CTP Research Reports

The Center's Research Report series presents the findings of CTP studies, analyses, reviews, and conceptual work. In addition to internal review by Center members, each report has been reviewed externally by at least two scholars and revised in light of the reviewers' comments and suggestions.

Hint! Click on a title to see more information about it. Click on that title again to hide the information.

  1. Learning-focused Leadership and Leadership Support: Meaning and Practice in Urban Systems
    A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Michael S. Knapp, Michael A. Copland, Meredith I. Honig, Margaret L. Plecki, and Bradley S. Portin, August 2010.
    Description:

    This report synthesizes what has been learned about how leaders in urban systems focus their leadership on the improvement of learning, and what it takes to support their leadership in these settings. The report brings together findings from three sub-study strands, concerned with efforts in seven urban districts to: a) invest staffing and other resources in equitable learning improvement; b) practice learning-focused leadership within the school, in teams of supervisory and nonsupervisory staff; and c) transform the district central office to support the improvement of teaching and learning district-wide.

    PDF
  2. Study of the Incentive Program for Washington's National Board Certified Teachers
    A report prepared for Washington State Board of Education, June 2010.
    Description:

    This study examines the impact of Washington state's incentives for teachers to attain National Board Certification and to work in challenging schools. Using surveys and secondary analyses of state databases, we examine the workforce both prior to and following recent changes in the incentive program. The study considers the nature of NBCTs' assignments, their distribution, retention and mobility patterns compared with other teachers statewide, and the views of teachers and principals regarding NB certification and the state's incentives. The study concludes with policy implications and options for future consideration.

    PDF
  3. Central Office Transformation for District-wide Teaching and Learning Improvement
    A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Meredith I. Honig, Michael A. Copland, Lydia Rainey, Juli Anna Lorton, & Morena Newton, with the assistance of Elizabeth Matson, Lisa Pappas, & Bethany Rogers, April 2010.
  4. Examining the Impact of Reduction in Force (RIF) Notices in Washington School Districts: 2009-2010
    A Report Prepared for The Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession, March 2010.
    Description:

    Nearly half of Washington school districts issued layoff notices to teachers and other school staff during the 2008-09 school year. This report examines the impact of Reduction in Force (RIF) notices issued in Washington state during this time. Among teachers who received a RIF notice, 87 % were rehired in the K-12 education system in Washington in the subsequent year. The study examines the characteristics of individuals who received RIF notifications, the types of schools and districts that issued notices, and the impact of RIF on the retention and mobility of the educator workforce.

    PDF
  5. Taking Stock of Washington's Workforce: An Assessment of Conditions Prior to the Economic Downturn
    A Report Prepared for The Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession, November 2009.
    Description:

    This report provides baseline descriptive statistics and recent trend data on Washington's teacher workforce prior to the recent economic downturn. The trend data includes information regarding teacher age, experience, race/ethnicity, and retention and mobility, as well as school and district characteristics. In addition, district retention and mobility data is included for each school district and Educational Service District in Washington state. From this baseline, we can examine the extent and nature of the impact of current and future fiscal stress on the state's teacher cadre.

