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Matthew Thompson, MBChB, MPH, DPhil, MRCGP
Professor and Vice Chair for Research, Family Medicine
Family Medicine Research Section
e-mail: mjt@uw.edu


Biographical Information

Matthew Thompson is Professor of Family Medicine and Vice Chair for Research, and a practicing Family Doctor. He completed an NRSA Primary Care Research Fellowship and MPH at the University of Washington, and a DPhil from the University of Oxford. Within these he has used observational studies, trials of new interventions, systematic reviews and qualitative studies.

His current research interests are broad, but focus on areas of improving use of technology to improve diagnosis and monitoring for acute and chronic conditions in primary care. This includes diagnostic studies of new point of care blood tests, better ways of diagnosing and monitoring common conditions such as hypertension or atrial fibrillation, as well as clinical prediction rules for common conditions. In child health he has conducted some seminal work to improve knowledge about how primary care clinicians can better identify children presenting in primary care who have a serious illness from the large number who attend with self-limiting conditions. His research in infection has focussed on common respiratory infections- including targetting which adults and children are most likely to benefit from antibioitics or antivirals, the effectiveness of steroids for sore throats and sinusitis, and more accurate information about expected durations of common respiratory infections. Finally he has been involved in evidence syntheses and developing guidelines for the US Preventive Services Task Force, NICE in the UK, and the Cochrane Collaboration.

As Vice Chair for Research in the Department, his vision includes growing the size and scope of the Research Section, working closely with colleagues in the other Sections on research and scholarship, and increasing research collaborations across the WWAMI region and nationally.


Teaching Interests & Roles

-Evidence based medicine teaching for students, residents, clinicians and medical technology industry
-Diagnostic research study designs
-Systematic reviews of interventions, diagnostics, and observational studies.
-Research study design in primary care
-Clinical teaching related to pediatrics, infectious diseases in primary care, diagnostic test use, chronic disease management


Research Interests & Roles

-Diagnostic testing in primary care
-Improving monitoring of chronic disease
-Child health, including diagnosis of serious and common illnesses, use of antibioitics, management of respiratory tract infections
-Evidence syntheses and evidence based guideline development and implementation
-Global health related to child health and chronic disease management
-Improved use of new technology in primary care settings
-Research methods including cohort studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, qualitative, systematic reviews, RCTs


Current Projects

Development & Implementation of New Diagnostic Processes and Technologies in Primary Care

Trial of electronic IMCI and vital signs to improve detection of children with serious illness in Africa

Improving the pathways of care from primary care to the intensive care unit in Cape Town

RCT of steroids for treatment of adults with sore throat (Treatment Options without Antibiotics for Sore Throat (TOAST) trial

Monitoring long term conditions in primary care

Improving the recognition of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in children in primary care

A pilot study on the effects of adding C-reactive protein point of care testing in the management of acutely ill children in primary care

Effectiveness of Self Care strategies in Non-Communicable Diseases.

Improving the Use of Antibiotics for Children with Acute Respiratory Infections in Primary Care

Update and Amalgamation of Two Cochrane Reviews: Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Preventing and Treating Influenza in Healthy Adults and Children

Cohort study of adults presenting with suspected lower respiratory tract infection in primary care to determine predictors of hospital admission with pneumonia.


