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Gale, M. Jr., Horvath, C.M. (2015) Editorial Overview: Antiviral strategies. Curr Opin Virol. IN PRESS. PMID: 26004174

Errett, J.S., Gale, M. Jr. (2015) Emerging complexity and new roles for the RIG-I-like receptors in innate antiviral immunity. Virol Sin. IN PRESS. PMID:25997992

Altfeld, M., Gale, M. Jr. (2015) Innate immunity against HIV-1 infection. Nat Immunol. 16(6):554-562. PMID: 25988887

Graham, J.B., Thomas, S., Swarts, J., McMillan, A.A., Ferris, M.T., Suthar, M.S., Treuting, P.M., Ireton, R., Gale, M. Jr., Lund, J.M. (2015) Genetic diversity in the collaborative cross model recapitulates human west Nile virus disease outcomes. MBio. 6(3): pii: e00493-15. PMID: 25944860

Lazear, H.M., Daniels, B.P., Pinto, A.K., Huang, A.C., Vick, S.C., Doyle, S.E., Gale, M. Jr., Klein, R.S., Diamond, M.S. (2015) Interferon-λ restricts West Nile virus neuroinvasion by tightening the blood-brain barrier. Sci Trans Med. 7(284):284ra59. PMID: 25904743

Negash, A.A., Gale, M. Jr. (2015) Hepatitis regulation by the inflammasome signaling pathway. Immunol Rev. 265(1):143-155. PMID: 25879290

Chakrabarti, A., Banerjee, S., Franchi, L., Loo, Y-M., Gale, M. Jr., Núñez, G., Silverman, R.H. (2015) RNase L Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome during Viral Infections. Cell Host Microbe. 17(4):466-477 PMID: 25816776

Kell, A.M., Gale, M.Jr. (2015) RIG-I in RNA virus recognition. Virology. pii: S0042-6822(15)00063-X. PMID: 25749629

Horner, S.M., Wilkins, C., Badil, S., Iskarpatyoti, J., Gale, M. Jr. (2015) Proteomic Analysis of Mitochondrial-Associated ER Membranes (MAM) during RNA Virus Infection Reveals Dynamic Changes in Protein and Organelle Trafficking. PLoS One. 10(3):e0117963. PMID: 25734423 PMCID: PMC4348417

Giugliano, S., Kriss, M., Golden-Mason, L., Dobrinskikh, E., Stone, A.E., Soto-Gutierrez, A., Mitchell, A., Khetani, S.R., Yamane, D., Stoddard, M., Li, H., Shaw, G.M., Edwards, M.G., Lemon, S.M., Gale, M. Jr., Shah, V.H., Rosen, H.R. (2015) Hepatitis C virus infection induces autocrine interferon signaling by human liver endothelial cells and release of exosomes, which inhibits viral replication. Gastroenterology. 148(2):392-402. PMID: 25447848

Stone, A.E., Mitchell, A., Brownell, J., Miklin, D.J., Golden-Mason, L., Polyak, S.J., Gale, M.J. Jr., Rosen, H.R. (2014) Hepatitis C virus core protein inhibits interferon production by a human plasmacytoid dendritic cell line and dysregulates interferon regulatory factor-7 and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 protein expression. PLoS One. 9(5):e95627. PMCID:PMC4006833

Zhao, J., Li, K., Wohlford-Lenane, C., Agnihothram, S.S., Fett, C., Zhao, J., Gale, M.J. Jr., Baric, R.S., Enjuanes, L., Gallagher, T., McCray, P.B., Jr., Perlman, S. (2014) Rapid generation of a mouse model for Middle East respiratory syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 111(13):4970-4975. PMCID:PMC3977243

Franchi, L., Eigenbrod, T., Munoz-Planillo, R., Ozkurede, U., Kim, Y.G., Chakrabarti, A., Gale, M. Jr., Silverman, R.H., Colonna, M., Akira, S., Nunez, G. (2014) Cytosolic double-stranded RNA activates the NLRP3 inflammasome via MAVS-induced membrane permeabilization and K+ efflux. J Immunol. 193(8):4214-4211. PMID: 25225670 PMCID: PMC4185247.

Thackray, L.B., Shrestha, B., Richner, J.M., Miner, J.J., Pinto, A.K., Lazear, H.M., Gale, M. Jr., Diamond, M.S. (2014) Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5)-dependent immune responses in the draining lymph node protect against West Nile virus infection. J Virol. 88(19):11007-11021. PMID: 25031348 PMCID: PMC4178807.

Hussmann, K.L., Vandergaast, R., Ochsner, S.P., Huang, A.C., Gale, M. Jr., Fredericksen, B.L. (2014) In vitro and in vivo characterization of a West Nile virus MAD78 infectious clone. Arch Virol. 159(11):3113-3118. PMID: 25023336 PMCID: PMC4200346.

Ireton, R.C., Gale, M. Jr. (2014) Pushing to a cure by harnessing innate immunity against hepatitis C virus. Antiviral Res. 108:156-164. PMID: 24907428

Pinto, A.K., Ramos, H.J., Wu, X., Aggarwal, S., Shrestha, B., Gorman, M., Kim, K.Y., Suthar, M.S., Atkinson, J.P., Gale, M. Jr., Diamond, M.S. (2014) Deficient IFN Signaling by Myeloid Cells Leads to MAVS-Dependent Virus-Induced Sepsis. PLoS Pathog. 10(4):e1004086. PMCID: PMC3990718.

Spann, K.M., Loh, Z., Lynch, J.P., Ullah, A., Zhang, V., Baturcam, E., Werder, R.B., Khajornjiraphan, N., Rudd, P., Loo, Y-M., Suhrbier, A., Gale, M. Jr., Upham, J.W., Phipps, S. (2014) IRF-3, IRF-7, and IPS-1 Promote Host Defense against Acute Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Neonatal Mice. Am J Pathol. 184(6):1795-1806. PMID: 24726644.

Freed, E.O., Gale, M. Jr. (2014) Antiviral innate immunity: editorial overview. J Mol Biol. 426(6):1129-1132. PMID: 24462565.