    PDF
  6. Leading for Learning Improvement in Urban Schools
    A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Bradley S. Portin, Michael S. Knapp, Scott Dareff, Sue Feldman, Felice A Russell, Catherine Samuelson & Theresa Ling Yeh, with the assistance of Chrysan Gallucci & Judy Swanson, Oct. 2009.
  7. How Leaders Invest Staffing Resources for Learning Improvement
    A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Margaret L. Plecki, Michael S. Knapp, Tino Castaneda, Tom Halverson, Robin LaSota, & Chad Lochmiller, October 2009.
  8. Building Systems of Support for Classroom Teachers Working with Second Language Learners
    A Report Prepared for The Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession by Ana M. Elfers, Tom Stritikus, Kristin Percy Calaff, Kerry Soo Von Esch, Audrey Lucero, Michael S. Knapp, & Margaret L. Plecki, July 2009.
  9. Undergraduates' Views of K-12 Teaching as a Career Choice
    A Report Prepared for The Professional Educator Standards Board by Ana M. Elfers, Margaret L. Plecki, Elise St. John, Rebecca Wedel.
  10. Balancing Direction and Support - Third Year Scale Up of a System-wide Instructional Reform Initiative: A Partnership between the Center for Educational Leadership and Norwalk-La Mirada Unified School District (Interim Report #2)
    A Research Report by Chrysan Gallucci and Judy Swanson, January 2008.
  11. High School Teachers in the Workforce: Examining Teacher Retention, Mobility, School Characteristics and School Reform Efforts
    A Report prepared for the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Ana M. Elfers, Margaret L. Plecki and Michelle McGowan, July 2007.
  12. Teaching Math in Washington's High Schools: Insights from a Survey of Teachers in High Performing or Improving Schools
    A Research Report by Ana M. Elfers, Margaret L. Plecki, Michael S. Knapp, Gahram J. Yeo, and Michelle McGowan, June 2007.
  13. Gaining Traction through Professional Coaching: A Partnership between the Center for Educational Leadership and Highline School District (Interim Report #2)
    A Research Report by Chrysan Gallucci and Elizabeth Boatright, February 2007.
  14. Who's Teaching Washington's Children? A 2006 Update
    A Report prepared for the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Margaret L. Plecki, Ana M. Elfers, and Michael S. Knapp, January 2007.
  15. Leadership for Transforming High Schools
    A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Michael A. Copland and Elizabeth Boatright, December 2006.
    Description:

    This report addresses the complexity of problems associated with traditional comprehensive high schools. It examines why, despite repeated calls for reform, and various efforts aimed at reform, evidence suggests that what transpires for students inside the high school classroom remains relatively impervious to change. A picture of the terrain of leadership activity important for transforming high schools is proposed followed by questions of how the work of leadership might be accomplished.

    PDF
  16. Examining Teacher Retention and Mobility in Small and Rural Districts in Washington State
    A Research Report by Ana M. Elfers and Margaret L. Plecki, November 2006.
  17. Allocating Resources and Creating Incentives to Improve Teaching and Learning
    A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Margaret L. Plecki, Christopher R. Alejano, Michael S. Knapp, and Chad Lochmiller October 2006.
    Description:

    This report reviews research, practice, and theory related to resource allocation and its relationship to teaching and learning. The report describes the "state of the field," discussing a range of practices, both current and emerging, while framing the central challenges facing leaders who make resource decisions at the state, district, and school levels. The report links the allocation of resources to the exercise of learning-focused leadership.

    PDF
  18. Data-informed Leadership in Education
    A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Michael S. Knapp, Juli Ann Swinnerton, Michael A. Copland, and Jack Monpas-Huber, October 2006.
    Description:

    Drawing from empirical studies and the landscape of current practice, this report explores ideas related to how educational leaders access data, the meanings they give to it, and the uses to which they put these data in the varying settings in which leaders seek to improve teaching and learning. Moving away from the potentially appealing rhetoric that data can provide clear, indisputable direction for future action (e.g. "data-driven decision making"), the notion of data-informed leadership captures the complex and often ambiguous nature of data use in educational settings.

    PDF
  19. Leading, Learning, and Leadership Support
    A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Michael S. Knapp, Michael A. Copland, Margaret L. Plecki, and Bradley S. Portin, October 2006.
    Description:

    This report maps out activities and supporting conditions in states, districts, and schools, that enable educational leadership to exert productive influence on learning. The report draws together threads from the research literature and from practical experimentation in a variety of states, districts, and schools, as described in greater detail within six reports that comprise the Improving Leadership for Learning series. From these sources, the report authors offer an overview of the "systems of leadership support" that guide leaders' efforts to improve the quality of teaching and learning in schools across the nation.