Selected Publications

Research Papers

1. Children's health services in Europe. Wolfe I, Thompson M, Gill P et al. The Lancet 2013; 381:1224-34
2. Safety netting in healthcare settings: what it means, and for whom? Roland D, Jones, C, Neill S, Thompson M, Lakhanpaul M. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2013;Oct 28:doi 10. 1136
3. Primary care clinicians' attitudes toward point of care blood testing: a systematic review of qualitative studies. Jones CH, Howick J, Roberts N, Pricce DP, Heneghan C, PluddemannA, Thompson M. BMC Fam Pract 2013;14:117
4. The safety netting behavior of first contact clinciians: a qualitative study. Jones CH, Neill S, Lakhanpaul M, Roland D, Singlehurst-Mooney H, Thompson M. BMC Fam Pract 2013;14:140
5. Evidence for non-communicable diseases: analysis of Cochrane reviews and randomized trials by World Bank classification. Heneghan C, Blacklock C, Perera R et al. BMJ Open 2013;3(7):
6. Autoimmune markers for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis in primary care: primary care technology updated. Pluddemann A, Mahtani M, Miller A, Rivero-Arias O, Heneghan C, Price C, Thompson M, Luqmani R. BJGP 2013;63:553-4
7. Clinical prediction model to aid emergency doctors managing febrile children at risk of serious bacterial infections: diagnostic study. Nijman R, Veen MV, Moll HA, Oostenbrink R, Vergouwe Y, Steyerberg EW, Thompson M. BMJ 346 (7905) 27Apr 2013
8. Emerging diagnostic technologies in primary care: what's on the horizon? (Editorial) Thompson M, Pluddemann A, Heneghan C. Br J Gen Pract 2013;63:177-8
9. Inconclusive diagnostic test results: how to report and analyse results which are not positive and not negative. Shinkins B, Thompson M, Mallet S, Perera R. BMJ 2013;346
10. Point of care testing for celiac disease: Primary Care Diagnostic Technology Update: Pluddemann A, Thompson M, Wolstenholme J, et al. Br J Gen Pract 2013;63:e426-8
11. Reducing antibiotic prescribing for children with respiratory tract infections in primary care: a systematic review. Vodicka T, Thompson M, Lucas P, Heneghan C, Blair P, Buckley D, Redmond N, Hay A. Br J Gen Pract 2013;63:445-54
12. Screening for hypertension in children and adolescents to prevent cardiovascular disease: evidence synthesis for the USPSTF. Thompson M, Bougatsos C, Dana T, Norris S. Pediatrics 2013 131(3):490-525
13. How well do clinical prediction rules perform in identifying serious infections in acutely ill children across and international network of ambulatory care datasets? Verbakel J, Van den Bruel A, Thompson M et al. BMC Medicine 2013 jan15;11:10
14. Point of care testing INR coagulometers for self-management of oral anticoagulation: Primary Care Diagnostic Technology Update: Pluddemann A, Thompson M, Wolstenholme J, et al. Br J Gen Pract 2012;62:e798-800
15. How to handle vital signs in the prediction of serious bacterial infections. Spruijt B, Vergouwe Y, Nijman R, Thompson M, Oostenbrink R. J Clin Epidemiol 2013;66:453-7
16. Evaluating genomic tests from bench to bedside: a practical framework. Lin JL, Thompson M, Goddard J, Piper M, Heneghan C, Whitlock E. BMC Med Inform Decis Making 2012;12(1):117
17. When and how do GPs record vital signs in children with acute infections? A cross-sectional study. Blacklock C, Haj-Hassan T, Thompson M. Br J Gen Pract 2012;62:526-7
18. Identifying early warning signs for diagnostic errors in primary care: a qualitative study. Balla J, Heneghan C, Goyder C, Thompson M. BMJ Open 2012;2(5)e001539
19. Corticosteroids as standalone or add-on treatment for sore throat. Hayward G, Thompson M, Perera R et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;10:CD008268
20. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy children and its relationship with BMI. Friedemann C, Heneghan C, Mahtani K, Thompson M, Perera R, Ward A. BMJ 2012;345:e4759
21. What factors influence prognosis in children with acute cough and respiratory tract infection in primary care? Hayward G, Thompson M, Hay A. BMJ 2012;345:e6212
22. Children with fever and cough at the emergency care: diagnostic accuracy of a clinical model to identify children at low risk of pneumonia. Oostenbrink R, Thompson M, Lakhanpaul M, Steyerberg E, Coad N. European J Emerg Med 2012