Ooi, E.L., Chan, S.T., Cho, N.E., Wilkins, C., Woodward, J., Li, M., Kikkawa, U., Tellinghuisen, T., Gale, M. Jr., Saito, T. (2014) Novel antiviral host factor, TNK1, regulates IFN signaling through serine phosphorylation of STAT1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 111(5):1909-1914. PMID: 24449862 PMCID: PMC3918791

Rustagi, A., Gale, M. Jr. (2014) Innate antiviral immune signaling, viral evasion and modulation by HIV-1. J Mol Biol. 426(6): 1161-1177. PMID: 24326250

Brownell, J., Bruckner, J., Wagoner, J., Thomas, E., Loo, Y-M., Gale, M. Jr., Liang, T.J., Polyak, S.J. (2014) Direct, Interferon-Independent Activation of the CXCL Promoter by NF-κB and Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 during Hepatitis C Virus Infection. J Virol. 88:1582-1590. PMID: 24257594 PMCID: PMC3911583

McFarland, A.P., Horner, S., Jarret, A., Joslyn, R.C., Bindewald, E., Shapiro, B.A., Delker, D.A., Hagedorn, C., Carrington, M., Gale, M. Jr., Savan, R. (2013) The favorable IFNL3 genotype escapes mRNA decay mediated by AU-rich elements and hepatitis C virus-induced microRNAs. Nature Immunology. 15(1):72-79. PMID: 24241692 PMCID: PMC4183367

Errett, J.S., Suthar, M.S., McMillan, A., Diamond, M.S., Gale, M. Jr. (2013) The essential, non-redundant roles of RIG-I and MDA5 in detecting and controlling West Nile virus infection. J Virol. 87(21):11416-11425. PMID: 23966395 PMCID: PMC3807316

Lazear, H.M., Pinto, A.K., Ramos, H.J., Vick, S.C., Shrestha, B., Suthar, M.S., Gale, M. Jr., Diamond, M.S. (2013) The pattern recognition receptor MDA5 modulates CD8+ T cell-dependent clearance of West Nile virus from the central nervous system. J Virol. 87(21):11401-11415. PMID: 23966390 PMCID: PMC3807324

Horner, S.M., Gale, M. Jr. (2013) Regulation of hepatic innate immunity by hepatitis C virus. Nat Med. 19(7)879-888. PMID: 23836238

Li, J., Ding, S.C., Cho, H., Chung, B.C., Gale, M. Jr., Chanda, S.K., Diamond, M.S. (2013) A short hairpin RNA screen of interferon-stimulated genes idenfities a novel negative regulator of the cellular antiviral response. MBio. 4(3)1-11. PMCID: PMC3684836

Stone, A.E., Giugliano, S., Schnell, G., Cheng, L., Leahy, K.F., Golden-Mason, L., Gale, M. Jr., Rosen, H.R. (2013) Hepatitis C virus pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggers production of lambda-interferons by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells. PLoS Pathog. 9(4):e1003316 PMCID: PMC3630164

Negash, A.A., Ramos, H.J., Crochet, N., Lau, D.T., Doehle, B., Papic, N., Delker, D.A., Jo, J., Bertoletti, A., Hagedorn, C.H., Gale, M. Jr. (2013) IL-1B production through the NLRP3 inflammasome by hepatic macrophages links hepatitis C virus infection with liver inflammation and disease. 9(4):e1003330. PMCID: PMC3635973

Suthar, M.S., Brassil, M.M., Blahnik, G., McMillan, A., Ramos, H.J., Proll, S.C., Belisle, S.E., Katze, M.G. (2013) A systems biology approach reveals that tissue tropism to West Nile virus is regulated by antiviral genes and innate immune cellular processes. 9(2):e1003168. PMCID: PMC3567171

Cho, H., Proll, S.C., Szretter, K.J., Katze, M.G., Gale, M. Jr., Diamond, M.S. (2013) Differential innate immune response programs in neuronal subtypes determine susceptibility to infection in the brain by positive-stranded RNA viruses. 19:458-464. PMID: 23455712

Ermler, M.E., Yerukhim, E., Schriewer, J., Schattgen, S., Traylor, Z., Wespiser, A.R., Caffrey, D.R., Chen, Z.J., King, C.H., Gale, M. Jr., Colonna, M., Fitzgerald, K.A., Buller, R.M., Hise, A.G. (2013) RNA helicase signaling is critical for the type I interferon production and protection against Rift Valley fever virus during mucosal challenge. 87:4846-4860. PMID: 23408632

Wilkins, C., Gale, M. Jr (2013) Sterol-izing innate immunity. Immunity. 38:3-5. PMID: 23352217

Suthar, M., Diamond, M.S., Gale, M. Jr. (2013) West Nile virus infection and immunity. Nat Rev Microbiol. 11:115-128. PMID: 23321534

Wilkins, C., Woodward, J., Lau, D.T., Barnes, A., Joyce, M., McFarlane, N., Tyrrell, D.L., Gale, M. Jr. (2012) IFITM1 is a tight junction protein that inhibits hepatitis C virus entry. Hepatology. 57(2):461-469. PMID: 22996292

Kumar, M., Roe, K., Orillo, B., Muruve, D.A., Nerurkar, V.R., Gale, M. Jr., Verma, S. (2013) Inflammasome adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) is critical for the immune response and survival in West Nile virus encephalitis. J Virol. 87(7):3655-3667. PMID: 23302887

Ma, D.Y., Suthar, M.S., Kasahara, S., Gale, M. Jr., Clark, E.A. (2013) CD22 is required for protection against West Nile Virus infection. J Virol. 87(6):3361-3375. PMID: 23302871

Lazear, H.M., Lancaster, A., Wilkins, C., Suthar, M.S., Huang, A., Vick, S.C., Clepper, L., Thackray, L., Brassil, M.M., Virgin, H.W., Nikolich-Zugich, J., Moses, A.V., Gale, M. Jr., Fruh, K., Diamond, M.S. (2013) IRF-3, IRF-5, and IRF-7 Coordinately Regulate the Type I IFN Response in Myeloid Dendritic Cells Downstream of MAVS signaling. PLoS Pathog. 9:e1003118. PMID: 23300459

Wollish, A.C., Ferris, M.T., Blevins, L.K., Loo, Y-M., Gale, M. Jr., Heise, M.T. (2013) An attenuating mutation in a neurovirulent Sindbis virus strain interacts with the IPS-1 signaling pathway in vivo. Virology. 435:26-280. PMID: 23084425

Ireton, R.C., Gale, M. Jr. (2013) Systems Biology Analyses to Define Host Responses to HCV Infection and Therapy. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 363:143-169. PMID: 22903567

Mateo, R., Nagamine, C.M., Spagnolo, J., Mendez, E., Rahe, M., Gale, M. Jr., Yuan, J., Kirkegaard, K. (2013) Inhibition of Cellular Autophagy Deranges Dengue Virion Maturation. J Virol. 87(3):1312-1321. PMID: 23175363

Ramos, H.J., Lanteri, M.C., Blahnik, G., Negash, A., Suthar, M.S., Brassil, M.M., Sodhi, K., Treuting, P.M., Busch, M.P., Norris, P.J., Gale, M. Jr. (2012) IL-1B Signaling Promotes CNS-Intrinsic Immune Control of West Nile Virus Infection. PLoS Pathog. 8:e1003039. PMID: 23209411