    PDFExecutive Summary
  20. National Board Certified Teachers in Washington State: Impact on Professional Practice and Leadership Opportunities
    A Report prepared for the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Hilary Loeb, Ana M. Elfers, Margaret L. Plecki, Brynnen Ford, and Michael S. Knapp, October 2006.
  21. Purposes, Uses, and Practices of Leadership Assessment in Education
    A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Bradley S. Portin, Sue Feldman, and Michael S. Knapp, October 2006.
    Description:

    This report discusses connections between learning-focused school leadership and leadership assessment as it contributes to coherent leadership assessment systems. Drawing upon exemplary research, and through the use of scenarios drawn from common school leadership assessment practices, this report outlines multiple purposes and uses of leadership assessment in national, state and local contexts. The central theme of the report is connecting learning-focused leadership with leadership assessment.

    PDF
  22. Redefining and Improving School District Governance
    A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Margaret L. Plecki, Julie McCleery, and Michael S. Knapp, October 2006.
    Description:

    This paper takes a close look at local school boards-an enduring feature of public education governance. Using published accounts in the research literature, the paper synthesizes the frameworks, beliefs, and activities concerning the roles and responsibilities of the district school board. Using three common critiques of modern school boards as a guide, the paper further identifies the underlying currents of governance reform, conditions that influence governance structure, and the connections between governance and learning-focused leadership.

    PDF
  23. Redefining Roles, Responsibility, and Authority of School Leaders
    A Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation by Bradley S. Portin, Christopher R. Alejano, and Michael S. Knapp, October 2006.
    Description:

    This report considers school leaders' roles and responsibilities, and the authority they need to pursue an agenda of improving teaching and learning. The report frames what it means to lead schools toward improvements in teaching and learning, who does or can exercise that leadership (including but not limited to the principal), how leaders can be equipped to lead learning communities, what conditions empower leaders to lead in this way, and how such leadership is cultivated in individuals or school communities over time.

    PDF
  24. Aiming High: Leadership for District-wide Instructional Improvement A Partnership between the Center for Educational Leadership and Norwalk-La Mirada Unified School District (Interim Report #1)
    A Research Report by Chrysan Gallucci and Judy Swanson, October 2006.
  25. An Examination of Longitudinal Attrition, Retention, and Mobility Rates of Beginning Teachers in Washington State
    A Report prepared for the Harry Bridges Center for Labor Studies by Margaret L. Plecki, Ana M. Elfers, and Michael S. Knapp, June 2006.
  26. The Pedagogy of Third-Party Support for Instructional Improvement: A Partnership between CEL and Highline School District (Interim Report #1)
    A Research Report by Chrysan Gallucci, Beth Boatright, Dan Lysne, Juli Swinnerton, January 2006.
  27. Teachers Count: Support for Teachers' Work in the Context of State Reform
    A Report prepared for the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Michael S. Knapp, Ana M. Elfers, Margaret L. Plecki, Hilary Loeb, and Amrita Zahir, August 2005.
  28. Teacher Retention and Mobility: A Look Inside and Across Districts and Schools in Washington State
    A Report prepared for the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Margaret L. Plecki, Ana M. Elfers, Hilary Loeb, Amrita Zahir, and Michael S. Knapp, March 2005.
  29. Preparing for Reform, Supporting Teachers' Work: Surveys of Washington State Teachers, 2003-04 School Year
    A Summary Report commissioned by the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Michael S. Knapp, Ana M. Elfers, and Margaret L. Plecki, with Hilary Loeb, Beth Boatright, and Nick Cabot, August 2004.
  30. Curriculum Materials: Scaffolds for New Teacher Learning?
    A Research Report by Pam Grossman and Clarissa Thompson, January 2004.
    Description:

    Derived from a study of beginning language arts teachers (see District Policy and Beginning Teachers: Where the Twain Shall Meet, elsewhere on this web site), this Research Report captures the ways curriculum (or its absence) guides what is learned level about instructional practice, and how, by new language arts teachers in secondary schools. The report underscores how potent curriculum policy can be for shaping teachers' early attempts to establish a secure professional repertoire.