23. Variation between countries in the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis at first presentation of type 1 diabetes in children: a systematic review. Usher-Smith J, Thompson M, et al. Diabetologia 2012 Aug 30
24. Corticosteroids for the common cold. Hayward G, Thompson M, et al. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012;8
25. Clinicians' gut-feeling about serious infection in children: observational study. Van den Bruel A, Thompson M, Buntinx F, Mant D. BMJ 2012;345:e6144
26. Myth busting sports and exercise products. Heneghan C, Gill P, O'Neill B, Lasserson D, Thake M, Thompson M. BMJ 2012;345:e4848
27. The evidence underpinning sports performance products: a systematic assessment. Heneghan C, Howick J, O'Neill B, Gill P, Lasserson D, Cohen D, Davis R, Ward A, Smith A, Jones G, Thompson M. BMJ Open 2012;e001702
28. How valid is the European Food Safety Authority's assessment of sports drinks? Thompson M, Heneghan C, Cohen D. BMJ 2012:345;e4753
29. Derivation and validation of age and temperature specific reference values and centile charts to predict lower respiratory tract infection in children with fever: prospective observational study. Nijman R, Thompson M, van Veem M et al. BMJ 2012:344;e4224
30. Interpreting diagnostic test results for patients. Mallett S, Collins G, Thompson M, Altman D. BMJ 2012;345:e3999
31. Rethinking medical device regulation. Heneghan C, Thompson M. J R Soc Med 2012;105:186-8
32. The role of intranasal corticosteroids in management of acute sinusitis - a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hayward G, Heneghan C, Thompson MJ et al. Annals Fam Med 2012;10:241-9
33. The D-dimer test in combination with a decision rule for ruling out deep venous thrombosis in primary care: diagnostic technology update. Pluddemann A, Thompson M, Price CP, Wolstenholme J, Heneghan C. Br J Gen Pract 2012;62:393-5
34. Systematic review and validation of prediction rules for identifying children with serious infections in emergency departments and urgent-access primary care. Thompson M, Van den Bruel, Verbakel J et al. Health Technology Assessment 2012;16:1-100
35. Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough (Cochrane review A058). Bettiol S, Wang K, Thompson M, Roberts N, Perera R, Heneghan C, Harnden A. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews 2012;5:CD003257
36. Point of care testing for the analysis of lipid panels: Primary Care Diagnostic Technology Update. Pluddemann A, Thompson M, Price C, Wolstenholme J, Heneghan C. Br J Gen Pract 2012;62:224-6
37. Ongoing problems with metal-on-metal hip implants. Heneghan C, Thompson M. BMJ 2012;344:e1349
38. Clinical decision making in a high risk primary care environment: a qualitative study in the UK. Balla J, Heneghan C, Thompson M, Balla M. BMJ Open 2012;2:e000414
39. A framework to facilitate the use of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the design of primary research studies. Thompson M, Tiwari A, Fu R, Moe E, Buckley D. AHRQ Publication No. 12-EHC009-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. January 2012. PMID 22299187.
40. Interventions to influence consulting and antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infections in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Andrews T, Thompson M, Buckley D et al. PLoS ONE 2012;7(1):e30334
41. Barriers to translating diagnostic research in febrile children to clinical practice: a systematic review. Oostenbrink R, Thompson M, Steyerberg E. Arch Dis Child 2012;97:667-72
42. Jefferson T, Jones MA, Doshi P, Del Mar CB, Heneghan CJ, Hama R, Thompson MJ. Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children - a review of clinical study reports. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012; Issue 1. Art. No. : CD008965. DOI: 10. 1002/14651858. CD008965. pub2.
43. Systemic corticosteroids for acute sinusitis. Venekamp RP, Thompson MJ, Hayward G, et al. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011 Dec 7;12:CD008115
