The Night Revels of Minister Han Xizai is believed to have originally been painted by the Southern Tang artist Gu Hongzhong for the emperor Li Yu of that dynasty.  Its purpose was to admonish one of the leading ministers,  Han Xizai, who, though an able official, was nevertheless recalcitrant in his duties, failing to appear on several occasions for his early morning audiences with the emperor.  It got to be common knowledge that this was due to an excess of revelry with singsong girls and banquets held in his own private apartments.  The emperor, seeking to shame the wayward minister into exhibiting greater decorum, assigned a painter to attend the night-long parties as a secret informant, and to afterwards recreate on silk the untoward behavior he had witnessed among the officials present.  It is said that Minister Han Xizai, after being confronted with his misdeeds recorded in detail in the painting, disregarded this tactful reprimand and continued his escapades up until the fall of the Southern Tang to Song forces.