The Grip Strength apparatus (San Diego Instruments, San Diego, CA) is used to evaluate muscle strength and function. This protocol relies on the instinctive tendency of a mouse to grasp an object with its forelimbs. Prior to the test, the mouse is weighed and acclimated to the test environment. The force tension meter connected to the pull bar is powered on and tared to zero force. The mouse is then allowed to grasp the pull bar with its forepaws while being pulled backward gently by the tail until it releases the bar. The process is repeated 5 times in rapid succession, with the greatest grip force recorded by San Diego Instruments software. The test session for each mouse takes a maximum of 30 seconds.