List of Publications by Date

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    2010

    1. Learning-focused Leadership and Leadership Support: Meaning and Practice in Urban Systems
      A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Michael S. Knapp, Michael A. Copland, Meredith I. Honig, Margaret L. Plecki, and Bradley S. Portin, August 2010.
      Description:

      This report synthesizes what has been learned about how leaders in urban systems focus their leadership on the improvement of learning, and what it takes to support their leadership in these settings. The report brings together findings from three sub-study strands, concerned with efforts in seven urban districts to: a) invest staffing and other resources in equitable learning improvement; b) practice learning-focused leadership within the school, in teams of supervisory and nonsupervisory staff; and c) transform the district central office to support the improvement of teaching and learning district-wide.

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    2. Study of the Incentive Program for Washington's National Board Certified Teachers
      A report prepared for Washington State Board of Education, June 2010.
      Description:

      This study examines the impact of Washington state's incentives for teachers to attain National Board Certification and to work in challenging schools. Using surveys and secondary analyses of state databases, we examine the workforce both prior to and following recent changes in the incentive program. The study considers the nature of NBCTs' assignments, their distribution, retention and mobility patterns compared with other teachers statewide, and the views of teachers and principals regarding NB certification and the state's incentives. The study concludes with policy implications and options for future consideration.

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    3. Central Office Transformation for District-wide Teaching and Learning Improvement
      A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Meredith I. Honig, Michael A. Copland, Lydia Rainey, Juli Anna Lorton, & Morena Newton, with the assistance of Elizabeth Matson, Lisa Pappas, & Bethany Rogers, April 2010.
    4. Examining the Impact of Reduction in Force (RIF) Notices in Washington School Districts: 2009-2010
      A Report Prepared for The Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession, March 2010.
      Description:

      Nearly half of Washington school districts issued layoff notices to teachers and other school staff during the 2008-09 school year. This report examines the impact of Reduction in Force (RIF) notices issued in Washington state during this time. Among teachers who received a RIF notice, 87 % were rehired in the K-12 education system in Washington in the subsequent year. The study examines the characteristics of individuals who received RIF notifications, the types of schools and districts that issued notices, and the impact of RIF on the retention and mobility of the educator workforce.

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    2009

    1. Taking Stock of Washington's Workforce: An Assessment of Conditions Prior to the Economic Downturn
      A Report Prepared for The Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession, November 2009.
      Description:

      This report provides baseline descriptive statistics and recent trend data on Washington's teacher workforce prior to the recent economic downturn. The trend data includes information regarding teacher age, experience, race/ethnicity, and retention and mobility, as well as school and district characteristics. In addition, district retention and mobility data is included for each school district and Educational Service District in Washington state. From this baseline, we can examine the extent and nature of the impact of current and future fiscal stress on the state's teacher cadre.

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    2. Leading for Learning Improvement in Urban Schools
      A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Bradley S. Portin, Michael S. Knapp, Scott Dareff, Sue Feldman, Felice A Russell, Catherine Samuelson & Theresa Ling Yeh, with the assistance of Chrysan Gallucci & Judy Swanson, Oct. 2009.
    3. How Leaders Invest Staffing Resources for Learning Improvement
      A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Margaret L. Plecki, Michael S. Knapp, Tino Castaneda, Tom Halverson, Robin LaSota, & Chad Lochmiller, October 2009.
    4. Building Systems of Support for Classroom Teachers Working with Second Language Learners
      A Report Prepared for The Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession by Ana M. Elfers, Tom Stritikus, Kristin Percy Calaff, Kerry Soo Von Esch, Audrey Lucero, Michael S. Knapp, & Margaret L. Plecki, July 2009.

    2008

    1. Undergraduates' Views of K-12 Teaching as a Career Choice
      A Report Prepared for The Professional Educator Standards Board by Ana M. Elfers, Margaret L. Plecki, Elise St. John, Rebecca Wedel.
    2. Balancing Direction and Support - Third Year Scale Up of a System-wide Instructional Reform Initiative: A Partnership between the Center for Educational Leadership and Norwalk-La Mirada Unified School District (Interim Report #2)
      A Research Report by Chrysan Gallucci and Judy Swanson, January 2008.

