Citations and Bibliography

When citing a source in the text, please add a note (which the editor will later link to the appropriate source in the list of references following the article). The note should be a number within brackets (starting at [1] and increasing sequentially by one for every subsequent note). If the citation is a direct quote, the note should follow the end of the quote after the quotation mark but before any punctuation. When possible, it is good practice to mention the source (usually by author and/or title) in-text to explain the context of the citation.

Each note should have a corresponding end note at the end of the article which details the source used. If the source is used multiple times throughout the article, the subsequent citations can be truncated to the author and/or title (preferably both). If a source is used twice in a row, each subsequent note can instead list ibid. until a new source is used. Excessive use of ibid. should be avoided as much as possible.

When giving the full citation for a source used for the first time, please use the formats listed below.

General Citation Practices

Authors, translators, and editors should be listed in a Last Name, First Name, Middle Name/Initial format. When listing multiple authors, list the first author as Last Name, First Name, Middle Name/Initial and all subsequent authors with their First Name written before their Last Name. If there are more than three authors, the first author is listed as normal followed with et al.

[1] Galloway, Alexander.
[2] Collins, Jim and Jerry I. Porras.
[3] Bearns, Robert and Simon Winkler, Samantha Willis.

[1] Cooper, Lane, trans.
[2] Galbraith, David and Simon Winkler, eds.

[1] Forrest, Quentin, et al.

Example Bibliography Entries


Authors. Book Title (Publisher’s location: Publisher, year published): page numbers.

Collins, Jim and Jerry I. Porras, Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies (New York: HarperCollins, 1994): 142.

Cooper, Lane, trans. The Rhetoric of Aristotle (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1932): 67.


Authors. “Article title.” Publication title volume no., issue no. (year published): page numbers.

Squire, Kurt. “From Content to Context: Videogames as Designed Experience.” Educational Researcher, Vol. 35, No. 8 (Nov 2006): 19-29.

Video Game:

Game Title. Publisher. Platform. Release date.

Civilization V: Gods and Kings. Firaxis Games. PC. 19 June 2012.

Starcraft. Blizzard Entertainment. PC. 13 March 1998.


Host(s). “Podcast Episode Title.” Season number, eps. number. Podcast Name, broadcast date.

“Evo 2013 — The Thirst is Real.” Eps. 11. S.Link FM, 30 July 2013.

Abumrad, Jad and Robert Krulwich. “Games.” Season 10, eps. 2. RadioLab, 23 August 2011.

Image Macro:

The adaptive and constantly mutating nature of image macros makes it incredibly difficult to cite academically. Citations seek to freeze a source in time to provide a paper trail for a paper that was created in a specific space and time; image macros on the Internet defy stasis and constantly change into new forms. When citing specific memes, please provide a URL and the date accessed.

To prevent broken links in the future, the CGP may choose to host a copy of the image if deemed that an image may have a short shelf-life on the Internet. If talking about an image macro in general (such as a genre), please provide a URL that you feel gives an “ideal” example of both form and content. Most image macros that achieve memetic quality tend to acquire a ‘title’ (e.g., Good Guy Greg, Ridiculously Photogenic Guy, High Expectations Asian Father). We recommend using the title if possible with the Meme Title, though if the author wishes to differentiate between mutations of the meme, an appropriate tile made be used instead.

“Meme Title.” Image Macro. URL. Date accessed: Date.

“Good Guy Greg.” Image Macro. Date accessed: 19 August 2013.

Streaming Video

Creator’s name. “Video Title.” Video Series Name. Hosting platform, release date.

Rugnetta, Mike. “Is the Internet Cats?” Idea Channel. YouTube, 14 August 2013.

Internet Forum Thread/Post

“Forum post subject/heading/title.” Main Forum Name, Publish date for first post. Date accessed: date.

“Braid just isn’t worth it, for a couple of reasons.” GameFAQS, 20 August 2008. Date accessed: 19 August 2013.

If citing a specific forum post within a thread:

“Forum post subject/heading/title.” Post No. Main Forum Name, publish date for cited post. Date accessed: date.

“Braid just isn’t worth it, for a couple of reasons.” Post #6. GameFAQS, 21 August 2008. Date accessed: 19 August 2013.

Social Media Conversation (Public)

To reiterate from the Journal Contribution Guidelines:

“Good judgment is required by the savvy researcher to determine whether or not a person has made proper consent in making anything on the Internet private. To use a contemporary example, a tweet written by someone on Twitter’s platform may reasonably be considered public, while a direct message made through Twitter’s platform may reasonably be considered private. Tweets responding to other tweets (especially if the tweet starts with @somebodyelse) may be considered private by the Twitter user and should be contacted for its use.

“Just like other types of research, proper consent and permission is important in maintaining ethical standards. Proper consent should be written out as a consent form and signed by the person who is contributing research information. Any subject or informant in the research should have clear understanding of how the information or data they provide will be used and who will be able to see it. Safeguarding the privacy of those who participate in research is of the utmost importance. For more information, please consult the University of Washington’s Human Subjects Division.”

When citing a social media conversation that is public, please take a screenshot of the conversation in full if possible when you first access it (and further screenshots for subsequent additions to the conversation if applicable to your research). The CGP would like to provide screenshots of public social media conversations cited in research for those who wish to follow up on the primary sources.

Author’s name (formal name if available; username otherwise). Social media platform. URL or permalink if possible, date published. Date accessed: date.

Alexander, Leigh. Twitter, 30 May 2013. Date accessed: 30 May 2013.

Social Media Conversation (Private)

Because of the sensitive nature of Internet security, no further information such as the date of the conversation or the platform or specific service used should be listed, either in-text or in the bibliography/works cited list. This is to minimize the amount of targeted hacking that might occur due to the private nature of the conversation. In every instance, try to only use information that is available publicly and always get consent from the person when using information from a private conversation.

If you are using a private conversation and the source wishes to remain anonymous, no bibliography entry will be necessary, though in-text citation of the fact that (a) the information you are giving came from a private conversation and (b) the source wishes to remain anonymous should be explicitly stated.

Author’s name (formal name or username if consent given). Private conversation.

Doe, John. Private conversation.

MultiMarkdown Tutorial and Basics

MultiMarkdown (MMD) is a simple markup syntax used to provide quick formatting instructions for text. If you choose to use MMD for submissions to the Journal, please save the text in a simple text file (Notepad for Windows; TextEdit for Mac OSX) and use the following MMD syntax for basic formatting. Simple text files with MMD markup for formatting greatly expedites the process editors go through in making the text suitable for viewing on the web. As a basic rule of thumb, MMD markups act as tags (similar to HTML) where the markup syntax encloses the formatted text.

The following are the most common uses of formatting in submissions; the MMD syntax is shown in the first example; the following example shows how it would appear on the webpage.

**bold words**

bold words


_emphasis on a phrase_

emphasis on a phrase


###Heading 3###

#####Heading 5#####

Heading 3

Heading 5

(Note: The number of # enclosing the text indicates the Heading number; the smaller the number, the more emphasized the heading is.)


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