I. Distribution

A. Walter: Forest-steppe zonoecotone

B. Whittaker: Temperate woodlands/temperate deciduous forest biome

C. Braun: Oak-hickory, oak-pine-hickory associations

D. Barbour: California oak woodlands

E. Franklin and Dyrness: Oregon interior valleys, Willamette Valley,

Puget Sound and San Juan Islands

II. Losses

A. Packard: Central North America

B. Kavanaugh:Washington

Western Washington conversion to farming

South central Washington, less conversion

Current threat: suburban development

Forest practices

Firewood cutting


III. Oak life history (Jane Kertis 1986. Vegetation Dynamics and Disturbance History of Oak Patch Natural Area Preserve, Mason County, Washington. M.S. Thesis, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, 93. p).

A. Flowering April-May; acorns mature Sept-Oct

B. Natural reproduction by seeds is low

mast crops

dispersal distance short

no dormancy

germination rates high (75-100%)

filbert weevil, predators

optimum seedbed moist soil with thick litter

seedlings more shade tolerant than adults

C. Vegetative reproduction by root and stump sprouting common


IV. Restoration of oak savanna in Chicago area (S. Packard 1988. Just a few oddball species: Restoration and rediscovery of the tallgrass savanna. Restoration and Management Notes 6:13-20)

A. Sites required: any land with older oaks and good soil

need oak and understory species seed sources (on site or adjacent)

B. Brush/weed control

larger than 3" dbh girdled

less than 3" dbh controlled by fire

fire and mowing combined to control weeds

C. Fire regime

burn annually in first years

burn 2 out of 3 years after that

D. Seeding

allow seed banks to germinate, or

collect seed, burn site, broadcast (do not waste seed on inappropriate microsites)

V. South central Washington land management for wildlife (R. Kavanagh 1991. Washington Oak Habitat: A Plan for Managing the Oak Forests of Washington State. Columbia Gorge Audubon Society, Hood River, Oregon, 34 p.)

A. Management units 50 acres

B. Cover: 50% cover (75% oak, 25% conifer)

C. Special features

preserve snags, downed trees, seed trees, den trees

3 snags/acre >12" dbh

periodic cold burns of grass and shrubs

VI. Oak nursery practices (J.Young and C.Young 1992. Seeds of Woody Plants in North America (Biosystematics, Floristic and Phylogeny Series, Vol. 4. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, 414 p.)

A. Acorn collection

August to December

from ground or flailed onto plastic tarps

collect soon after falling to retard germination

B. Sorting

discard floaters, defective seeds

remove cups, twigs, debris

C. Weevil treatment

immerse in hot (48 C) water for 40 minutes

D. Storage

no dormancy

do not let seed moisture content drop below 30-50% range

E. Seeding

fall seeding preferable

drill in rows 20-25 cm apart, or broadcast and cover w/ 0.5 cm firmed soil

densities: 105 to 370/m2

mulch fall/sown seeds to protect seeds and seedlings

partial shade may promote germination

usually transplant after 1 yr

F. Root pruning