    2007

    1. High School Teachers in the Workforce: Examining Teacher Retention, Mobility, School Characteristics and School Reform Efforts
      A Report prepared for the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Ana M. Elfers, Margaret L. Plecki and Michelle McGowan, July 2007.
    2. Teaching Math in Washington's High Schools: Insights from a Survey of Teachers in High Performing or Improving Schools
      A Research Report by Ana M. Elfers, Margaret L. Plecki, Michael S. Knapp, Gahram J. Yeo, and Michelle McGowan, June 2007.
    3. Gaining Traction through Professional Coaching: A Partnership between the Center for Educational Leadership and Highline School District (Interim Report #2)
      A Research Report by Chrysan Gallucci and Elizabeth Boatright, February 2007.
    4. Architectures for Learning: A Comparative Analysis of Two Urban School Districts
      An Occasional Report in collaboration with The Spencer Foundation by Mary Kay Stein and Cynthia Coburn, January 2007.
    5. Policy Implementation and Learning: How Organizational and Socio-Cultural Learning Theories Elaborate District Central Office Roles in Complex Educational Improvement Efforts
      An Occasional Paper in collaboration with The Spencer Foundation by Meredith Honig, January 2007.
    6. Using Sociocultural Theory to Link Individual and Organizational Learning Processes: The Case of Highline School District's Instructional Improvement Reform
      An Occasional Report in collaboration with The Spencer Foundation by Chrysan Gallucci, January 2007.
    7. Who's Teaching Washington's Children? A 2006 Update
      A Report prepared for the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Margaret L. Plecki, Ana M. Elfers, and Michael S. Knapp, January 2007.

    2006

    1. Leadership for Transforming High Schools
      A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Michael A. Copland and Elizabeth Boatright, December 2006.
      Description:

      This report addresses the complexity of problems associated with traditional comprehensive high schools. It examines why, despite repeated calls for reform, and various efforts aimed at reform, evidence suggests that what transpires for students inside the high school classroom remains relatively impervious to change. A picture of the terrain of leadership activity important for transforming high schools is proposed followed by questions of how the work of leadership might be accomplished.

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    2. Examining Teacher Retention and Mobility in Small and Rural Districts in Washington State
      A Research Report by Ana M. Elfers and Margaret L. Plecki, November 2006.
    3. Allocating Resources and Creating Incentives to Improve Teaching and Learning
      A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Margaret L. Plecki, Christopher R. Alejano, Michael S. Knapp, and Chad Lochmiller October 2006.
      Description:

      This report reviews research, practice, and theory related to resource allocation and its relationship to teaching and learning. The report describes the "state of the field," discussing a range of practices, both current and emerging, while framing the central challenges facing leaders who make resource decisions at the state, district, and school levels. The report links the allocation of resources to the exercise of learning-focused leadership.

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    4. Data-informed Leadership in Education
      A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Michael S. Knapp, Juli Ann Swinnerton, Michael A. Copland, and Jack Monpas-Huber, October 2006.
      Description:

      Drawing from empirical studies and the landscape of current practice, this report explores ideas related to how educational leaders access data, the meanings they give to it, and the uses to which they put these data in the varying settings in which leaders seek to improve teaching and learning. Moving away from the potentially appealing rhetoric that data can provide clear, indisputable direction for future action (e.g. "data-driven decision making"), the notion of data-informed leadership captures the complex and often ambiguous nature of data use in educational settings.

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    5. Leading, Learning, and Leadership Support
      A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Michael S. Knapp, Michael A. Copland, Margaret L. Plecki, and Bradley S. Portin, October 2006.
      Description:

      This report maps out activities and supporting conditions in states, districts, and schools, that enable educational leadership to exert productive influence on learning. The report draws together threads from the research literature and from practical experimentation in a variety of states, districts, and schools, as described in greater detail within six reports that comprise the Improving Leadership for Learning series. From these sources, the report authors offer an overview of the "systems of leadership support" that guide leaders' efforts to improve the quality of teaching and learning in schools across the nation.

