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Figure 3. A. A confocal stack image of octopamine neuron expressing GFP (green). Red: cell nuclei, Blue: Neuropil. Orange boxes indicate regions of dendrites (right) and axons (left) where calcium recordings were made from. B. Average calcium activity in the dendrites (black) and axons (blue) of octopamine neurons during flight onset (n=7 flies). Red: changes in the intensity of fluorescence in control neurons expressing EGFP. C. Example activity in the axons of octopamine neurons during presentations of horizontal wide-field motions (shown by shaded boxes; different colors indicate different temporal frequency of the motion stimulus; green arrows indicate the direction of the motion). D. Average calcium activity in the axons of octopamine neurons in response to horizontal and vertical wide-field motions (n=9 flies). Green arrows indicate the direction of motion. Different colors indicate the temporal frequency of the stimulus.