44. Spirometry in primary care for case finding and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: primary care diagnostic technology update. Parkes G, Pluddemann A, Heneghan C, Price CP, Wolstenholme J, Thompson M, et al. Br J Gen Pract 2011;61:698-9
45. Medical device recalls in the UK and the device regulation process: retrospective review of safety notices and alerts. Heneghan C, Thompson M, Billingsley M, Cohen D. BMJ Open 2011;1:e000155
46. Medical device recalls and the approval process in the UK (Analysis). Thompson M, Heneghan C, Billingsley M, Cohen D. BMJ 2011;342:d2973
47. Does oseltamivir really reduce complications of influenza? Del Mar C, Doshi P, Hama R, Heneghan C, Jones M, Thompson M. Clin Infect Dis 2011;53:1302-U160
48. 'One for all' concerns regarding NICE antibiotic guidelines on suspected bacterial meningitis. Response from NICE. Pollard AJ, Thompson M, Stokes T. Br J Gen Pract 2011;61:606-7
49. Factors influencing the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in children: a systematic review. Usher-Smith JA, Thompson MJ, Sharp SJ, Walter F. BMJ 2011;343:d4092
50. Point of care blood test for ketones in patients with diabetes: primary care diagnostic technology update. Pluddemann A, Heneghan C, Price CP, Wolstenholme J, Thompson M et al. Br J Gen Pract 2011;61:5301-1
51. Diagnostic value of laboratory tests in identifying serious infections in febrile children: a systematic review. Van den Bruel A, Thompson MJ, Haj-Hassan T et al. BMJ 2011;342:d3082
52. Which symptoms and clinical features correctly identify serious respiratory infection in children attending a paediatric assessment unit? Blacklock C, Mayon-White R, Coad N, Thompson M. Arch Dis Child 2011;96:708-14
53. Improving child health services in the UK: insights from Europe. Wolfe I, Cass H, Thompson M, Craft A, Peile E, Wiegersma P, Janson S, Chambers T, McKee M. BMJ 2011;342:d1277
54. Dermoscopy for the diagnosis of melanoma in primary care: Primary Care Diagnostic Technology Update. Pluddemann A, Heneghan C, Thompson M, et al. Br J Gen Pract 2011;61:416-7
55. Pulse oximetry in primary care: Primary Care Diagnostic Technology Update. Pluddemann A, Thompson M, Heneghan C, Price C. Br J Gen Pract 2011;61:358-9
56. Point of care testing for glycosylated haemoglobin: Primary Care Diagnostic Technology Update: Pluddemann A, Heneghan C, Thompson M et al. Br J Gen Pract 2011;61:139-40
57. Normal ranges of blood pressure in paediatric resuscitation guidelines. Author Reply. Thompson M, Fleming S, Heneghan C. The Lancet 2011;378:568
58. New centile charts of heart rate and respiratory rate in children birth - 18 years, a systematic review of observational studies. Fleming S, Thompson M, Stevens R et al. The Lancet 2011;377:1011-8
59. Which early "red flag" symptoms identify children with meningococcal disease in primary care? Haj-Hassan T, Thompson M, Mayon-White R, et al. Br J Gen Pract 2011;61:97-104
60. Ensuring safe and effective drugs: who can do what it takes? Jefferson T, Doshi P, Thompson M, Heneghan C. BMJ 2011;342:c7258
61. Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children - a review of unpublished data (Protocol). Jefferson T, Jones MA, Doshi P, Del Mar CB, Heneghan CJ, Hama R, Thompson MJ. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 1. Art. No. : CD008965. DOI: 10. 1002/14651858. CD008965
62. Evaluation of temperature-pulse centile charts in identifying serious bacterial illness: observational cohort study. Brent AJ, Lakhanpaul M, Ninis N, Levin M, MacFaul R, Thompson M. Arch Dis Child 2011;96:368-73
63. Risk score to stratify children with suspected serious bacterial infection: observational cohort study. Brent A, Lakhanpaul M, Thompson M, et al. Arch Dis Child 2010;96:361-7
64. Prioritisation criteria for the selection of new diagnostic technologies for evaluation. Pluddemann A, Thompson M, Heneghan C. et al. BMC Health Serv Res 2010;10:109
65. Antivirals for pandemic influenza: a triumph of policy over evidence? Thompson M, Heneghan C. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2010;31:391-3