      PDFExecutive Summary
    6. National Board Certified Teachers in Washington State: Impact on Professional Practice and Leadership Opportunities
      A Report prepared for the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Hilary Loeb, Ana M. Elfers, Margaret L. Plecki, Brynnen Ford, and Michael S. Knapp, October 2006.
    7. Purposes, Uses, and Practices of Leadership Assessment in Education
      A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Bradley S. Portin, Sue Feldman, and Michael S. Knapp, October 2006.
      Description:

      This report discusses connections between learning-focused school leadership and leadership assessment as it contributes to coherent leadership assessment systems. Drawing upon exemplary research, and through the use of scenarios drawn from common school leadership assessment practices, this report outlines multiple purposes and uses of leadership assessment in national, state and local contexts. The central theme of the report is connecting learning-focused leadership with leadership assessment.

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    8. Redefining and Improving School District Governance
      A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Margaret L. Plecki, Julie McCleery, and Michael S. Knapp, October 2006.
      Description:

      This paper takes a close look at local school boards-an enduring feature of public education governance. Using published accounts in the research literature, the paper synthesizes the frameworks, beliefs, and activities concerning the roles and responsibilities of the district school board. Using three common critiques of modern school boards as a guide, the paper further identifies the underlying currents of governance reform, conditions that influence governance structure, and the connections between governance and learning-focused leadership.

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    9. Redefining Roles, Responsibility, and Authority of School Leaders
      A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Bradley S. Portin, Christopher R. Alejano, and Michael S. Knapp, October 2006.
      Description:

      This report considers school leaders' roles and responsibilities, and the authority they need to pursue an agenda of improving teaching and learning. The report frames what it means to lead schools toward improvements in teaching and learning, who does or can exercise that leadership (including but not limited to the principal), how leaders can be equipped to lead learning communities, what conditions empower leaders to lead in this way, and how such leadership is cultivated in individuals or school communities over time.

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    10. Aiming High: Leadership for District-wide Instructional Improvement A Partnership between the Center for Educational Leadership and Norwalk-La Mirada Unified School District (Interim Report #1)
      A Research Report by Chrysan Gallucci and Judy Swanson, October 2006.
    11. An Examination of Longitudinal Attrition, Retention, and Mobility Rates of Beginning Teachers in Washington State
      A Report prepared for the Harry Bridges Center for Labor Studies by Margaret L. Plecki, Ana M. Elfers, and Michael S. Knapp, June 2006.
    12. The Pedagogy of Third-Party Support for Instructional Improvement: A Partnership between CEL and Highline School District (Interim Report #1)
      A Research Report by Chrysan Gallucci, Beth Boatright, Dan Lysne, Juli Swinnerton, January 2006.

    2005

    1. Teachers Count: Support for Teachers' Work in the Context of State Reform
      A Report prepared for the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Michael S. Knapp, Ana M. Elfers, Margaret L. Plecki, Hilary Loeb, and Amrita Zahir, August 2005.
    2. Preparation and Support for Teaching: Teachers' Response to State Education Reform
      A Working Paper prepared for the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Ana M. Elfers, Michael S. Knapp, Amrita Zahir, and Margaret L. Plecki, March 2005.
    3. Teacher Retention and Mobility: A Look Inside and Across Districts and Schools in Washington State
      A Report prepared for the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Margaret L. Plecki, Ana M. Elfers, Hilary Loeb, Amrita Zahir, and Michael S. Knapp, March 2005.

    2004

    1. Making Subject Matter Part of the Equation: The Intersection of Policy and Content
      An Occasional Paper by Pam Grossman, Susan S. Stodolsky, and Michael S. Knapp, December 2004.
      Description:

      This conceptual paper offers a framework for understanding how educational policy is related to subject matter. Drawing on literature concerning instructional policymaking and the cultures that surround teaching in different subject areas, the paper distinguishes and illustrates three types of policy, that ignore, target, or differentiate among subject matter areas, respectively. The paper then demonstrates, for each type, how subject matter acts as a crucial context for policy implementation and effects, affecting the policy's impact in often unintended ways. Typically ignored by policy research, these dynamics have special importance for the analysis of reform policies, as well as for the making of policies aimed at teaching and learning.