Lau, D.T., Negash, A., Chen, J., Crochet, N., Sinha, M., Zhang, Y., Guedj, J., Holder, S., Saito, T., Lemon, S.M., Luxon, B.A., Perelson, A.S., Gale, M. Jr. (2012) Innate Immune Tolerance and the Role of Kupffer Cells in Differential Responses to Interferon Therapy Among Patients With HCV Genotype 1 Infection. Gastroenterology. 144(2):402-413. PMID: 23123437

Lee, H.C., Headley, M.B., Loo, Y-M., Berlin, A., Gale, M. Jr., Debley, J.S., Lukacs, N.W., Ziegler, S.F. (2012) Thymic stromal lymphopoietin is induced by respiratory syncytial virus-infected airway epithelial cells and promotes a type 2 response to infection. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 130(5):1187-1196. PMID: 22981788

Schnell, G., Loo, Y-M., Marcotrigiano, J., Gale, M. Jr. (2012) Uridine composition of the poly-U/UC tract of HCV RNA defines non-self recognition by RIG-I. PLoS Pathogens. 8:e1002839. PMID: 22912574 PMCID: PMC3410852

Suthar, M.S., Ramos, H.J., Brassil, M.M., Netland, J., Chappell, C.P., Blahnik, G., McMillan, A., Diamond, M.S., Clark, E.A., Bevan, M.J., Gale, M. Jr. (2012) The RIG-I-like Receptor LGP2 Controls CD8(+) T Cell Survival and Fitness. Immunity. 37:235-248. PMID: 22841161

Malur, M., Gale, M. Jr., Krug, R.M. (2012) LGP2 Downregulates Interferon Production During Infection By Seasonal Human Influenza A Viruses That Activate IRF3. J. Virol. 86:10733-10738. PMID: 22837208

Rudd, P.A., Wilson, J., Gardner, J., Larcher, T., Babarit, C., Le, T.T., Anraku, I., Kumagai, Y., Loo, Y-M., Gale, M. Jr., Akira, S., Khromykh, A.A., Suhrbier, A. (2012) Interferon Response Factors 3 and 7 Protect against Chikungunya Virusl Hemorrhagic Fever and Shock. J. Virol. 86:9888-9898. PMID: 22761364

Diamond, M.S., Gale, M. Jr (2012) Cell-intrinsic innate immune control of West Nile virus infection. Trends Immunol. 33:522-530. PMID:22726607

Rustagi, A., Doehle, B.P., McElrath, J.M., Gale, M. Jr. (2012) Two new monoclonal antibodies for biochemical and flow cytometric analyses of human interferon regulatory factor-3 activation, turnover, and depletion. Methods. 59(2):225-232. PMID: 22705311

Doehle, B.P., Chang, K., Fleming, L., McNevin, J., Hladik, F., McElrath, M.J., Gale, M. Jr. (2012) Vpu deficient HIV strains stimulate innate immune signaling responses in target cells. J. Virol. 86:8499-8506. PMID: 22647704

Liu, H.M., Loo, Y-M., Horner, S.M., Zornetzer, G.A., Katze, M.G., Gale, M. Jr. (2012) The Mitochondrial Targeting Chaperone 14-3-3e Regulates a RIG-I Translocon that Mediates Membrane Association and Innate Antiviral Immunity. Cell Host Microbe. 11:528-537. PMID: 22607805

Doehle, B.P., Chang, K., Rustagi, A., McNevin, J., McElrath, M.J., Gale, M. Jr. (2012) Vpu mediates IRF3 depletion during HIV infection by a lysosomal-dependent mechanism. J Virol. 86:8367-8374. PMID: 22593165

Szretter, K.J., Daniels, B.P., Cho, H., Gainey, M.D., Yokoyama, W.M., Gale, M. Jr., Virgin, H.W., Klein, R.S., Sen, G.C., Diamond, M.S. (2012) 2'-o methylation of the viral mRNA cap by west nile virus evades ifit1-dependent and -independent mechanisms of host restriction in vivo. PLoS Pathog. 8:e1002698. PMCID: PMC3349756

Suthar, M.S., Brassil, M.M., Blahnik, G., Gale, M. Jr. (2012) Infectious clones of novel lineage 1 and lineage 2 West Nile virus strains WNV-TX02 and WNV-Madagascar. J. Virol. 86:7704-7709. PMID: 22573862

Bedard, K.M., Wang, M.L., Proll, S.C., Loo, Y-M., Katze, M.G., Gale, M. Jr. Iadonato, S.P. (2012) Isoflavone agonists of IRF-3 dependent signaling have antiviral activity against RNA viruses. J. Virol. 86:7334-7344. PMID: 22532686

Patel, M.R., Loo, Y-M., Horner, S.M., Gale, M. Jr., Malik, H.S. (2012) Convergent evolution of escape from hepaciviral antagonism in primates. PLoS Biol. 10:e1001282. PMCID: PMC3302847

Gall, A., Treuting, P., Elkon, K.B., Loo, Y-M., Gale, M. Jr., Barber, G.N., Stetson, D.B. (2012) Autoimmunity Initiates in Nonhematopoietic Cells and Progresses via Lymphocytes in an Interferon-Dependent Autoimmune Disease. Immunity. 36:120-131.PMID: 22284419

Horner, S.M, Liu, H.M., Park, H.S., Gale, M. Jr. (2012) Control of innate immune signaling and membrane targeting by the hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease are governed by the NS3 helix α0.  J. Virology. 86:3112-3120. PMID: 22238314

Polyak, S.J., Morshima, C., Scott, J.D., Cox, A., de Arujo, E.S., Higgs, M.R., Loo, Y-M, Golden-Mason, L., Lindenbach, B.D., Baumert, T.F., Randall, G., Gale, M. Jr. (2012) A summary of the 18th international symposium on hepatitis C virus and related viruses. Gastroenterology. 142:e1-5. PMID: 22185796

Benecke, A., Gale, M. Jr., Katze, M.G. (2012)  Dynamics of innate immunity are key to chronic immune activation in AIDS. Curr. Opin. HIV AIDS. 7:79-85 PMID: 22156845

Perwitasari, O., Cho, H., Diamond, M.S., Gale, M. Jr. (2011) Inhibitor of kB Kinase e, STAT1 Protein, and IFIT2 Protein Define Novel Innate Immune Effector Pathway against West Nile Virus Infection. J. Biol. Chem. 286:44412-44423. PMID: 22065572 PMCID: 3247963

Brien, J.D., Daffis, S., Lazear, H.M., Cho, H., Suthar, M.S., Gale, M. Jr., Diamond, M.S. (2011) Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 (IRF-1) Shapes Both Innate and CD8 T Cell Immune Responses against West Nile Virus Infection. PLoS Pathog. 7:e1002230 PMCID: PMC3164650

Horner, S.M, Liu, H.M., Park, H.S., Briley, J., Gale, M. Jr. (2011) Mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAM) form innate immune synapses and are targeted by hepatitis C virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108:14590-14595. PMID: 21844353 PMCID: PMC3167523

