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Vol. XI No. 17 ~ EINet News Briefs ~ Aug 22, 2008
*****A free service of the APEC Emerging Infections Network*****
APEC EINet News Briefs offers the latest news, journal articles, and notifications for emerging infections affecting the APEC member economies. It was created to foster transparency, communication, and collaboration in emerging infectious diseases among health professionals, international business and commerce leaders, and policy makers in the Asia-Pacific region.
In this edition:
1. Influenza News
- Global: Cumulative number of human cases of avian influenza A/(H5N1)
- Global: Expert says H9N2 avian influenza could be more common than previously thought
- Indonesia: Researchers find trends in study of Indonesia's H5N1 avian influenza cases
- USA (Rhode Island): H7N3 avian influenza found in four mute swans
- USA (Texas): DelSite Inc. applies to test nasal powder H5N1 avian influenza vaccine
2. Infectious Disease News
- Australia (Queensland): Veterinarian who contracted Hendra virus dies in Brisbane
- China: Two dead from an undiagnosed illness, two others sick
- Philippines (Zambo): Health officials probe 'severe type' of pneumonia
- Russia: 16 people sickened by foodborne toxic paroxysmal myoglobinuria, one death
- Singapore: Hand, foot and mouth death is first in seven years
- Singapore: Update on Kranji Way chikungunya cluster
- Canada (Ontario): 12 confirmed cases of listeriosis, one death
- Canada (Ontario): 10 cases of mumps found in Oxford County
- USA (New Jersey): Two people sickened from Vibrio parahaemolyticus linked to oysters
- USA (New York): 13-year-old girl infected with measles while on European vacation
- USA (Louisiana & Wisconsin): Three cases of La Crosse encephalitis confirmed in two states
- USA (Minnesota): Health officials tracking two cases of measles
- USA (Alaska): Botulism traced to traditionally prepared Native foods
- USA: Second E. coli outbreak linked to meat from Nebraska Beef
- USA (New York): Three people hospitalized with Legionellosis
- USA (California): Raw milk suspected in Campylobacteriosis outbreak
- USA: HHS evaluates proposals for new anthrax vaccine
- USA (Washington): Ellensburg police officer dies from hantavirus infection
- AVIAN/PANDEMIC INFLUENZA
- CHOLERA, DIARRHEA, AND DYSENTERY
- WEST NILE VIRUS
- Emerging Infectious Diseases - Volume 14, Number 8 – August 2008
- Predominant Role of Bacterial Pneumonia as a Cause of Death in Pandemic Influenza: Implications for Pandemic Influenza Preparedness
- Planning for an Influenza Pandemic: Thinking beyond the Virus
- Neutralizing antibodies derived from the B cells of 1918 influenza pandemic survivors
- Coordinated Implementation of Community Response Measures (Including Social Distancing) to Control the Spread of Pandemic Respiratory Disease
- Avian influenza vaccines: a practical review in relation to their application in the field with a focus on the Asian experience
- Factors associated with case fatality of human H5N1 virus infections in Indonesia: a case series
- One Health Initiative Task Force: Final Report
- PHI2008--Envisioning Options for Integrated Public Health Information Systems for Low Resource Settings: Components, Connections, Partners, Strategies
- The 7th International Bird Flu Summit
- No Ordinary Flu: Preparedness comic book in multiple languages
1. Influenza News
Global: Cumulative number of human cases of avian influenza A/(H5N1)
Economy / Cases (Deaths)
***For data on human cases of avian influenza prior to 2008, go to: http://depts.washington.edu/einet/humanh5n1.html
Total no. of confirmed human cases of avian influenza A/(H5N1), Dec 2003 to present: 385 (243).
Avian influenza age distribution data from WHO/WPRO: http://www.wpro.who.int/sites/csr/data/data_Graphs.htm. (WHO/WPRO 6.19.08)
WHO's maps showing world's areas affected by H5N1 avian influenza (last updated 8.18.08): http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/
WHO’s timeline of important H5N1-related events (last updated 8.14.08): http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/ai_timeline/en/index.html
Global: Expert says H9N2 avian influenza could be more common than previously thought
So far, only a handful of human H9N2 cases have been documented worldwide, including four children in Hong Kong in 2003 who suffered from mild fevers and coughs -- as well as a batch in China's Guangdong province, where people often live in close proximity to poultry, Peiris said. The Hong Kong cases were only picked up by chance given the city's rigorous influenza testing regime, Peiris said. "It's quite a silent virus, it's not highly pathogenic. . .and sometimes it causes some morbidity in poultry but by and large it is just there and it's unnoticed," Peiris said of the H9N2 strain.