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    2. Preparing for Reform, Supporting Teachers' Work: Surveys of Washington State Teachers, 2003-04 School Year
      A Summary Report commissioned by the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Michael S. Knapp, Ana M. Elfers, and Margaret L. Plecki, with Hilary Loeb, Beth Boatright, and Nick Cabot, August 2004.
    3. Preparation and Support for Teaching: Support for Teachers' Professional Learning
      A Working Paper commissioned by the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Ana M. Elfers, Beth Boatright, and Michael S. Knapp, with Margaret L. Plecki and Hilary Loeb, June 2004.
    4. Preparation and Support for Teaching: Working Conditions of Teachers
      A Working Paper commissioned by the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Hilary Loeb, Ana M. Elfers, Michael S. Knapp, and Margaret L. Plecki, with Beth Boatright, May 2004.
    5. Development and Deployment of a "Fast Response" Survey System in Washington State: Methodological Notes
      A Working Paper commissioned by the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Ana M. Elfers, Michael S. Knapp, and Margaret L. Plecki, with Beth Boatright and Hilary Loeb, April 2004.
    6. Preparation and Support for Teaching: Teachers' Assignment and Certification
      A Working Paper commissioned by the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Ana M. Elfers, Michael S. Knapp, and Margaret L. Plecki, with Beth Boatright, and Hilary Loeb, April 2004.
    7. Curriculum Materials: Scaffolds for New Teacher Learning?
      A Research Report by Pam Grossman and Clarissa Thompson, January 2004.
      Description:

      Derived from a study of beginning language arts teachers (see District Policy and Beginning Teachers: Where the Twain Shall Meet, elsewhere on this web site), this Research Report captures the ways curriculum (or its absence) guides what is learned level about instructional practice, and how, by new language arts teachers in secondary schools. The report underscores how potent curriculum policy can be for shaping teachers' early attempts to establish a secure professional repertoire.

      PDFAbstractOriginal Study
    8. The Relation Between State and District Literacy Standards: Issues of Alignment, Influence, and Utility
      A Research Report by Elizabeth Dutro and Sheila W. Valencia, January 2004.
      Description:

      This Research Report explores how state content standards in reading affect local content standards. The study, undertaken in four states, shows that under the guise of "alignment" between state and local standards, there is considerable variability, and that the usefulness of the state's efforts to promote local standards-based reform in this areas of the curriculum depends on various attributes of the state policy, the characteristic relationship between state and local level, and local engagement in professional development.

      PDFAbstractOriginal Study

    2003

    1. Building Instructional Quality and Coherence in San Diego City Schools: System Struggle, Professional Change
      Policy Brief 9, September 2003.
    2. Building Instructional Quality: "Inside-Out" and "Outside-In" Perspectives on San Diego's School Reform
      A Research Report by Linda Darling-Hammond, Amy M. Hightower, Jennifer L. Husbands, Jeannette R. LaFors, Viki M. Young, and Carl Christopher, September 2003.
      Description:

      This research report looks at the aggressive set of policies San Diego City School District used to improve instruction. It reveals how San Diego consolidated and redirected resources, redesigned the district office as well as work in schools, and mediated and leveraged state policy to further its reform agenda. The report also documents the difficulties of managing the politics and implementation of a coherent approach to change in a large district with an established culture of decentralization located in a state with a piecemeal, sometimes conflicting, menu of reforms.

      PDFAbstractOriginal StudyOriginal StudyOriginal Study
    3. Is There Really a Teacher Shortage?
      A Research Report by Richard M. Ingersoll, September 2003.
      Description:

      In this report, Richard Ingersoll builds on his hypothesis that school staffing problems are due largely to excess demand resulting from high pre-retirement turnover and not solely or even primarily to supply-side deficits in the quantity of teachers produced. He also addresses criticisms of those who argue that concern over teacher turnover is exaggerated.

      PDFAbstractOriginal Study
    4. Out-of-Field Teaching and the Limits of Teacher Policy
      A Research Report by Richard M. Ingersoll, September 2003.
      Description:

      In this report, Richard Ingersoll focuses on trends over the past decade in the level of underqualified teachers in schools and why recent reforms have failed to adequately address this problem.