Ramos, H.J., Gale, M. Jr. (2011) RIG-I like receptors and their signaling crosstalk in the regulation of antiviral immunity. Curr. Opin. in Virology. 1:167-176. PMID: 21949557 PMCID: PMC3177754

Jiang, F., Ramanathan, A., Miller, M., Tang, G-Q., Gale, M. Jr., Patel, S., Marcotrigiano, J. (2011) Structural Basis of RNA Recognition and Activation by Innate Immune Receptor RIG-I. Nature. 479:423-427. PMID: 21947008

Ireton, R.C., Gale, M. Jr. (2011) RIG-I Like Receptors in Antiviral Immunity and Therapeutic Applications. Viruses. 3:906-919. PMCID: PMC3185779

Loo, Y-M., Gale, M. Jr. (2011) Immune Signaling by RIG-I-like Receptors. Immunity. 34(5)680-692. PMID: 21616437

Lazear, H.M., Pinto, A.K., Vogt, M.R., Gale, M. Jr., Diamond, M.S. (2011) Beta interferon controls West Nile virus infection and pathogenesis in mice. J. Virol. 85:7186-7194. PMID: 21543483 PMCID: PMC3126609

Harman, A.N., Lai, J., Turville, S., Samarajiwa, S., Gray, L., Marsden, V., Mercier, S., Jones, K., Nasr, N., Rustagi, A., Cumming, H., Donaghy, H., Mak, J., Gale, M. Jr., Curchill, M., Hertzog, P., Cunningham, A.L. (2011) HIV infection of dendritic cells subverts the interferon induction pathway via IRF1 and inhibits type 1 interferon production. Blood. 118:298-308. PMID: 21411754

Giordano, D., Li, C., Suthar, M.S., Draves, K.E., Ma, D.Y., Gale, M. Jr., Clark, E.A. (2011) Nitric oxide controls an inflammatory-like Ly6ChiPDCA1+ DC subset that regulates Th1 immune responses. J. Leukoc Biol. 89:443-455. PMID: 21178115 PMCID: PMC3040463

Liu, H.M., Gale, M. Jr. (2011) ZAPS electrifies RIG-I signaling. Nat. Immunol. 12:11-12. PMID: 21169998

Luke, J.M., Simon, G.G., Söderholm, J., Errett, J.S., August, J.T., Gale, M. Jr., Hodgson, C.P., Williams, J.A. (2011) Coexpressed RIG-I agonist enhances humoral immune response to influenza virus DNA vaccine. J. Virol. 85:1370-1383. PMCID: PMC3020507

Liu, H.M., Gale, M. Jr. (2010) Hepatitis C Virus Evasion from RIG-I-Dependent Hepatic Innate Immunity. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2010:548390. PMCID: PMC3026989

Faul, E.J., Wanjalla, C.N., Suthar, M.S., Gale, M. Jr., Wirblich, C., Schnell, M.J. (2010) Rabies Virus Infection Induces Type I Interferon Prodcution in an IPS-1 Dependent Manner While Dendritic Cell Activation Relies on IFNAR Signaling. PLoS Pathog. 6:e1001016. PMCID: PMC2908622

Daffis, S., Szretter, K.J., Schriewer, J., Li, J., Youn, S., Errett, J., Lin, T.Y., Schneller, S., Zust, R., Dong, H., Thiel, V., Sen, G.C., Fensterl, V., Klimstra, W.B., Pierson, T.C., Buller, R.M., Gale, M. Jr., Shi, P.Y., Diamond, M.S. (2010) 2'-O methylation of the viral mRNA cap evades host restriction by IFIT family members. Nature. 18:452-456. PMCID: PMC3058805

Szretter, K.J., Daffis, S., Patel, J., Suthar, M.S., Klein, R.S., Gale, M. Jr., Diamond, M.S. (2010) The innate immune adaptor molecule MyD88 restricts West Nile replication and spread in neurons of the central nervous system. J Virol. 84:125-138. PMCID: PMC2976388

Malathi, K., Saito, T., Crochet, N., Barton, D.J., Gale, M. Jr., Silverman, R.H. (2010) RNase L releases a small RNA from HCV RNA that refolds into a potent PAMP. RNA. 16:2108-2119. PMCID: PMC2957051

Suthar, M.S., Ma, D.Y., Thomas, S., Lund, J.M., Zhang, N., Daffis, S., Rudensky, A.Y., Bevan, M.J., Clark, E.A., Kaja, M.K., Diamond, M.S., Gale, M. Jr. (2010) IPS-1 is essential for the control of West nile virus infection and immunity. PLoS Pathogens. 6:e1000757. PMCID: PMC2816698

Yuan, H.J., Jain, M., Snow, K.K., Gale, M. Jr., Lee, W.M. (2010) Evolution of hepatitis C virus NS5A region in breakthrough patients during pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy*. J Viral Hepat. 17:208-216. PMID:19656286

Wilkins, C., Gale, M. Jr. (2010) Recognition of viruses by cytoplasmic sensors. Curr Opin Immunol. 22:41-47. PMID: 20061127.

Lanford, R.E., Evans, M.J., Lohmann, V., Lindenbach, B., Gale, M. Jr., Rehermann, B., Chang, K.M., Lemon, S.M. (2009) The accelerating pace of HCV research: a summary of the 15th International Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus And Related Viruses. Gastroenterology. 136:9-16. PMID: 19026648.

Suthar, M.S., Gale, M. Jr., Owen, D.M. (2009) Evasion and disruption of innate immune signaling by hepatitis C and West Nile viruses. Cell Microbiol. 11:880-888. PMID: 19341437.

Giordano, D., Li, C., Suthar, M.S., Draves, K.E., Ma, D.Y., Gale, M. Jr., Clark, E.A. (2010) Nitric Oxide controls an inflammatory-like Ly6ChiPDCA1+ DC subset that regulates Th1 immune responses. J. Leukoc Biol. 89:443-455. PMID: 21178115

Owen, D.M. and Gale, M. Jr. (2009) Fighting the flu with inflammasome signaling. Immunity. 30:476-478. PMID: 19371712.

Owen, D.M., Huang, H., Ye, J., Gale, M. Jr. (2009) Apolipoprotein E on hepatitis C virion facilitates infection through interaction with low-density lipoprotein receptor. Virology. 394:99-108. PMCID: PMC2767442.

Doehle, B.P., Hladik, F., McNevin, J.P., McElrath, M.J., Gale, M. Jr. (2009) HIV-1 mediates global disruption of innate antiviral signaling and immune defenses within infected cells. J Virol. 83:10395-10405. PMCID: PMC2753137.

Saito, T. and Gale, M. Jr. (2009) [RIG-I mediated hepatic innate immune signaling that controls HCV infection; printed in Japanese] Uirusu. 58:105-115. PMID: 19374189.

