of Public Health, if your primary appointment is in a clinical department
or school. Faculty who become involved in this form of scholarship
tend to be boundary spanners, developing partnerships with communities
as well as across schools. Faculty in the Scholarship
Project in medicine, dentistry and nursing found that it to be an
advantage to have a joint appointment, mostly with schools
of public health at their academic health center. The appointment
provided them with leverage to legitimize their work with communities,
and interdisciplinary colleagues with whom they could write collaborative
grants and develop community-academic partnerships. However, while the
joint appointment may provide you with a supportive group of colleagues,
your primary appointment will ultimately be the overriding focus of
how you will be evaluated for promotion and/or tenure.
MULTIPLE TYPES OF PRODUCTS ACROSS THE ACADEMIC MISSIONS
During the course of your training and education, you were likely given
guidance about how to organize and write an article for a peer-reviewed
publication. The peer reviewed journal article is still the gold standard
for measuring the productivity and scholarly contributions of a faculty
In this section, we first provide a summary of the types of products
that you can create in addition to the peer-reviewed journal article.
The goal of this section is to broaden your thinking about the work you
do as a faculty member and the types of products you generate. Each of
these products can be generated for the academic missions in which you
are most directly involved.
The section makes the case for soliciting peer review of products of
scholarship that are not peer-reviewed journal articles and suggests steps
you might consider to create a peer review process for your work. Note:
If your institution currently doesn't value these other types of products
as scholarship, we recommend you discuss these ideas with a mentor and
your department chair.
- Peer Reviewed Journal Articles. The traditionally
accepted product of scholarship is defined by an established number
of descriptive or empirical articles in reputable peer-reviewed journals.
The importance of peer review is valuable and peer-reviewed articles
can communicate to others in the field lessons learned and descriptions
of innovative prevention programs and can serve as a vehicle for documenting
research findings in community settings. Therefore, this type of product
retains some importance in evaluation of community-engaged scholarship.
More journals over the last decade have been publishing articles on
service learning, public health practice and community-based participatory
research, some through theme issues. Community-Campus Partnerships for
Health maintains a list of journals
as does the National Service-Learning Clearinghouse fact sheet on Opportunities
for Service-Learning Research and Scholarship in Higher Education.
issues include the Journal of General Internal Medicine July 2003
and the Journal of Interprofessional Care October 2004 theme issues
on community-based participatory research CBPR research articles in
July 2003. Becoming
a member of Community-Campus Partnerships for Health and subscribing
listservs can help you to stay on top of publication opportunities.
- Dissemination to the Community. Other methods of dissemination
can provide valuable forums for reflective critique by peers both in
the community and in the academy (Dodds et al, 2003). Dissemination
of information by faculty can include:
- Community forums;
- Policy level presentations at community, state and national levels;
- Presentations at national academic meetings; and
- Technical assistance reports as consultants at community, state,
and national levels.
- Applied Products. As you'll note by reviewing the list above
and in the Demonstrating Excellence report, many of these forms of dissemination
use applied products. These products focus on the immediate transfer
of knowledge into application, rather than the delayed transfer of knowledge
into peer-reviewed journals. Applied products can include
- Innovative intervention programs;
- Reports or policy documents at community, state and federal levels;
- Educational or other curriculum resource materials, in hard copy
formats and online.
- These applied products can be evaluated by the extent to which they
are implemented or used, and the degree of impact on learners (if educational
in scope) or on community health. It is this list of products that communities
value and that can affect community health improvement.
of Schools of Public Health's report Demonstrating Excellence in Academic
Public Health Practice contains a list on page 13 of examples of
applied products faculty can generate across the academic missions.
(ASPH 1999). A paper
commissioned by Community-Campus Partnerships for Health provides additional
examples (Maurana 2000).
- Grants and contracts. In many academic institutions, the number
and dollar amounts of grant and contract funds you generate, whether
you are the principal investigator and the level of indirect cost recovery
will be key markers of how you will be assessed for promotion and/or
tenure. To the extent that these metrics are meaningful at your institution,
it may be useful for you to consider 'grants and contracts' as the fourth
type of academic product. Grants and contracts are instrumental for
developing and carrying out the work of partnerships. As noted in the
Making Your Work Visible section , some of the faculty in the Scholarship
Project recommended creating a separate section of the CV that highlights
grants and contracts focused on community partnerships.