      PDFAbstractOriginal Study
    5. Reforming Districts: How Districts Support School Reform
      A Research Report by Milbrey McLaughlin and Joan Talbert, September 2003.
      Description:

      By detailing the experiences of three reforming California districts, this research report offers new evidence of district effects on school reform progress and improved student outcomes. The case studies offer instructive exception to conventional wisdom-or myths-about district reform. Among the refuted myths: teachers and principals resist a strong district role; turnover derails efforts to establish and sustain a consistent reform agenda; and local politics will defeat any serious reform agenda.

      PDFAbstractOriginal StudyOriginal Study
    6. Who's Teaching Washington's Children? What We Know-and Need to Know-About Teachers and the Quality of Teaching in the State
      A Technical Report commissioned by the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Margaret Plecki, Ana Elfers, and Michael S. Knapp, August 2003.
    7. Standards-Based Reform and Small Schools of Choice: How Reform Theories Converge in Three Urban Middle Schools
      A Research Report by Chrysan Gallucci, Michael S. Knapp, Anneke Markholt, and Suzy Ort, July 2003.
      Description:

      This report examines the ways two seemingly opposite theories of educational reform converge in three New York City middle schools. Using in-depth case studies, the authors look at what happened when a theory of centralized, standards-based instructional improvement was introduced into these schools on top of an existing theory that emphasized small schools, distinctive programs, and close relationships among students and adults. The result, a surprise to some, is that the two theories can coexist, even complement each other, but not without some tension.

      PDFAbstractOriginal Study
    8. Understanding Reading Test Failure: Challenges for State and District Policy
      Policy Brief 8, July 2003.
    9. Triage or Tapestry? Teacher Unions' Work Toward Improving Teacher Quality in an Era of Systemic Reform
      A Research Report by Nina Bascia, June 2003.
      Description:

      By examining the work of six teacher unions, this report considers the contributions that teacher unions make toward improving the quality of teaching in today's context of systemic reform.

      PDFAbstractOriginal StudyOriginal Study
    10. Theorizing About Responses to Reform: The Role of Communities of Practice
      An Occasional Paper by Chrysan Gallucci, May 2003.
      Description:

      This paper offers a summary of a policy-oriented case study that examined the practice of six elementary teachers and, more significantly, evaluates the value of a sociocultural approach for analyzing teachers' responses to the professional learning demands of standards-based reform policies.

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    11. Meeting the Needs of Failing Readers: Cautions and Considerations for State Policy
      An Occasional Paper by Marsha Riddle Buly and Sheila Valencia, April 2003.
      Description:

      In this CTP Occasional Paper, the authors' findings are a caution to policymakers and educators who may be tempted to treat the same all students who score "below standard" on statewide reading assessments. By probing beneath student's failing scores on a 4th-grade state reading assessment, the authors found that scores masked distinctive and multifaceted problems having to do with 1) word identification, 2) fluency, and 3) meaning. To have treated the same all students who had failed would have been to miss the different instructional emphases called for by their underlying skills, strategies, and needs. The paper presents reading profiles of failing students and discusses five potential areas as potential policy levers for improving student performance in reading.

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    12. Using Student Work to Support Professional Development in Elementary Mathematics
      A Working Paper by Elham Kazemi and Megan Loef Franke, April 2003.
      Description:

      This CTP Working Paper charts the evolving conversations and pedagogical learning of one teacher workgroup as it met over the course of a year to discuss student work in elementary mathematics. Chronicled are details of the teachers' efforts to make sense of their students' reasoning in solving base ten system problems. The paper is organized into six sections that reflect the trajectory of the workgroup. The authors reflect upon that trajectory of teachers' talk to make several conjectures about the use of student work and the potential opportunities for learning that examining student work opens up for teachers. One such conjecture is that examining it is a promising way of beginning to work with a diverse group of teachers.

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    13. Leading for Learning: Reflective Tools for School and District Leaders
      A CTP Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation, February 2003.
      Description:

      A 32-page, research-based report that addresses links between leadership and learning. Three learning agendas are discussed and five ways to address those agendas are detailed.