Jain, M.K., Yuan, H.J., Adams-Huet, B., Reeck, A., Shelton, J., Attar, N;, Zhang, S., Neumann, A.U., Carney, D.S., Gale, M. Jr., Lee, W.M. (2009) Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin Promote Early Evolution of Nonstructural 5A Protein in Individuals with Hepatitis C Who Demonstrate a Response to Treatment. J Infect Dis. 200:866-876. PMCID: PMC2951387.

Horner, S.M. and Gale, M. Jr. (2009) Intracellular innate immune cascades and interferon defenses that control hepatitis C virus. J Interferon and Cytokine Res. 29:489-498. PMCID: PMC2956657.

DeWitte-Orr, S.J., Mehta, D.R., Collins, S.E., Suthar, M.S., Gale, M. Jr., Mossman, K.L. (2009) Long double-stranded RNA induces an antiviral response independent of IFN regulatory factor 3, IFN-beta promoter stimulator 1, and IFN. J Immunol. 183:6545-6553. PMCID: PMC2885285.

Daffis, S., Suthar, M.S., Szretter, K.J., Gale, M. Jr., Diamond, M.S. (2009) Induction of IFN-beta and the innate antiviral response in myeloid cells occurs through an IPS-1-dependent signal that does not require IRF-3 and IRF-7. PLoS Pathogens. 5:e1000607. PMCID:PMC2747008.

Daffis, S., Suthar, M.S., Gale, M. Jr., Diamond, M.S. (2009) Measure and countermeasure: type I IFN (IFN-alpha/beta) antiviral response against West Nile Virus. J Innate Immun. 1:435-445. PMCID: PMC2920482.

Gale, M. Jr, Sen, G.C. (2009). Viral evasion of the interferon system. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 29:475-476. PMCID: PMC3016867.

Chung, R.T., Gale, M. Jr., Polyak, S.J., Lemon, S.M., Liang, T. J., Hoofnagle, J.H. (2008) Mechanisms of action of interferon and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C: Summary of a workshop. Hepatology. 47:306-320. PMCID: PMC2799164.

Loo, Y.-M., Fornek, J., Crochet, N., Bajwa, G., Perwistasari, O., Martinez-Sobrido, L., Akira, S., Gill, M.A., García-Sastre, A., Katze, M.G. and Gale, M. Jr. (2008) Distinct RIG-I and MDA5 signaling by RNA viruses in innate immunity. J Virol. 82:335-345. PMCID: PMC2224404.

Fredericksen, B.L., Keller, B.C., Fornek, J., Katze, M.G., and Gale, M. Jr. (2008) Establishment and maintenance of the innate antiviral response to West Nile Virus involves both RIG-I and MDA5 signaling through IPS-1. J. Virol. 82:609-616. PMCID: PMC2224571.

Saito, T., and Gale, M. Jr. (2008) Regulation of innate immunity against hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatol Res. 2008 38:115-122. PMID: 18021225.

Lau, D.T.-Y., Fish, P.M., Sinha, M., Owen, D.M., Lemon, S.M, Gale, M. Jr. (2008) Interferon regulatory factor-3 activation, hepatic interferon-stimulated gene expression, and immune cell infiltration in hepatitis C virus patients.. Hepatology. 47:799-809. PMID: 18203148.

Takahasi, K., Yoneyama, M., Nishihori, T., Hirai, R., Kumeta, H., Narita, R., Inagaki, F., Gale, M., Jr., and Fujita, T. (2008) Nonself RNA-sensing mechanism of RIG-I helicase and activation of antiviral immune responses. Mol. Cell. 29:428-440. PMID: 18242112.

Davis, A.M., Hagan, K.A., Matthews, L.A., Bajwa, G., Gill, M.A., Gale M. Jr., and Farrar, J.D. Blockade of virus infection by human CD4+ T cells via a cytokine relay network. (2008) J Immunol. 180:6923-6932. PMCID: PMC2387070.

Erickson, A.K., and Gale, M. Jr. (2008) Regulation of interferon production and innate antiviral immunity through translational control of IRF-7. Cell Res. 18:433-435. PMID: 18385680.

Daffis, S., Samuel, M.A., Suthar, M.S., Keller, B.C., Gale, M. Jr, and Diamond, M.S. (2008) Interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-7 induces the antiviral interferon (IFN)-a response and protects against lethal West Nile virus infection. J Virol. 82:8465-8475. PMCID: PMC2519659.

Saito, T., Owen, D.M., Jiang, F., Marcotrigiano, J. and Gale, M. Jr. (2008) Innate immunity induced by composition-dependent RIG-I recognition of hepatitis C virus RNA. Nature. 454:523-527. PMCID: PMC2856441.

Saito, T., Gale, M. Jr. (2008) Differential recognition of double-stranded RNA by RIG-I-like receptors in antiviral immunity. J Exp Med. 205:1523-1527. PPMCID: PMC2442628.

Erickson, A.K., Seiwert, S., Gale, M. Jr. (2008) Antiviral potency analysis and functional comparison of consensus interferon, interferon-alpha2a and pegylated interferon-alpha2b against hepatitis C virus infection. Antivir Ther. 2008;13:851-862. PMCID: PMC2884366.

Daffis, S., Samuel, M.A., Suthar, M.S., Gale, M. Jr., Diamond, M.S. (2008) Toll-like receptor 3 has a protective role against West Nile virus infection. J Virol. 82:10349-10358. PMCID: PMC2573187

Loo, Y.-M. and Gale, M. Jr. (2008) Unveiling viral enablers. Nat. Biotechnol. 26:1093-1094. PMID: 18846077.

Wagoner, J., Austin, M., Green, J., Imaizumi, T., Casola, A., Brasier, A., Khabar, K.S., Wakita, T., Gale, M., Jr., and Polyak, S.J. (2007) Regulation of CXCL-8 (interleukin-8) induction by dsRNA signaling pathways during hepatitis C virus infection. J. Virol 81:309-318. PMCID: PMC1797246.

Mibayashi, M., Marínez-Sobrido, L., Loo, Y.-M., Cárdenas, W.B., Basler, C., Gale, M. Jr., and García-Sastre, A. (2007) Inhibition of retinoic acid-inducible gene I-mediated induction of beta interferon by the NS1 protein of influenza A virus. J. Virol. 81:514-524. PMCID: PMC1797471.

Saito, T., Hirai, R., Loo, Y.-M., Owen, D., Johnson, C.L., Sinha, S.C., Akira, S.C., Fujita, T., and Gale, M. Jr. (2007) Regulation of innate antiviral defenses through a shared repressor domain in RIG-I and LGP2. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104:582-587. PMCID: PMC1766428.

Saito, T., and Gale, M. Jr. (2007) Principles of intracellular viral recognition. Curr Opin Immunol. 19:17-23. PMID: 17118636.

