RESTORATION IN ARCTIC ECOSYSTEMS

 

I. Types of high latititude systems (R. Whittaker. 1975. Communities and Ecosystems, 2nd Ed. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. 387 p.)

A. Taiga

B. Tundra

C. Arctic semidesert

D. Arctic desert

II. Conditions in Arctic Environments (L. Bliss. 1988. Arctic tundra and polar desert biome. Ch. 1 in M. Barbour and D. Billings (eds.) North American Terrestrial Vegetation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 434 p.)

A. Extent, diversity

B. Climate

C. Soils

D. Vegetation

E. Production

III. Environmental controls and plant adaptations (L. Bliss. 1988. Arctic tundra and polar desert biome. Ch. 1 in M. Barbour and D. Billings (eds.) North American Terrestrial Vegetation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 434 p.)

A. Environmental limiting factors

    1. water stress in polar deserts

    2. nutrients

    3. degree-days

    4. depth of thaw

B. Plant adaptations

    1. long-lived plants

    2. fast growth but low production

    3. may produce only one leaf, one flower per yr.

    4. leaves may live 2-5 years

    5. metabolize and grow at just above freezing

IV. Ecosystem impacts (L. Bliss. 1983. Modern impact in the arctic. Ch 15 in W. Holzner, M. Werger and I. Ikusima (eds.) Man's Impact on Vegetation. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague.)

A. Mining

    1. tailings, leachate

    2. permafrost degradation

B. Transportation systems

    1. gravel

    2. permafrost protection

    3. dust

    4. traffic vs. animals

    5. thermokarst

C. Petroleum

    1. exploration

        historical problems

        new procedures

    2. pipelines

    3. spills and fire

V. Disturbance and recovery (Walker and Walker. 1991. History and pattern of disturbance in Alaskan arctic terrestrial ecosystems: a hierarchical approach to analysing landscape change. Journa of Applied Ecology 28: 244-276.)

A. Thermokarst

    1. definition, permafrost

    2. results of thawing

    3. attributes of physical system contributing to thermokarst

    4. heat flux in ice-rich terrain

B. Vegetation recovery

    1. physical characteristics of site

    2. disturbance

    3. native vegetation at time of disturbance

VI. Small-scale high Arctic restoration (B. Forbes. 1993. Small-scale restoration in the high Arctic: a long-term perspective. Restoration Ecology 1:59-68.)

A. Site: Truelove Lowland, Devon Island

    1. terrain

    2. vegetation

    3. nature of disturbance

B. Experiment

    1. Carex aquatilis

    2. treatments

VIII. Revegetation by seeding (L. Bliss. 1983. Modern impact in the arctic. Ch 15 in W. Holzner, M. Werger and I. Ikusima (eds.) Man's Impact on Vegetation. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague.)

A. Seeding by airplanes and hydromulching

B. Low Arctic

C. High Arctic

IX. Succession as the driving force for tundra restoration (S. Cargill & F.S.Chapin. 1987. Application of successional theory to tundra restoration: a review. Arctic and Alpine Research 19:366-372.)

A. Restoration of mesic disturbed sites

B. Recovery of vehicle tracks in tundra

C. Restoration of xeric disturbes sites