      PDFPromotional FlyerOriginal Study
    14. Leading for Learning Sourcebook: Concepts and Examples
      A CTP Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation, February 2003.
      Description:

      This 112-page report is the document on which the 32-page summary was based. It discusses ideas in greater depth and offers more examples of the ideas at work.

      PDFPromotional FlyerOriginal Study

    2002

    1. The Organization of Schools as an Overlooked Source of Underqualified Teaching
      Policy Brief 7, December 2002.
    2. What School Districts Spend on Professional Development
      Policy Brief 6, November 2002.
    3. Understanding How Policy Meets Practice: Two Takes on Local Response to a State Reform Initiative
      An Occasional Paper by Michael S. Knapp, June 2002.
      Description:

      In this CTP Occasional Paper, Center Director Mike Knapp explores connections between policy and instructional practice by analyzing two studies that employed different and contrasting research perspectives to examine the same policy case-the early implementation of the California Mathematics Framework. In reviewing the studies, Knapp discusses the conceptual blind spots of each perspective and suggests conceptual work that would enable scholars to entertain richer pictures of policy, instruction, and avenues of influence on instruction.

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    4. San Diego City Schools: Comprehensive Reform Strategies at Work
      Policy Brief 5, February 2002.
    5. Out-of-Field Teaching, Educational Inquality, and the Organization of Schools: An Exploratory Analysis
      A Research Report by Richard M. Ingersoll, January 2002.
      Description:

      This research report examines the practice of out-of-field teaching as a possible source of underqualified teaching in U.S. schools.

      PDFAbstractOriginal Study
    6. San Diego's Big Boom: District Bureaucracy Supports Culture of Learning
      A Research Report by Amy M. Hightower, January 2002.
      Description:

      This research report chronicles three years of reform by San Diego City Schools and explores what it means to radically refocus a large urban district on instructional improvement.

      PDFAbstract

    2001

    1. Connecticut's Story: A Model of State Teaching Policy
      Policy Brief 4, June 2001.
    2. District Policy and Beginning Teachers: Where the Twain Shall Meet
      A Research Report by Pamela Grossman, Sheila Valencia, and Clarissa Thompson, June 2001.
      Description:

      This Research Report looks at the role that policies concerning curriculum, professional development, and mentoring in two reform-active districts played in shaping the experiences and concerns of three first-year language arts teachers.

      PDFAbstractOriginal Study
    3. A Case of Successful Teaching Policy: Connecticut's Long-Term Efforts to Improve Teaching and Learning
      A Research Report by Suzanne M. Wilson, Linda Darling-Hammond, and Barnett Berry, February 2001.
      Description:

      This Research Report describes 15-years' worth of successful effort by Connecticut to implement a comprehensive set of teaching quality policies to support improved student learning. The authors hypothesize that the power of Connecticut's teaching policy reform lies not simply in their comprehensiveness and in the state's political stability over the last decade but also in the power of policies to build capacity in teachers, students, administrators, teacher educators and state department staff. A Policy Brief based on this report is also available.

      PDFBriefAbstractOriginal Study
    4. Revisiting What States Are Doing to Improve the Quality of Teaching: An Update on Patterns and Trends
      A Working Paper by Eric Hirsch, Julia E. Koppich, and Michael S. Knapp, February 2001.
      Description:

      This updated version of an earlier CTP Working Paper takes a fresh look at recent developments in the realms of state policy related to teacher and teaching quality. The broad-brush, descriptive analysis covers state-level policy action pertaining to (1) development and promotion of high standards for student learning and for teaching; (2) attempts to attract, reward, and retain capable people in the teaching profession; (3) support for high-quality initial preparation and induction of new teachers; (4) attempts to motivate and support teachers' ongoing professional learning; and (5) enhancements to the school workplace environment.

      PDFAbstractOriginal Study
    5. Teacher Preparation Research: Current Knowledge, Gaps, and Recommendations
      A Research Report by Suzanne M. Wilson, Robert E. Floden, and Joan Ferrini-Mundy, February 2001.
      Description:

      The Research Report summarizes what research has to say about five key issues in teacher preparation: subject matter preparation, pedagogical preparation, clinical training, preservice teacher education policies, and alternative certification. The report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Education and the Office for Educational Research and Improvement by CTP in collaboration with researchers at Michigan State University. An executive summary of the report is also available.