Johnson, C.L., Owen, D.M., and Gale, M. Jr. (2007) Functional and therapeutic analysis of hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease control of antiviral immune defense. J Biol. Chem. 282:10792-10803. PMID: 17289677.

Huang, H., Sun, F., Owen, D.M., Li, W., Chen, Y., Gale, M. Jr., Ye, J. (2007) Hepatitis C virus production by human hepatocytes dependent on assembly and secretion of very low-density lipoproteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104:5848-5853. PMCID: PMC1829327.

Malathi, K., Dong, B., Gale, M. Jr., Silverman, R.H. (2007) Small self-RNA generated by RNase L amplifies antiviral innate immunity. Nature. 448:816-819. PMID: 17653195.

Daffis, S., Samuel, M.A., Keller, B.C., Gale, M., Jr., and Diamond, M.S. (2007) Cell-specific IRF-3 responses protect against West Nile virus infection by IFN-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PLoS Pathogens. 3:e106. PMCID: PMC1933455.

Keller, B.C., Johnson, C.L., Erickson, A.K., Gale, M. Jr. (2007) Innate immune evasion by hepatitis C virus and West Nile virus. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 18:535-544. PMCID: PMC2757293.

Loo, Y.-M., Gale, M. Jr. (2007) Influenza: fatal immunity and the 1918 virus. Nature. 18:267-268 PMID: 17230179 72. Loo, Y.-M., Gale, M. Jr. (2007) Viral regulation and evasion of the host response. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 316:295-313. PMID: 17969453.

Johnson, C.L, and Gale M. Jr. (2006) CARD games between virus and host get a new player. Trends Immunol. 27:1-4. PMID: 16309964.

Fredericksen, B.L., Gale, M. Jr. (2006) West Nile virus evades activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 through RIG-I-dependent and -independent pathways without antagonizing host defense signaling. J. Virol. 80:2913-2923. PMCID: PMC1395472.

Loo, Y.-M., Owen, D.M., Li, K., Erickson, A.K., Johnson, C.L., Fish, P.M., Carney, D.S., Wang, T., Ishida, H., Yoneyama, M., Fujita, T., Saito, T., Lee, W.M., Hagedorn, C.H., Lau, D.T.-Y., Weinman, S.A., Lemons S.M., Gale, M. Jr. (2006) Viral and therapeutic control of IFN-beta promoter stimulator 1 during hepatitis C virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A., 103:6001-6006. PMCID: PMC1458687.

Cárdenas, W.B., Loo, Y.-M., Gale, M. Jr., Hartman, A.L., Kimberlin, C.R., Sobrido, L.-M., Saphire, E.O., and Basler, C.F. (2006) Ebola virus VP35 protein binds double stranded RNA and inhibits alpha/beta interferon production induced by RIG-I signaling. J Virol. 80:5168-5178. PMCID: PMC1472134.

Samuel, M.A., Whitby, R., Keller, B.C., Marri, A., Barchet, W., Williams, B.R., Siliverman, R.H., Gale, M. Jr., and Diamond, M.S. (2006) PKR and RNase L contribute to protection against lethal West Nile Virus infection by controlling early viral spread in the periphery and replication in neurons. J. Virol. 80:7009-7019. PMCID: PMC1489062.

Keller, B.C., Fredericksen, B.L., Samuel, M.A., Mock, R.E., Mason, P.W., Diamond, M.S., Gale, M. Jr. (2006) Resistance to alpha/beta interferon is a determinant of West Nile virus replication fitness and virulence. J. Virol. 80:9424-9434. PMCID: PMC1617238.

Chien ,Y., Kim, S., Bumeister, R., Loo, Y.-M., Kwon, S.W., Johnson, C.L., Balakireva, M.G., Romeo, Y., Kopelovich, L., Gale, M. Jr., Yeaman, C., Camonis, J.H., Zhao, Y., White M.A. (2006) RalB GTPase-mediated activation of the IkappaB family kinase TBK1 couples innate immune signaling to tumor cell survival. Cell. 127:157-170. PMID: 17018283.

Sumpter, R., Loo, Y.-M., Foy, E., Li, K., Yoneyama, M., Fujita, T., Lemon, S. and Gale, M.J. Jr. (2005) Regulating intracellular antiviral defense and permissiveness to hepatitis C virus RNA replication through a cellular RNA helicase, RIG-I. J. Virol. 79:2689-2699. PMCID: PMC548482.

Foy, E., Li, K., Sumpter, R. Jr., Loo, Y.-M., Johnson, C.L., Wang, C., Fish, P.M., Yoneyama, M., Fujita, T., Lemon, S.M. and Gale, M. Jr. (2005) Control of antiviral defenses through hepatitis C virus disruption of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I signaling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102:2986-2991. PMCID: PMC549461.

Gimenez-Barcons, M., Wang, C., Chen, M., Sanchez-Tapias. Saiz, and Gale, M. Jr. (2005) The oncogenic potential of hepatitis C virus NS5A sequence variants associates with PKR regulation. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 25: 152-164. PMID: 15767789.

Li, K., Foy, E., Ferron, J.C., Nakamura, M., Ferron, A.C., Ikeda, M., Ray, S.C., Gale M. Jr., and Lemon, S. M. (2005) Immune evasion by hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease-mediated cleavage of the Toll-like receptor 3 adaptor protein TRIF.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102:2992-2997. PMCID: PMC548795.

Xiang, J., Martinez-Smith, C., Gale, M. Jr., Chang, Q., LaBrecque, D.R., Schmidt, W.N., and Stapleton, J.T. (2005) GB virus type C NS5A sequence polymorphisms: association with interferon susceptibility and inhibition of PKR-mediated eIF-2alpha phosphorylation. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 25: 261-270. PMID: 15871663.

Li, K., Chen, Z., Kato, N., Gale M. Jr., and Lemon, S. M. (2005) Distinct poly(I-C) and virus-activated signaling pathways leading to interferon-beta production in hepatocytes.J. Biol. Chem. 280:16739-16747. PMID: 15737993.

Wang, C., Gale, M. Jr., Keller, B.C., Huang, H., Brown, M.S., Goldstein, J.L., and Ye, J. (2005) Identification of FBL2 as a geranylgeranylated cellular protein required for hepatitis C virus RNA replication. Mol. Cell 18: 425-434. PMID: 15893726.

Gale M. Jr. and Foy, E.M. (2005) Evasion of intracellular host defence by hepatitis C virus. Nature 436: 939-945. PMID: 16107833.

Lee, W.M., Polson, J.E., Carney, D.S., Sahin, B., and Gale, M. Jr., (2005) Reemergence of hepatitis C virus after 8.5 years in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia: evidence for an occult viral reservoir. J. Infect. Dis. 192:1088-1092. PMID: 16107964.