Most influenza experts agree that a pandemic of some kind of flu is inevitable. No one can predict what kind, but the chief suspect is the H5N1 bird flu virus, which has infected 385 people and killed 243 of them since 2003. However, flu experts at the University of Maryland, St. Jude's Children's Research hospital in Memphis and elsewhere recently wrote in the journal PLoS ONE that the H9N2 strain posed a "significant threat for humans." They found that just a few mutations could turn it into a virus that people catch and transmit easily. Peiris said that while the H9N2 strain might be more transmissible, its effects would be far less devastating than a possible H5N1 pandemic. "There are other viruses out there besides H5N1 that could be the next pandemic," Peiris said. "But I suspect (H9N2) will not be so severe in its outcome." There are hundreds of strains of avian influenza virus but only four -- H5N1, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2 -- are known to have caused human infections, according to the World Health Organization.
Indonesia: Researchers find trends in study of Indonesia's H5N1 avian influenza cases
Public health officials from Indonesia recently published an analysis of nearly all of the country's H5N1 avian influenza cases, revealing that death was more likely in those who received antiviral treatment late, were not part of a cluster, and lived in an urban area. The study, published online 15 Aug 2008 in The Lancet, was authored by officials from Indonesia's Directorate General of Disease Control and Environmental Health, the country's health ministry, as well as authorities from laboratories and health organizations. It includes data from public health investigations and, when available, patients' clinical information.
The evaluation covered all confirmed human cases between 22 Jun 2005, when Indonesia recorded its first H5N1 infection, to 1 Feb 2008. Included were 127 patients, 103 (81%) of whom died. The case-fatality rate (CFR) rose from 65% in 2005 to 86.8% in 2007. However, Indonesian officials say the rate has declined so far in 2008. According to a report that appeared 15 Aug 2008 on the Web site of the health ministry's avian influenza committee, the CFR from January through July was 84.2%, based on the 19 cases and 16 deaths recognized by the nation (as of this writing, the World Health Organization has recognized 18 cases with 15 deaths). Only two of Indonesia's 127 infected patients were not hospitalized. One had a mild infection and received outpatient care, and one refused treatment and died at home.
Most patients were hospitalized too late and received oseltamivir too late, the group says. "Training and equipping of all H5N1 referral hospitals across Indonesia, together with increasing the number of referral hospitals, is in progress to address this issue." The authors emphasize that early identification is often difficult, but more information from agricultural officials about local poultry outbreaks could help healthcare workers increase their index of suspicion for H5N1 infections. Other measures that could help reduce the country's CFR from H5N1 infections include rapid diagnostic tests for field use and better case-management training for healthcare workers, they write.
In a commentary accompanying the Lancet report, two British researchers say more uniform and complete data are needed to shed more clarity on trends emerging from Indonesia's cases—which account for a third of cases worldwide. "Basic clinico-epidemiological data are an essential adjunct to virological surveillance," they write. For example, exposures to the H5N1 should be clearly specified, including dates, they say, adding that lack of full data raises questions about such issues as whether the time frame between H5N1 disease onset and hospital admission has decreased over time. "Indonesia, with the most extensive experience of human H5N1 patients, has a crucial clinical, epidemiological, and scientific role to play in the world's response to this potentially devastating infection," write the researchers.
USA (Rhode Island): H7N3 avian influenza found in four mute swans
A bird flu virus strain has been found in four mute swans collected from the Seekonk River -- near the Swan Point Cemetery -- as part of routine state Department of Environmental Management (DEM) surveillance. While the DEM says the strain is not harmful to humans, it is suggesting that all poultry owners should have their flocks tested. Tests by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) detected that the swans, part of a sample of 11 birds, were infected with the H7N3 strain of avian influenza virus. But the DEM emphasized in a news release on 21 Aug 2008 that it was not the same strain that has infected people in Asia and Europe since 2003, and there is no known significant health risk to people who are exposed to this strain of the virus. There are no associated food safety concerns either, the DEM said. Every year, State Veterinarian Scott Marshall at the state's Department of Environmental Management said on 21 Aug 2008, a single duck or bird tests positive for this flu. But in 2008, several birds tested positive for the virus. "That's what we find a little more alarming," he said.
