Graduate Education and its changes in the U.S.
Changes in graduate education in the U.S. emerges from the bottom up: from individual departments of programs not from a ministry or a central agency that initiates reform. In fact, there is no ministry of higher education or ministry of sciences and technology in the U.S. Graduate programs and Graduate Schools –the latter are the administrators, advocates and catalysts for graduate education at a university- receive impulses and input from different constituencies and sources. These include professional associations, public and private funding agencies, employers, trends in students enrollment , and, particularly, program reviews. U.S. graduate education, as well as al of U.S. higher education, is market driven: responding to supply and demand of student enrollment, labor market needs, funding possibilities, and accountability requirements. Globalization has increased the intensity and speed with which higher education is responding to market forces. Globalization has also affected doctoral education in the U.S. and worldwide as doctorally-trained persons, particularly in sciences and engineering , are perceived as sources of innovations in the employment sector, contributing eventually to economic growth (National Academies 2007).
Nerad, M. (2009). Graduate Education and its Changes in the U.S., in Daigakuin Kyoiku no Genjo Kadai [Graduate Education, and Future]. Hiroshima: Research Institute for Higher Education, Hiroshima University, Japan. pp.291-305.