Yoneyama, M., Kikuchi, M., Matsumoto, K., Imaizumi, T., Miyagishi, M., Taira, K., Foy, E., Loo, Y.M., Gale, M. Jr., Akira, S., Yonehara, S., Kato, A., Fujita, T. (2005) Shared and unique functions of the DExD/H-box helicases RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2 in antiviral innate immunity. J Immunol. 175:2851-2858. PMID: 16116171.

Foy, E., Li, K., Sumpter, R. Jr., Loo, Y.M., Johnson, C.L., Wang, C., Fish, P.M., Yoneyama, M., Fujita, T., Lemon, S.M., Gale, M. Jr. (2005) Control of antiviral defenses through hepatitis C virus disruption of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. 102:2986-2991. PMID: 15710892.

Fredericksen, B.L., Smith, M., Katze, M.G., Shi, P.-Y., and Gale, M. Jr. (2004) The host response to West Nile Virus infection limits viral spread through the activation of the IRF-3 pathway. J. Virol. 78:7737-7747. PMCID: PMC434084.

Miller, K., McArdle, S., Gale, M.J. Jr, Geller, D.A., Tenoever, B., Hiscott, J., Gretch, D.R. and Polyak, S.J. (2004) Effects of the hepatitis C virus core protein on innate cellular defense pathways. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 24:391-402. PMID: 15296650.

Sumpter, R. Jr., Wang, C., Loo, Y.-M., and Gale, M. Jr. (2004) Viral evolution and interferon resistance of hepatitis C virus replication in a cell culture model. J. Virol. 78:11591-11604. PMCID: PMC523295.

Tan, S.-L., He, Y., Huan, Y. and Gale, M. Jr. (2004) Strategies for hepatitis C therapeutic intervention: now and next. Current Opin. Pharmacol. 4:465-470. PMID: 15351350.

He, Y., Yam, W., Coito, C., Li, Y., Gale M. Jr., and Katze, M.G. (2003) The regulation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosome-entry site-mediated translation by HCV replicons and nonstructural proteins. J. Gen. Virol. 84:535-543. PMID: 12604803.

Wang, C., Pflugheber, J., Sumpter, R. Jr., Sodora, D.L., Hiu, D., Sen, G.C., and Gale, M. Jr. (2003). Alpha interferon induces distinct translational control programs to suppress hepatitis C virus RNA replication. J. Virol. 77:3898-3912. PMCID: PMC150642.

Gale, M. Jr. (2003) Effector genes of interferon action against hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 37:975-978. PMID: 12717377.

Foy, E., Li, K. Wang, C. Sumpter, R. Jr.,. Ikeda, M., and Gale, M. Jr. (2003). Regulation of interferon regulatory factor-3 by the hepatitis C virus serine protease. Science 300:1145-1148. PMID: 12702807.

Ye, J., Wang, C., Sumpter R. Jr., Brown, M.S., Goldstein, J.L. and Gale, M. Jr. (2003) Disruption of hepatitis C virus RNA replication through inhibition of host protein geranylgeranylation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100:15865-15870. PMCID: PMC307659.

Pflugheber, J., Fredericksen, B., Sumpter, R. Jr., Wang, C., Ware, F., Sodora, D. L., and Gale, M. Jr. (2002) Regulation of PKR and IRF-1 during hepatitis C virus RNA replication. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99: 4650-4655. PMCID: PMC123702.

Fredericksen, B., Akkaraju, G.R., Foy, E., Wang, C., Pflugheber, J., Chen, Z.J., and Gale, M. Jr. (2002) Activation of the interferon-beta promoter during hepatitis C virus RNA replication. Viral Immunol. 15: 29-40 PMID: 11952144.

Ladiges, W. Morton, J. Hopkins, H., Wilson, R., Filley, G., Ware, C., and Gale, M. (2002) Expression of human PKR protein kinase in transgenic mice. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 22:329-334. PMID: 12034040.

Yan, W., Gale, M. J., Jr., Tan, S.-L., Katze, M G. (2002) Inactivation of the PKR protein kinase and stimulation of mRNA translation by the cellular co-chaperone P58IPK does not required J domain function. Biochemistry 41: 4938-4945. PMID: 11939789.

Gale, M. Jr., Blakely, C.M., Darveau, A., Romano, P.R., Korth, M.J., and Katze, M.G. (2002) PubMed: P52rIPK regulates the molecular cochaperone P58IPK to mediate control of the RNA-dependent protein kinase in response to cytoplasmic stress.Biochemistry. 41:11878-11887. PMID: 12269832.

Katze, M.G., He, Y., and Gale, M. Jr. (2002) Viruses and interferon: a fight for supremacy. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2: 675-687. PMID: 12209136.

Gale, M., Jr. and Beard, M.R. (2001) Molecular clones of hepatitis C virus: applications to animal models. ILAR J. 42: 139-151. PMID: 11406716.

Schneider, R., Agol, V.I., Andino, R., Bayard, F., Cavener, D.R., Chappell, S.A., Chen, J.J., Darlix, J.L., Dasgupta, A., Donzé, O., Duncan, R., Elroy-Stein, O., Farabaugh, P.J., Filipowicz, W., Gale, M. Jr., Gehrke, L., Goldman, E., Groner, Y., Harford, J.B., Hatzglou, M., He, B., Hellen, C.U., Hentze, M.W., Hershey, J., Hershey, P., Hohn, T., Holcik, M., Hunter, C.P., Igarashi, K., Jackson, R., Jagus, R., Jefferson, L.S., Joshi, B., Kaempfer, R., Katze, M., Kaufman, R.J., Kiledjian, M., Kimball, S.R., Kimchi, A., Kirkegaard, K., Koromilas, A.E., Krug, R.M., Kruys, V., Lamphear, B.J., Lemon, S., Lloyd, R.E., Maquat, L.E., Martinez-Salas, E., Mathews, M.B., Mauro, V.P., Miyamoto, S., Mohr, I., Morris, D.R., Moss, E.G., Nakashima, N., Palmenberg, A., Parkin, N.T., Pe'ery, T., Pelletier, J., Peltz, S., Pestova, T.V., Pilipenko, E.V., Prats, A.C., Racaniello, V., Read, G.S., Rhoads, R.E., Richter, J.D., Rivera-Pomar, R., Rouault, T., Sachs, A., Sarnow, P., Scheper, G.C., Schiff, L., Schoenberg, D.R., Semler, B.L., Siddiqui, A., Skern, T., Sonenberg, N., Sossin, W., Standart, N., Tahara, S.M., Thomas, A.A., Toulmé, J.J., Wilusz, J., Wimmer, E., Witherell, G., Wormington, M. (2001) New ways of initiating translation in eukaryotes. Mol Cell Biol. 21:8238-8246. PMCID: PMC99989.

Ladiges, W., Morton, J., Blakely, C., and Gale, M. (2000) Tissue specific expression of PKR protein kinase in aging B6D2F1 mice. Mech Ageing Dev. 2000 114:123-32. PMID: 10799709.