66. Management of bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia in children and young people: summary of NICE guidance. Visintin C & Guideline Development Group. BMJ 2010;340:c3209
67. Diagnosing serious bacterial infections in young children (Editorial). Thompson MJ, Van den Bruel A. BMJ 2010;340:c2062
68. Which automatic digital blood pressure devices perform adequately: a systematic review. Wan Y, Stevens R, McManus RJ, Ward A, Perera R, Thompson M, Heneghan C. J Human Hypertension 2010;24(7):431-8
69. Diagnostic value of clinical features at presentation to identify serious infection in children in developed countries: a systematic review. Van den Bruel A, Haj-Hassan T, Thompson M. et al. The Lancet 2010;375:834-45
70. Ear discharge in children presenting with acute otitis media: observational study from UK general practice. Smith L, Ewings P, Smith C, Thompson M, et al. Br J Gen Pract 2010;60:101-5
71. Diagnostic safety netting. Almond S, Mant D, Thompson M. Br J Gen Pract 2009;59:872-4
72. Marginal statistical significance interpreted as moderate effect (Letter). Thompson M, Heneghan C, Perera R. The Lancet 2009;373:457-8
73. Neuraminidase inhibitors for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza in children: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Shun-Shin M, Thompson M, et al. BMJ 2009;339:b3172
74. Corticosteroids for symptomatic improvement in patients with sore throat: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hayward G, Thompson M, Heneghan C, et al. BMJ 2009;339:b2976
75. How well do vital signs identify children with serious infections in paediatric emergency care? Thompson M, Coad N, Harnden A, et al. Arch Disease Child. 2009;94:888-893
76. A model for reflection for good medical practice. Balla J, Heneghan C, Glasziou P, Thompson M, Balla M. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2009;15:964-969
77. Excluding serious illness in feverish children in primary care: restricted rule-out method for diagnosis. Thompson M, Harnden A, Del Mar C. BMJ 2009;338:1006-8
78. Diagnostic strategies used in primary care. Heneghan C, Glasziou P, Thompson M, et al. BMJ 2009;338:1003-6
79. Telmisartan in high-risk patients intolerant of ACE inhibitors. (Letter). Thompson M, Heneghan C, Perera R. The Lancet 2009;373:457-8
80. Do international medical graduates "fill the gap" in rural primary care in the United States? A national study. Thompson M, Hagopian A, Fordyce M, Hart LG. J Rural Health 2009;25(2):124-132
81. Deriving age and temperature dependent centiles for heart rate in children with acute infections. Thompson M, Harnden A, Perera R, et al. Arch Dis Child 2008;94:361-5
82. Antibiotic prescribing for self limiting respiratory tract infections in primary care: summary of NICE guidance. Tan T, Little P, Stokes T, for the Guideline Development Group. BMJ 2008;337:a437
83. A Longitudinal Analysis of the General Surgery Workforce in the United States, 1981 - 2005. Lynge D, Larson E, Thompson MJ, Hart LG, Rosenblatt R. Archives of Surgery 2008;143:345-50
84. Non-invasive measurement of respiratory rate in children using the photoplethysmogram. Fleming S, Tarassenko L, Thompson M, Mant D. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2008;2008:1886-9
85. Using vital signs to assess children with acute infections: a survey of current practice. Thompson M, Mayon-White R, Harnden A, et al. Br J Gen Pract 2008;58:236-41
86. International Medical Graduate Physicians in the United States: Changes since 1981. Hart LG, Skillman SM, Fordyce M, Thompson MJ, Hagopian A, Konrad TR. Health Affairs 2007;26:1159 - 1169
87. Which thermometer? Factors influencing best choice for intermittent clinical temperature measurement. Crawford DC, Hicks B, Thompson MJ. J Medical Engineering and Technology 2006;30:199-211
88. Parenteral penicillin for children with meningococcal disease before hospital admission: case-control study. Harnden A, Ninis N, Thompson M, et al. BMJ 2006;332:1295-8
89. Clinical recognition of meningococcal disease. Authors' reply (Letter). Thompson M, Harnden A, Mant D, Perera R, Ninis N. The Lancet 2006;367:1395-6
90. Clinical recognition of meningococcal disease in children and adolescents. Thompson M, Ninis N, Perera R, et al. The Lancet 2006;367:397-403.