Community-Campus Partnerships for Health and the Northwest
Health Foundation have published a directory
of funding sources for community-based participatory research that
includes funding agency descriptions, deadlines, contact information,
examples of previously funded CBPR projects, and an annotated listing
of funding resource websites.
Important Note for Faculty in Schools of Public Health.
If you are a faculty in a public health degree program or school of public
health, we recommend that you review the American Association of Schools
of Public Health's Demonstrating
Excellence in Academic Public Health Practice. This report provides
a useful overview of how public health faculty can highlight products
other than peer-reviewed journals in their portfolio for promotion and
tenure. (ASPH 1999).
REVIEW OF APPLIED PRODUCTS
As a community-engaged faculty member, it will be important to solicit
peer review of your work and document that peer review has taken place.
Not only does asking for peer review of your work provide you the opportunity
to improve upon your work, but it also provides you with the opportunity
show how your work is making an impact and to elevate these products to
meet the criteria of scholarship. Scholarship "requires a high level
of discipline-related expertise, breaks new ground or is innovative, can
be replicated, documented, peer reviewed and has a significant impact."
(Diamond) Using this definition as a framework for making the case that
your community-engaged work is scholarship, we recommend soliciting peer
review of your work.
- Submit products for peer-reviewed publication & dissemination through CES4Health! CES4Health is a free online mechanism for peer-reviewed publication and
dissemination of diverse products of community-engaged scholarship that
can improve the health of communities and "count" in the faculty
promotion and tenure process. Products published to date include
educational videos, curricula, toolkits, program manualsm policy briefs
and more. Every product submitted is peer reviewed by community and
academic experts. If it's published, the Editor sends an email about
the publication and the rigorous peer review process to people that
authors identify, such as deans and department chairs. CES4Health also
tracks how many times a product is downloaded and can follow-up with
users to find out how it was used - important data that can be included
in promotion and tenure portfolios and grant proposals.
- Solicit review of your products by well recognized academic and
community leaders. Community leaders would include, for example,
high-ranking leaders of highly regarded practice agencies such as the
World Health Organization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
and State Health Departments; and highly regarded local leaders of highly
regarded community-based organizations.
- Create a process that is blinded. We recommend mirroring the
peer review process used by many journals, in which reviewers do not
know the identity of a paper's authors, and a paper's authors do not
know the identity of the reviewer. You might consider asking your department
chair to develop the process with you so that you are only indirectly
involved in the process.
- Have your products reviewed in an ongoing process. Ongoing
review will also mirror the process you go through for submitting manuscripts
to peer-reviewed journals. In other words, manuscripts are submitted
as they are completed, not all at once when you are pulling your portfolio
together for promotion and/or tenure. This approach will save you a
great deal of time when creating your portfolio. Ongoing feedback from
peers will also allow you to make useful improvements.
- Create a review tool that allows for both quantitative and narrative
assessment. Use the information to improve your work and organize
the reviews in your portfolio.
in the Community and the Academy
As you consider asking for peer review of your work, it will be essential
that you consider how your community-engaged work is making an impact.
Impact represents the outcomes of faculty members' efforts to generate
and apply knowledge, and foster and sustain change in communities and
in the academy. Impact occurs through the relationships faculty members
develop and sustain with communities and the applied products they develop
together to generate and apply knowledge that affects long-term community
Impact in the Community
Measures of impact in the community include changes
in health policy, improved community health outcomes, improved community
capacity and leadership, sustained community-based programs and increased
funding to the community for health-related projects (Council of Linkages;
Sandmann, 1999; Drisoll,1999; Maurana, 2000 ). The Association
of Schools of Public Health's Demonstrating Excellence in Public Health
Practice provides a set of useful examples of impact and ways to measure
it. (ASPH 1999).
Impact in the Academy
Measures of impact in the academy can include the extent a program or
curriculum is institutionalized, generates external sources of support,
or changes learner knowledge, skills and attitudes. Faculty who incorporate
service learning into their teaching, for example, have the potential
to contribute to a wide range of educational outcomes including changes
in student attitudes, career choice, skills, and knowledge related to
working with underserved populations. The toolkit's teaching portfolio
section provides a more detailed overview of how you can demonstrate impact
of educational programs.
For measuring the impact of service-learning, visit
Community-Campus Partnerships for Health's Service-Learning Resources
Journal of Community Service Learning's issue on a Service-Learning Research
Agenda and the National Service-Learning Clearinghouse's fact sheets
and Methods for Evaluating Service-Learning in Higher Education.
Go to Toolkit