Gale, M. Jr., Tan, S.L., and Katze, M.G. (2000) Translational control of viral gene expression in eukaryotes. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64:239-280. PMCID: PMC98994.

Polyak, S.J., Paschal, D.M., McArdle, S., Gale, M.J. Jr., Moradpour, D., and Gretch, D.R. (1999) Characterization of the effects of hepatitis C virus nonstructural 5A protein expression in human cell lines and on interferon-sensitive virus replication. Hepatology. 29: 1262-1271. PMID: 10094974.

Tang,N.M., Korth, M.J., Gale, M. Jr., Wambach, M., Der, S.D., Bandyopadhyay,S.K., Williams, B.R., and Katze, M.G. (1999) Inhibition of double-stranded RNA- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated apoptosis by the tetratricopeptide repeat protein and cochaperone P58IPK. Mol. Cell. Biol. 19:4757-4765. PMCID: PMC84274.

Gale, M. Jr., Kwieciszewski, B., Dossett, M., Nakao, H., and Katze, M.G. (1999) Antiapoptotic and oncogenic potentials of hepatitis C virus are linked to interferon resistance by viral repression of the PKR protein kinase.J. Virol. 73:6506-6516. PMCID: PMC112733.

Gale, M. Jr. and Katze, M.G. (1998) Molecular mechanisms of interferon resistance mediated by viral-directed inhibition of PKR, the interferon-induced protein kinase. Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 78: 29-46. PMID: 9593328.

Gale, M. Jr., Blakely, C.M., Hopkins, D.A., Melville, M.W., Wambach, M., Romano, P.R., and Katze, M.G. (1998) Regulation of interferon-induced protein kinase PKR: modulation of P58IPK inhibitory function by a novel protein, P52rIPK. Mol. Cell. Biol. 18: 859-871. PMCID: PMC108797.

Tan, S.-L., Gale, M.J. Jr., and Katze, M.G. (1998) Double-stranded RNA-independent dimerization of interferon-induced protein kinase PKR and inhibition of dimerization by the cellular P58IPK inhibitor. Mol. Cell. Biol. 18: 2431-2443. PMCID: PMC110623.

Gale, M. Jr., Blakely, C.M, Kwieciszewski, B., Tan, S.-L., Dossett, M., Korth, M.J., Polyak, S.J., Gretch, D. R., and Katze, M.G. (1998) Control of PKR protein kinase by hepatitis C virus nonstructural 5A protein: molecular mechanisms of kinase regulation. Mol. Cell. Biol 18: 5208-5218. PMCID: PMC109106.

Gale, M.J. Jr., Korth, M.J., and Katze, M.G. (1998) Repression of the PKR protein kinase by the hepatitis C virus NS5A protein: a potential mechanism of interferon resistance. Clin. Diagn. Virol. 10: 157-162. PMID:9741641

Gale, M.J. Jr., Korth, M. J., Tang, N.M., Tan, S.-L., Hopkins, D.A., Dever, T.E., Polyak, S.J., Gretch, D.R. , and Katze, M.G. (1997) Evidence that hepatitis C virus resistance to interferon is mediated through repression of the PKR protein kinase by the nonstructural 5A protein. Virology 230: 217-227. PMID: 9143277.

Gale, M. Jr., Katze, M.G. (1997) What happens inside lentivirus or influenza virus infected cells: insights into regulation of cellular and viral protein synthesis. Methods. 11:383-401. PMID: 9126553.

Gale, M. Jr., Tan, S.-L., Wambach, M., and Katze, M.G. (1996) Interaction of the interferon-induced PKR protein kinase with inhibitory proteins P58IPK and vaccinia virus K3L is mediated by unique domains: implications for kinase regulation. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16: 4172-4181. PMCID: PMC231414.

Gale M. Jr., Carter, V., and Parsons, M. (1994) Cell cycle-specific induction of an 89 kDa serine/threonine protein kinase activity in Trypanosoma brucei. J. Cell Sci. 107:1825-1832. PMID: 7527048.

Gale, M. Jr., Carter, V., and Parsons, M. (1994) Translational control mediates the developmental regulation of the Trypanosoma brucei Nrk protein kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 31659-31665. PMID: 7989338.

Das, A., Gale, M. Jr.., Carter, V., and Parsons, M. (1994) The protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid induces defects in cytokinesis and organellar genome segregation in Trypanosoma brucei. J. Cell Sci. 107: 3477-3483. PMID: 7706399.

Gale, M. Jr. and Parsons, M. (1993). A Typanosoma brucei gene family encoding protein kinases with catalytic domains structurally related to Nek1 and NIMA. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 59:111-121. PMID: 8515773.

Axberg, I., Gale, M.J. Jr., Afar, B., Clark, E.A. (1991) Characterization of T-cell subsets and T-cell receptor subgroups in pigtailed macaques using two- and three-color flow cytometry. J Clin Immunol. 11(4):193-204. PMID: 1680874.

Agy, M.B., Foy, K., Gale, M.J., Benveniste, R.E., Clark, E.A. and Katze, M.G. (1991). Viral and cellular gene expression in CD4+ human lymphoid cell lines infected by the simian immunodefeciency virus SIV/Mne. J. Virol. 183:170-180. PMID: 1675822.

Kuller, L., Morton, W.R., Benveniste, R.E., Tsai, C.C., Clark, E.A., Gale, M.J., Hu, S.L., Thouless, M.E., Katze, M.G. (1990) Inoculation of Macaca fascicularis with simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVmne immunologic, serologic, and pathologic changes. J Med Primatol. 19:367-380. PMID: 2231689.

Willerford, D.M., Gale, M.J. Jr., Benveniste R.E., Clark E.A., and Gallatin W.M. (1990) Simian immunodeficiency virus is restricted to a subset of blood CD4+ lymphocytes that includes memory cells.J. Immunol. 144:3779-3783. PMID: 1970593.

Gale, M.J. Jr., Ledbetter, J.A., Schieven, G.L., Jonker, M., Morton, W.R., Benveniste, R.E. and Clark, E.A. (1990) CD4 and CD8 T cells from SIV-infected macaques have defective signaling responses after perturbation of either CD3 or CD2 receptors. J. Internat. Immunol. 2:849-858. PMID: 1980619.

Morton, W.R., Kuller, L., Benveniste, R.E., Clark, E.A., Tsai, C.C., Gale, M.J., Thouless, M.E., Overbaugh, J., Katze, M.G. (1989) Transmission of the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmne in macaques and baboons. J Med Primatol. 18:237-245. PMID: 2547959.

Ginsberg, A.H., Gale, M.J. Jr., Rose, L.M., Clark, E.A. (1989) T-cell alterations in late postpoliomyelitis. Arch Neurol. 46:497-501. PMID: 2785378

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