91. Prevention of diabetes (Editorial). Heneghan C, Thompson M, Perera R. BMJ 2006;333:764-5
92. Antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media in children. Thompson MJ, Glasziou P. Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology 2006;582:229-241
93. Accurate measurement of temperature vital. Thompson M. Clinical Services Journal, September 2005, 89-92
94. Characterizing the General Surgery workforce in rural America. Thompson MJ, Lynge D, Larson E, Tachawachira P, Hart LG. Archives of Surgery 2005;140:74-9
95. The Migration of Physicians from Sub-Saharan Africa to the United States of America: measures of the African brain drain. Hagopian A, Thompson MJ, Fordyce M, Johnson KE, Hart LG. Human Resources for Health, 2004;2(1):17
96. Updating hospital reference resources in the US-associated Pacific Basin: efforts of the Pacific Islands Continuing Clinical Education Program (PICCEP). Johnson KE, Skillman SM, Ellsbury KE, Thompson MJ, Hart LG. J Med Libr Assoc 2004;92(4):495-7
97. The role of international medical graduates in America's small rural critical access hospitals. Hagopian A, Thompson M, Kaltenbach E, Hart G. J Rural Health 2004 Winter;20(1):52-8
98. Travel-related infections in primary care. Thompson MJ, Sanford C. Clinics in Family Practice 2004;6:235-264
99. Health Departments' use of international medical graduates in physician shortage areas. Hagopian A, Thompson M, Kaltenbach E, Hart G. Health Affairs (Millwood) 2003;22(5):241-9
100. The educational effects of International Health electives on U. S. and Canadian medical students and residents: A literature review. Thompson MJ, Huntington MK, Hunt D, Pinsky L, Brodie J. Academic Medicine 2003;78:1-6
101. Hepatitis B knowledge and practices among Chinese Canadian women in Vancouver, British Columbia. Thompson MJ, Taylor VM, Jackson JC, et al. Canadian J Public Health 2003;94:272-4
102. Hepatitis B knowledge and practices among Chinese American women in Seattle, Washington. Thompson MJ, Taylor VM, Jackson JC, et al. J Cancer Education 2002;17:222-6
103. Assessing physicians' continuing medication education (CME) needs in the US-associated Pacific jurisdictions. Thompson MJ, Skillman SM, Schneeweiss R, Ellsbury K, Hart LG. Pacific Health Dialog 2002;9(1):11-16
104. The University of Washington Pacific Islands Continuing Clinical Education Program (PICCEP): Guam conference on structure and content of continuing clinical education programs in the U. S. -associated jurisdictions. Thompson MJ, Skillman SM, Schneeweiss R, Hart LG, Johnson K. Pacific Health Dialog 2001;8(2):119-122
105. Immunizations for international travel. Thompson MJ. Primary Care Clinics in Office Practice 2002;29(4):787-814
106. Bicycle-related injuries. Thompson MJ, Rivara FP. Am Fam Physician 2001;63:2007-14
107. Pulmonary tuberculosis in children in a developing country. Salazar, GE, Schmitz TL, Cama R, Sheen P, Franchi LM, Centeno G, Valera C, Leyva M, Montenegro S, Oberhelman R, Gilman RH, Thompson MJ. Pediatrics 2001;108:448-53
108. The lactulose-mannitol intestinal permeability test in children with diarrhea caused by rotavirus and cryptosporidium in Lima, Peru. Zhang Y, Lee B, Thompson M, et al. J Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2000;31:16-21
Books and Book Chapters
1. Diagnostic Tests Toolkit. Thompson M & Van den Bruel A. BMJ/ Wiley-Blackwell, 2011. ISBN-10: 0470657588
2. iPhone app - Doctors Toolbag of Clinical Prediction Rules. BMJ Publishing Group & Center for Evidence-Based Medicine innovation (CEBMi), Apple iTunes Store: released December 2010
3. Respiratory Tract Infections in Primary Care. Blacklock C, Thompson M. In Lim WS (Editor). Oxford Pocketbook of Respiratory Medicine, Oxford University Press, 2012. ISBN-10:0199588082
4. Point of Care Testing in Primary Care. Thompson M, St John A, Price C. In Point of Care Testing, Needs, Opportunity, and Innovation. 3rd edition. AACC Press, Washington DC, 2010
5. The Ill Child. Thompson M, Harnden A. In Care of Children and Young People: A textbook for the nMRCGP (Editor Kay Mohana), RCGP 2009