USA (Texas): DelSite Inc. applies to test nasal powder H5N1 avian influenza vaccine
The GelVac(tm) nasal powder platform combines the advantages of nasal immunization and powder formulation and brings distinct benefits to the vaccine products and patients. These include room temperature stability, cold chain-free distribution and needle-free administration, making this vaccine particularly well-suited for influenza pandemic preparedness, as well as epidemic control. Dr. Carlton Turner, CEO of DelSite, commented, ``I believe the GelVac(tm) platform facilitates the beginning of a true paradigm shift away from needles for the delivery of vaccines. GelVac(tm) is a powder formula that can be self-administered nasally using a unit dose device. The nasal powder formulation needs no preservatives, no adjuvants, no needles and cold storage is not required. Since one kilogram of the GelSite(r) polymer in the GelVac(tm) formula can make more than 8 million doses, the cost per vaccine dose can be significantly reduced. DelSite has one influenza vaccine that has been stable for over 3 years at room temperature.
2. Infectious Disease News
Australia (Queensland): Veterinarian who contracted Hendra virus dies in Brisbane
A Brisbane vet who fell ill with Hendra virus infection has died in hospital. The veterinarian and a nurse contracted the virus infection in July 2008 after treating horses at the Redlands Veterinary Clinic in Brisbane's east. The doctor died in the Princess Alexandra Hospital overnight, clinic owner David Lovell said on 21 Aug 2008. Lovell said, "He was the first person who became infected in this outbreak and he's been very, very seriously ill in hospital."
A second veterinary nurse remains in hospital with the disease but Dr. Lovell believes her condition is improving. Dr Lovell said he could not go into details about [the] nurse's condition but "some good news there, she's doing quite well." Also infected with the virus were five horses from the Redlands Clinic. Four have died or been euthanized. One horse surviving the infection has been euthanized as a disease security measure.
China: Two dead from an undiagnosed illness, two others sick
Health officials are already conducting an investigation into the illnesses after the deaths last week of two girls, nine and three, who suffered from inflammation of the heart and blood poisoning. A third girl, seven, is in critical condition, suffering from brain inflammation. Thomas Tsang Ho-fai, controller of the Centre for Health Protection, said it was not known whether one single virus or different viruses were responsible and an investigation was ongoing.
Philippines (Zambo): Health officials probe 'severe type' of pneumonia
Russia: 16 people sickened by foodborne toxic paroxysmal myoglobinuria, one death
Singapore: Hand, foot and mouth death is first in seven years
Singapore: Update on Kranji Way chikungunya cluster
NEA officers have been conducting intensive mosquito control operations within the vicinity of the cases' workplace and residences, and the areas that they frequent. More than 28 premises have been inspected in the Kranji Way area and a total of 16 premises were found breeding the Aedes mosquito. Outdoor and indoor fogging of insecticide has been carried out for all the premises checked. Residents and premise owners in the vicinity of Kranji Way have all been advised to check their premises daily to remove any stagnant water that may breed mosquitoes.
Singapore on 16 Aug 2008 reported nine new cases of mosquito-borne chikungunya fever, bringing to 117 the total number of such cases this year.
Canada (Ontario): 12 confirmed cases of listeriosis, one death
At least one person is dead and 16 others ill across Canada from a bacterial infection that can be fatal to the infirm, the elderly, and unborn children -- and could be linked to a massive, nationwide recall of ready-to-eat meat products made by food giant Maple Leaf Foods. Health authorities in Ontario are dealing with 12 confirmed cases of listeriosis, a disease caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes -- often found in soil, vegetation, animal feed, and feces, and recently in certain processed meats produced by a Maple Leaf plant in Toronto. Listeriosis was the "underlying cause of death" in the case of the one known fatality, said Dr David Williams, Ontario's acting chief medical officer of health. The number of confirmed cases, which seem to consist primarily of nursing home residents, could grow as health units across the province continue to submit reports on the disease, he added. "The pattern was people in certain long-term care facilities" across southern Ontario, Williams said. "The median age in the males is 76 and in the females is 80."
