National Analyses of Teacher Force Development, Deployment, and Retention

Principal Investigators

Linda Darling-Hammond, Stanford University
Richard Ingersoll, University of Pennsylvania


Drawing on data from national databases such as the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP), these analyses examined questions concerning the qualifications and quality of the teacher force, the conditions associated with developing and retaining a high quality teacher force, and the consequences of teacher qualifications in schooling and teaching practice. Analyses concentrated on the following topics (1) how teacher qualifications across states are related to student achievement patterns, in light of state policy; (2) teacher turnover, teacher shortage, and the organization of schools; and (3) inequalities in the distribution of teachers across fields and subjects. Additional work in this project addressed patterns in out-of-field teaching.

Main Research Questions

  • What are trends in the characteristics, qualifications, and type of preparation of veteran and newly hired teachers nationally, by state, and by type of district (by urbanicity, student SES, and per pupil expenditures)? Are teachers becoming better prepared? Are well-qualified teachers available to all types of students? Are high-need teachers (teachers of color and those in high-demand fields) being recruited in sufficient numbers? Do trends vary by state and/or type of district and school? Can these trends be linked to state and district policy variables, such as preparation requirements, salary levels, recruitment incentives?
  • How are teaching conditions and teacher qualifications distributed across schools, students, and courses? How are more and less-qualified teachers distributed by field, level, sector, and locale?
  • What factors—including teacher characteristics and workplace variables—influence teachers' commitment, sense of efficacy, and plans to remain in the profession?
  • Who is leaving teaching and why?
  • Are there discernible influences of such policies as beginning teacher induction programs, incentive pay schemes, school restructuring practices, or availability of professional development on teachers' qualifications, views of teaching, or retention patterns?


Regression analysis of data from NCES' Schools and Staffing Survey and the Teacher Follow-Up Survey (TFS)


Research Completed


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