Summary: Olive oil is saponified using a sodium hydroxide saturated methanol solution. The formation of suds in water is demonstrated with the resulting soap.
The solution of NaOH in methanol is caustic.
Chemicals and Solutions:
30 mL of saturated NaOH in methanol (20g NaOH/30 mL MeOH)
10 mL graduated cylinder
Stoppered test tube with water
Put 6 mL of olive oil and 30 mL of saturated sodium hydroxide in methanol in a beaker
Add a stirring bar and stir . Soap forms.
Shake some of the homemade soap with water and suds will form.
Saponification is the alkaline hydrolysis of glyceryl trialkanoates to form glycerol and a mixture of salts of long chain carboxylic acids. These salts of long chain carboxylic acids are soaps.