Nursing homes, deli counters, and restaurants are among the establishments where the meat products -- which include turkey, ham, corned beef, and roast beef -- were distributed. Maple Leaf spokeswoman Linda Smith said the company is taking all the necessary precautions, including shutting down the plant, providing additional food safety training for employees, and ensuring the public is aware of the situation. "This is a company that has a culture of food safety," Smith said. "We're taking appropriate, broad, comprehensive, and definitive action as it relates to this facility. This involves people -- we want people to understand there's a recall, we want people to have that information." The recall is costing the company approximately [CAD] 2 million [USD 1.9 million], Smith added.
Canada (Ontario): 10 cases of mumps found in Oxford County
USA (New Jersey): Two people sickened from Vibrio parahaemolyticus linked to oysters
The two people fell sick from Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection after eating New Jersey oysters in a Maryland restaurant, according to Dawn Thomas, a spokeswoman for the NJ Department of Health and Senior Services. Health officials traced the oysters back to the Ship John and Shellrock oyster beds in the upper Delaware Bay, according to Barney Hollinger, head of the DEP's Delaware Bay Shellfish Council.
USA (New York): 13-year-old girl infected with measles while on European vacation
USA (Louisiana & Wisconsin): Three cases of La Crosse encephalitis confirmed in two states
In Wisconsin, a local health department has confirmed two cases of Lacrosse encephalitis. The patients are two adults from Polk County. Public Health Supervisor Bonnie Leonard hasn't released the identities, ages, or the gender of either patient. She also won't say which communities they're from. Both cases were confirmed in July 2008 in separate areas of the county. Leonard says one of the patients will make a full recovery, the other; she hasn't gotten a hold of.
USA (Minnesota): Health officials tracking two cases of measles
But it fits a concerning trend nationally. Between January and July 2008, 127 measles cases in 15 states were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], the largest number in the past seven years. So far, no child has died. Most cases have occurred in children whose parents decided against having them vaccinated for religious reasons or because of concerns about the safety of vaccines.
USA (Alaska): Botulism traced to traditionally prepared Native foods
Foodborne botulism has often been from home-canned foods with low acid content, such as asparagus, green beans, beets and corn. However, botulism also occur from more unusual sources, such as chopped garlic in oil, chili peppers, tomatoes, carrot juice, improperly handled baked potatoes, and home-canned or fermented fish. Nine of the 10 botulism cases in Alaska have been from home-prepared food.
USA: Second E. coli outbreak linked to meat from Nebraska Beef
On the same day as the Nebraska Beef recall, Whole Foods Market, a natural and organic food market, announced that it recalled fresh ground beef sold under the Coleman Natural Beef label from its stores in 23 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The company said in an 8 Aug 2008 statement that though only illnesses in Massachusetts and Pennsylvania have been linked to Whole Foods Market, the company broadened its recall as a precaution. Whole Foods Market said it based its recall on findings from state E coli O157:H7 outbreak investigations in Virginia, Ohio, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania.
Officials from the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) said on 8 Aug 2008 that it has so far linked seven cases to the latest E coli outbreak, and interviews with the patients revealed that they ate ground beef products from Whole Foods Market outlets during July 2008. The seven people range from three to 60 years of age. At least five of the patients were hospitalized.
USA (New York): Three people hospitalized with Legionellosis
"We're just starting the investigation and we're taking samples in a lot of different places in Elmira," Klossner said. Besides living in Flannery, the three sickened people have other factors in common such as age, health and activities, Klossner said. Robert Page, Chemung County director of public health, said finding common factors is major thrust of the investigation. "We're looking at the building and potential sources and trying to identify if they can find a cause or source of it," Page said. "We're also looking at people who were ill, trying to find common factors. . ." he said.
USA (California): Raw milk suspected in Campylobacteriosis outbreak
Three cases of Campylobacter infections have been documented by Del Norte County health officials since late June 2008, and the other 12 are awaiting confirmation. The Crescent City woman was the only person who became severely ill. The outbreak occurred between 10 May 2008 and 5 Jun 2008, and officials say it is no longer a risk to the public because the source of the raw milk believed to have caused the infections, Alexandre EcoDairy north of Fort Dick, voluntarily stopped the supply.
