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A. A schematic of a 2-photon imaging setup for simultaneously recording the JO neuron activity and antennal motion from tethered flying flies responding to wide-field visual motion. B. Left: A picture of a fly head tethered to a flight stage. A section of a cuticle is removed to expose the brain for imaging. A green box indicates the location of axon terminals of JO neurons shown on the right. Scale bar 200 µm. Right: An image of axon terminals of JO neurons expressing GCaMP3 taken by a 2-photon microscope. Scale bar 20 µm. C. An image captured by an IR sensitive camera to track the antenna angle during the experiment. Scale bar 200 µm. D. Calcium activity of different JO neuron terminals surrounded by dotted lines in panel B (top) and the power of antennal oscillations (bottom) before and during flight. Some JO neurons show activities that are correlated with the power of antennal oscillations during flight.