      PDFExecutive SummaryOriginal Study
    6. A Different Approach to Solving the Teacher Shortage Problem
      Policy Brief 3, authored by Richard Ingersoll, January 2001.
    7. Teacher Turnover, Teacher Shortages, and the Organization of Schools
      A Research Report by Richard M. Ingersoll, January 2001.
      Description:

      This Research Report provides data and a new framework for looking at the teacher shortage problem. The author shifts the focus away from the problem's two most common explanations (teacher retirement and student enrollment growth) to examine from a sociological view how certain organizational characteristics and conditions of schools lead to low teacher retention. The analysis suggests that education policies, such as teacher recruitment programs, will not solve the staffing problems of schools if they do not also address what is going on in schools that cause teachers to leave. A Policy Brief based on this report is also available.

      PDFBriefAbstractOriginal Study
    8. What Makes Teacher Community Different from a Gathering of Teachers?
      An Occasional Paper by Pamela Grossman, Sam Wineburg, and Stephen Woolworth, January 2001.
      Description:

      This CTP Occasional Paper details the formation and development of teacher community through a project that brought together 22 English and social studies teachers, a special education teacher, and an ESL teacher to plan interdisciplinary curriculum. It includes colorful sections of dialogue among the teachers and sheds new light on definitions of professional community, its stages of development, and the challenges that confront community building in a fast-paced high school workplace.

      PDFAbstractOriginal Study

    2000

    1. Resources, Instruction, and Research
      A Working Paper by David K. Cohen, Stephen W. Raudenbush, and Deborah Loewenberg Ball, December 2000.
      Description:

      This Working Paper looks at resource use in schools and discusses research designs that would be appropriate to identify resource effects. Whereas education policymakers have long believed that conventional resoures, i.e. books, bricks, class size, and teacher qualifications directly affect student learning and achievement, the authors here argue it's all about how those resources get used in instruction. How resource use is influenced by the management of certain key problems of instruction, including coordination, incentives to use the resources, and management of instructional environments, is also discussed.

      PDFAbstractOriginal Study
    2. Connecting Districts to the Policy Dialogue: A Review of Literature on the Relationship of Districts with States, Schools, and Communities
      A Working Paper by Julie A. Marsh, September 2000.
      Description:

      This Working Paper reviews literature about the key roles that districts play in supporting improvements in teaching and learning, including the district role in implementing state policies and enacting school-level change and what the key factors are that enable districts to effectively support improvements. It also considers how community involvement and collaboration contribute to districts' improvement efforts. The paper suggests directions for future research to advance the state of knowledge on school districts.

      PDFAbstractOriginal Study

    1999

    1. State Teaching Policies and Student Achievement
      Policy Brief 2, December 1999.
    2. New Tools for Research on Instruction and Instructional Policy: A Web-based Teacher Log
      A Working Paper by Deborah Loewenberg Ball, Eric Camburn, Richard Correnti, Geoffrey Phelps, and Raven Wallace, December 1999.
      Description:

      This Working Paper reports on the initial development and pilot-testing of a web-based instrument designed to collect daily data on instruction, which then could be aggregated to create portraits of content emphasis and pedagogy. The instrument was developed for use in the Study of Instructional Improvement and although it is not currently being used, the authors think there are elements of its design that may be of use to those interested in instructional tracking tools.

      PDFAbstractOriginal Study
    3. State Action to Improve Teaching
      Policy Brief 1, December 1999.
    4. Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence
      A Research Report by Linda Darling-Hammond, December 1999.
      Description:

      This Research Report examines the ways in which teacher qualifications and other school inputs are related to student achievement across states and suggests that policies adopted by states regarding teacher education, licensing, hiring, and professional development may make important differences in the qualifications and capacities teachers bring to their work.

      PDFBriefAbstractOriginal Study

    1998

    1. Federal Research Investment and the Improvement of Teaching, 1980-1997
      An Occasional Paper by Julia Koppich and Michael Knapp, April 1998.

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