USA: HHS evaluates proposals for new anthrax vaccine
The contract would require companies to secure Food and Drug Administration approval for the rPA anthrax vaccine. Initially, the vaccine would be used for pre-exposure prophylaxis in adults, with a future label extension to allow postexposure prophylaxis alongside antibiotics. Federal officials have been seeking a new vaccine formulation that can provide immunity in three doses, rather than the six doses required for the licensed vaccine, and that will cause fewer side effects. The anthrax vaccine currently in the national stockpile, Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA), was developed in the 1950s and is produced by Emergent BioSolutions. The product, required for US military personnel serving in high-risk areas, is given in six doses over 18 months, followed by an annual booster. A number of service members have reported serious side effects from the vaccine, and some sued to shelve the program.
Emergent BioSolutions said its new vaccine candidate is a reformulated and more stable version of the rPA 102 vaccine that was originally developed at the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. It said phase 1 and 2 studies involving 700 human subjects suggest that its rPA anthrax vaccine is safe and well tolerated and produces a protective immune response.
USA (Washington): Ellensburg police officer dies from hantavirus infection
- UN: http://www.undp.org/mdtf/influenza/overview.shtml UNDP recently launched a new web site for information on fund management and administrative services and includes the website of the Central Fund for Influenza Action. This site also includes a list of useful links to governments, international agencies, NGOs, and scientific organizations.
- WHO: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/en/index.html The Influenza Virus Tracking System is now live and can be accessed by the public at: www.who.int/fluvirus_tracker.
- UN FAO: http://www.fao.org/avianflu/en/maps.html. View the latest cumulative highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak maps.
- OIE: http://www.oie.int/eng/info_ev/en_AI_avianinfluenza.htm. Link to the Communication Portal gives latest facts, updates, timeline, and more.
- US CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/index.htm. Visit "Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Tools for Professionals" at: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic/preparednesstools.htm. This site contains resources to help hospital administrators and state and local health officials prepare for the next influenza pandemic.
- The US government’s website for pandemic/avian flu: http://www.pandemicflu.gov/. View the factsheet "Control of Pandemic Flu Virus on Environmental Surfaces in Homes and Public Places" at: http://www.pandemicflu.gov/plan/individual/panfacts.html
- CIDRAP: http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/ See "Promising Practices: Pandemic Preparedness Tools:" Find more than 130 peer-reviewed practices from 22 states and 33 counties aimed at furthering pandemic preparedness.
- PAHO: http://www.paho.org/English/AD/DPC/CD/influenza.htm Link to the Avian Influenza Portal at: http://influenza.bvsalud.org/php/level.php?lang=en&component=19&item=1. The Portal is a developing project for the operation of product networks and information services, for specialists, authorities and the general public.
- US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center Avian Influenza Information: http://www.nwhc.usgs.gov/disease_information/avian_influenza/index.jsp Read about the latest news on H5N1 in wild birds and poultry.
(UN; WHO; FAO, OIE; CDC; CIDRAP; PAHO; USGS)
CHOLERA, DIARRHEA, AND DYSENTERY
Viet Nam (Thanh Hoa)
Viet Nam (north)
Cases of DHF [dengue hemorrhagic fever] through EW 31 include reports of 27 cases with 16 being reported as confirmed. There are still six classified as probable cases and five have been discarded.
Emerging Infectious Diseases - Volume 14, Number 8 – August 2008
The August 2008 issue online at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/. Several articles of interest are listed below:
- Sirenda Vong et al. Environmental contamination during influenza A virus (H5N1) outbreaks,
Cambodia, 2006. http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/8/1303.htm
Predominant Role of Bacterial Pneumonia as a Cause of Death in Pandemic Influenza: Implications for Pandemic Influenza Preparedness
Planning for an Influenza Pandemic: Thinking beyond the Virus
This general pattern of increased incidence, increased mortality, and typical pathologic findings of bacterial pneumonia was repeated in virtually all of the generally recognized epidemics and pandemics through the modern era, when rigorous pathologic examination of fatal pneumonia cases fell out of use as a diagnostic modality. Indeed, Edwin O. Jordan, in his comprehensive survey of all literature relevant to the 1918 pandemic, argued that the general clinical and epidemiologic character of the pandemics of 1889–1890 and 1918–1919 were indistinguishable, including the disproportionately high attack rate in young adults which has been regarded to be pathognomonic of the 1918 pandemic. This contention runs counter to the prevailing view espoused in both the scientific and lay media that the 1918 pandemic strain was uniquely virulent, and that factors intrinsic to the behavior of the virus and the pathogenesis of the viral infection must account for the strikingly high worldwide mortality associated with this pandemic.
