Salt stress in wetland plants


Organism level

1. Generalized salinity effects

A. Enzyme sensitivity to inorganic ions

B. Nutrients: deficiency, interference

C. Water relations


2. Plant responses: water relations, salt, inundation

A. Osmotic potential

B. Salt tolerance



Inorganic ions

Organic ions

C. Cellular energy costs


3. Salinity consequences for plants

A. Maintenance of water uptake

B. Physiological effects on plants

C. Plant adaptations

D. Halophytic plant families


Ecosystem and community level

1. Salt marsh environment

A. Habitat diversity

B. Salinity range

2. Salinity fluctuation patterns

3. Characteristics of coastal halophytes