    PDFAbstractOriginal Study
  31. The Relation Between State and District Literacy Standards: Issues of Alignment, Influence, and Utility
    A Research Report by Elizabeth Dutro and Sheila W. Valencia, January 2004.
    Description:

    This Research Report explores how state content standards in reading affect local content standards. The study, undertaken in four states, shows that under the guise of "alignment" between state and local standards, there is considerable variability, and that the usefulness of the state's efforts to promote local standards-based reform in this areas of the curriculum depends on various attributes of the state policy, the characteristic relationship between state and local level, and local engagement in professional development.

    PDFAbstractOriginal Study
  32. Building Instructional Quality: "Inside-Out" and "Outside-In" Perspectives on San Diego's School Reform
    A Research Report by Linda Darling-Hammond, Amy M. Hightower, Jennifer L. Husbands, Jeannette R. LaFors, Viki M. Young, and Carl Christopher, September 2003.
    Description:

    This research report looks at the aggressive set of policies San Diego City School District used to improve instruction. It reveals how San Diego consolidated and redirected resources, redesigned the district office as well as work in schools, and mediated and leveraged state policy to further its reform agenda. The report also documents the difficulties of managing the politics and implementation of a coherent approach to change in a large district with an established culture of decentralization located in a state with a piecemeal, sometimes conflicting, menu of reforms.

    PDFAbstractOriginal StudyOriginal StudyOriginal Study
  33. Is There Really a Teacher Shortage?
    A Research Report by Richard M. Ingersoll, September 2003.
    Description:

    In this report, Richard Ingersoll builds on his hypothesis that school staffing problems are due largely to excess demand resulting from high pre-retirement turnover and not solely or even primarily to supply-side deficits in the quantity of teachers produced. He also addresses criticisms of those who argue that concern over teacher turnover is exaggerated.

    PDFAbstractOriginal Study
  34. Out-of-Field Teaching and the Limits of Teacher Policy
    A Research Report by Richard M. Ingersoll, September 2003.
    Description:

    In this report, Richard Ingersoll focuses on trends over the past decade in the level of underqualified teachers in schools and why recent reforms have failed to adequately address this problem.

    PDFAbstractOriginal Study
  35. Reforming Districts: How Districts Support School Reform
    A Research Report by Milbrey McLaughlin and Joan Talbert, September 2003.
    Description:

    By detailing the experiences of three reforming California districts, this research report offers new evidence of district effects on school reform progress and improved student outcomes. The case studies offer instructive exception to conventional wisdom-or myths-about district reform. Among the refuted myths: teachers and principals resist a strong district role; turnover derails efforts to establish and sustain a consistent reform agenda; and local politics will defeat any serious reform agenda.

    PDFAbstractOriginal StudyOriginal Study
  36. Who's Teaching Washington's Children? What We Know-and Need to Know-About Teachers and the Quality of Teaching in the State
    A Technical Report commissioned by the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP) by Margaret Plecki, Ana Elfers, and Michael S. Knapp, August 2003.
  37. Standards-Based Reform and Small Schools of Choice: How Reform Theories Converge in Three Urban Middle Schools
    A Research Report by Chrysan Gallucci, Michael S. Knapp, Anneke Markholt, and Suzy Ort, July 2003.
    Description:

    This report examines the ways two seemingly opposite theories of educational reform converge in three New York City middle schools. Using in-depth case studies, the authors look at what happened when a theory of centralized, standards-based instructional improvement was introduced into these schools on top of an existing theory that emphasized small schools, distinctive programs, and close relationships among students and adults. The result, a surprise to some, is that the two theories can coexist, even complement each other, but not without some tension.

    PDFAbstractOriginal Study
  38. Triage or Tapestry? Teacher Unions' Work Toward Improving Teacher Quality in an Era of Systemic Reform
    A Research Report by Nina Bascia, June 2003.
    Description:

    By examining the work of six teacher unions, this report considers the contributions that teacher unions make toward improving the quality of teaching in today's context of systemic reform.