Neutralizing antibodies derived from the B cells of 1918 influenza pandemic survivors
Coordinated Implementation of Community Response Measures (Including Social Distancing) to Control the Spread of Pandemic Respiratory Disease
Workgroup members developed three documents to strengthen cross-sector coordination in public health emergency preparedness, including:
- a broad framework report on improving cross-sector coordination;
Avian influenza vaccines: a practical review in relation to their application in the field with a focus on the Asian experience
Factors associated with case fatality of human H5N1 virus infections in Indonesia: a case series
One Health Initiative Task Force: Final Report
http://www.avma.org/onehealth/ (full text)
The convergence of people, animals, and our environment has created a new dynamic—one in which the health of each group is inextricably interconnected. The challenges associated with this dynamic are demanding, profound, and unprecedented. While the demand for animal-based protein is expected to increase by 50% by 2020, animal populations are under heightened pressure to survive, and further loss of biodiversity is highly probable.
Compounding that is the fact that, of the 1,461 diseases now recognized in humans, approximately 60% are due to multi-host pathogens characterized by their movement across species lines. And, over the last three decades, approximately 75% of new emerging human infectious diseases are defined as zoonotic. Our increasing interdependence with animals and their products may well be the single most critical risk factor to our own health and well-being with regard to infectious diseases.
The words of Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, former director of the World Health Organization (WHO), were indeed prophetic. In her speech at the United Nations Global Leadership Awards on April 19, 2001, she stated that in a modern world, bacteria and viruses travel almost as fast as money. With globalization, a single microbial sea washes over all humankind and there are no health sanctions. In actuality, that sea washes not over just all humankind, but also across all animal and environmental domains.
Beyond infectious diseases, it is important to note that "noncommunicable" conditions and risks are crossing species and adversely affecting both animal and human health. Examples include obesity and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke among pets, pet-owners, and their children.
There is nothing on the horizon to suggest that any of these factors are abating. In fact, these factors are likely to accelerate in intensity and complexity, and will surely create consequences and implications of unprecedented scope and scale and global economic devastation much greater than any previous time in history. By adopting the tenets of One Health, we can devise integrated strategies to control that sea and prevent these threats from crossing domains.
PHI2008--Envisioning Options for Integrated Public Health Information Systems for Low Resource Settings: Components, Connections, Partners, Strategies
Dates: 18-19 September 2008
PHI2008 will be hosted by Global Partners in Public Health Informatics (GPPHI) at the Center for Public Health Informatics (CPHI) at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. The idea of creating a partnership of governmental and non-governmental organizations, academic institutions and companies to define and develop a vision for addressing health challenges in low-resource settings through information and communications technologies was first articulated at PHI2007: Building a Global Partnership in Public Health Informatics. PHI2007 brought together nearly 200 individuals from across the globe who created the impetus for the Global Partners in PHI.
The Rockefeller Foundation recently funded the UW Center for Public Health Informatics to begin the planning process for the Global Partners organization. That process will take place over the coming year through an invitational meeting on Public Health Informatics at the Rockefeller Foundation conference center in Bellagio, Italy as well as at the second annual GPPHI meeting -- PHI2008 -- to be held in September 18-19, 2008 at the Bell Harbor Conference Center, Seattle, Washington, USA. The theme for the PHI2008 meeting is "Envisioning Options for Integrated Public Health Information Systems for Low Resource Settings: Components, Connections, Partners, Strategies."
The 7th International Bird Flu Summit
November 13-14, 2008 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The two-day event will draw on first-hand best practices to create solid business continuity plans that companies and organizations need to prepare for, respond to, and survive a pandemic. Public Health Officials, Top leaders and key decision-makers of major companies representing a broad range of industries will meet with distinguished scientists, law enforcers, first responders, and other experts to discuss pandemic prevention, preparedness, response and recovery at the two day summit.
No Ordinary Flu: Preparedness comic book in multiple languages