    PDFAbstractOriginal StudyOriginal Study
  39. Leading for Learning: Reflective Tools for School and District Leaders
    A CTP Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation, February 2003.
    Description:

    A 32-page, research-based report that addresses links between leadership and learning. Three learning agendas are discussed and five ways to address those agendas are detailed.

    PDFPromotional FlyerOriginal Study
  40. Leading for Learning Sourcebook: Concepts and Examples
    A CTP Research Report in collaboration with The Wallace Foundation, February 2003.
    Description:

    This 112-page report is the document on which the 32-page summary was based. It discusses ideas in greater depth and offers more examples of the ideas at work.

    PDFPromotional FlyerOriginal Study
  41. Out-of-Field Teaching, Educational Inquality, and the Organization of Schools: An Exploratory Analysis
    A Research Report by Richard M. Ingersoll, January 2002.
    Description:

    This research report examines the practice of out-of-field teaching as a possible source of underqualified teaching in U.S. schools.

    PDFAbstractOriginal Study
  42. San Diego's Big Boom: District Bureaucracy Supports Culture of Learning
    A Research Report by Amy M. Hightower, January 2002.
    Description:

    This research report chronicles three years of reform by San Diego City Schools and explores what it means to radically refocus a large urban district on instructional improvement.

    PDFAbstract
  43. District Policy and Beginning Teachers: Where the Twain Shall Meet
    A Research Report by Pamela Grossman, Sheila Valencia, and Clarissa Thompson, June 2001.
    Description:

    This Research Report looks at the role that policies concerning curriculum, professional development, and mentoring in two reform-active districts played in shaping the experiences and concerns of three first-year language arts teachers.

    PDFAbstractOriginal Study
  44. A Case of Successful Teaching Policy: Connecticut's Long-Term Efforts to Improve Teaching and Learning
    A Research Report by Suzanne M. Wilson, Linda Darling-Hammond, and Barnett Berry, February 2001.
    Description:

    This Research Report describes 15-years' worth of successful effort by Connecticut to implement a comprehensive set of teaching quality policies to support improved student learning. The authors hypothesize that the power of Connecticut's teaching policy reform lies not simply in their comprehensiveness and in the state's political stability over the last decade but also in the power of policies to build capacity in teachers, students, administrators, teacher educators and state department staff. A Policy Brief based on this report is also available.

    PDFBriefAbstractOriginal Study
  45. Teacher Preparation Research: Current Knowledge, Gaps, and Recommendations
    A Research Report by Suzanne M. Wilson, Robert E. Floden, and Joan Ferrini-Mundy, February 2001.
    Description:

    The Research Report summarizes what research has to say about five key issues in teacher preparation: subject matter preparation, pedagogical preparation, clinical training, preservice teacher education policies, and alternative certification. The report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Education and the Office for Educational Research and Improvement by CTP in collaboration with researchers at Michigan State University. An executive summary of the report is also available.

    PDFExecutive SummaryOriginal Study
  46. Teacher Turnover, Teacher Shortages, and the Organization of Schools
    A Research Report by Richard M. Ingersoll, January 2001.
    Description:

    This Research Report provides data and a new framework for looking at the teacher shortage problem. The author shifts the focus away from the problem's two most common explanations (teacher retirement and student enrollment growth) to examine from a sociological view how certain organizational characteristics and conditions of schools lead to low teacher retention. The analysis suggests that education policies, such as teacher recruitment programs, will not solve the staffing problems of schools if they do not also address what is going on in schools that cause teachers to leave. A Policy Brief based on this report is also available.

    PDFBriefAbstractOriginal Study
  47. Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence
    A Research Report by Linda Darling-Hammond, December 1999.
    Description:

    This Research Report examines the ways in which teacher qualifications and other school inputs are related to student achievement across states and suggests that policies adopted by states regarding teacher education, licensing, hiring, and professional development may make important differences in the qualifications and capacities teachers bring to their work.

    PDFBriefAbstractOriginal Study
B
A
C
K

T
O

T
O
P