Schedule of Events
The symposium will take place on Tuesday, August 12th, 2014 from 8:30 am to 11:30 am and 1:30 pm to 4:45 pm in the Esplanade Ballroom 304, in the south building of the Moscone Center. The schedule and abstracts are provided below, and more information about the 248th ACS National Meeting, including the full technical program, can be found here.
Probing genetic plasticity of Plasmodium falciparum: Evolution of malaria parasite drug resistance, and beyond
Dr. Pradipsinh K. Rathod, University of Washington
Malaria parasites present a risk to about a billion people around the world, and cause up to one million deaths a year. Chemistry has and continues to play an important role in monitoring and addressing threats from malaria parasites. This lecture will illustrate this with an example of how small molecules can help understand and characterize mutagenesis in parasites, in the lab as well as in field settings around the world. We start with two important questions: (1) Can malaria parasites acquire many mutations at extraordinary rates in the right places in their genome, without extensive damage elsewhere? (2) What are the earliest changes accompanying de novo emergence of drug resistance before final stable forms arise? Using in vitro selection for drug resistance against novel experimental antimalarials, and whole genome DNA sequencing, Plasmodium falciparum (with single copy genomes) demonstrate exceptional capacity for targeted mutagenesis. A population-based strategy is used by parasites to cause mutations to advantageous locations without large collateral damage elsewhere in the haploid genome. Such insights are expected to lead to new chemical strategies to attack the potent mutagenesis machinery of parasite populations, to increase the effectiveness of antimalarials.
Development of needle-free and water-free inhalable dry powder aerosol vaccines
Dr. Robert E. Sievers, University of Colorado
Inhalable dry powder aerosol vaccines require no needle, no water, no reconstitution and no electricity or batteries for delivery, which makes them especially useful in developing countries. To facilitate aerosol delivery, our team invented the PuffHaler®, an “active” dry powder inhaler with only one moving part, a simple squeeze bulb with its pressure release valve. We also invented a special form of spray drying, Carbon Dioxide Assisted Nebulization with a Bubble Dryer (CAN-BD), that produces aerosol microparticles small enough (1-5 microns aerodynamic diameter) to be distributed throughout the moist respiratory tracts of humans and test animals in which immune responses are generated. A challenge study at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Rhesus macaques showed that the monkeys were fully protected when exposed to wild-type Bilthoven strain measles virus 13 months after vaccination with Edmonston-Zagreb strain live-attenuated measles virus vaccine inhaled aerosol. This dry powder aerosol vaccine has also been administered to 40 human volunteers without any serious adverse events observed while following the patients 180 days after this Phase I safety clinical trial began in India. This development over the past 9 years by a team of 35 chemists, engineers, physicians, immunologists, public health specialists, students and post-docs has been made possible by a $20 million grant (FNIH Grant 1077) from the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health as part of the Grand Challenges in Global Health initiative created by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
My journey from a small town to big science
Dr. Young-Kee Kim, University of Chicago
Over a century ago, Einstein showed that matter appears from, and disappears into, energy. This discovery continues to inspire the big science that advances our knowledge of the smallest building blocks of matter. Moreover, the fundamental laws of the infinitely small are intertwined with those of the infinitely large – our Universe. All scientists must make a personal journey to participate in their own scientific endeavor. In this presentation, I will trace out my personal journey into big science and discuss what I think will be the path from where we are now to where we need to go to make to further advance in our knowledge of the Universe.
How can global research collaboration benefit the world's citizens?
Dr. Robert P. H. Chang, Northwestern University
Statistical data show that the world is drifting away from its equilibrium state, which is a function of many complex time-dependent variables. One of these is the exponential rate of population growth, which is resulting in environmental degradation and a growing demand for the natural resources that are essential for our survival, such as energy, food, and water. Meanwhile, there is a growing need to improve quality of life for all the world citizens, especially the 30% of the world population that currently lives in poverty, starvation, and devastating health conditions.
Over the past two decades, advances in information technology have greatly expanded instant communication, resulting in a much “smaller” global community and a stronger coupling of events among the continents. As we move into the next century, scientists and engineers have the collective responsibility to secure the world's runaway equilibrium. Citizens must also take part in the global transformation needed to sustain our collective future. This talk will present two programs that can increase global research collaboration and provide education to inform global citizens: (1) the Global Materials Network for young researchers, and (2) the Interactive Materials World Modules – an integrated science and engineering program for pre-college and undergraduate students.
Transitioning to a sustainable energy system: Opportunities and challenges for CO2 capture, storage, and recycle
Dr. Sally M. Benson, Stanford University
Humanity faces two seemingly contradictory challenges over the coming decades: increasing global energy supply to meet growing demands in developing economies and reducing global CO2 emissions. There are many actions that can be taken to accomplish these two objectives, for example: conserving energy to avoid waste; using more efficient energy conversion technologies; increasing the renewable electricity supplies, especially wind power and solar photovoltaics; switching from carbon intensive fuels such as coal to natural gas; and increasing use of nuclear power. However, since we rely on fossil fuels for over 80% of global energy supply and fossil fuels continue to be abundant, it is doubtful that these measures will meet the dual challenge of increasing energy supplies with significantly decreased emissions. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) provides an additional option to help reconcile these two contradictory challenges. By capturing and storing CO2 emissions from power plants and industrial sources, fossil fuels can be used without resulting in harmful CO2 emissions, thus helping to bridge the gap between increasing energy supply and reducing emissions. However, today, much remains to be accomplished before this option is ready to be deployed at a global scale. Specifically, costs for CO2 capture must be reduced and confidence in the permanence and safety of CO2 storage must be increased. In the future, CO2 recycle for making synthetic fuels may also be possible. Central to all of these are fundamental scientific challenges that are at the cutting edge of materials and geosciences research. Examples of research opportunities and challenges in CO2 capture, storage, and recycle are presented.
Energy-environment nexus: Global challenge problem being tackled by international collaborations
Dr. Pratim Biswas, Washington University in St. Louis
The presentation will discuss the global challenges of Energy and Environment, and how addressing environmental issues will be important for us going forward. The importance of the energy-environmental nexus will be highlighted. The energy–environment issue will be described in a spatio-temporal manner. The spatial dimension discusses the need for energy efficiency in the developed parts of the world, and the need for environmental sustainable generation of energy in the developing regions of the globe. The temporal dimension will highlight the importance of developing energy technologies applicable over multiple time scales– from current fossil fuel use (e.g., novel modalities in coal combustion, biomass combustion), to sustainable solar energy technologies (using novel nanostructured materials)- will be discussed. Applications of concepts of aerosol science and engineering that aid in addressing this “global challenge problem” will be discussed.
A trans-disciplinary approach is essential to tackle this global challenge issue. Furthermore, as the problem has global dimensions, it is essential to tackle it with robust international collaborations. Examples of both a trans-disciplinary approach for selected energy-environment problems, and of effective international collaborations will be presented.
Mineral dust aerosol: Its surface chemistry and impacts around the world
Dr. Vicki H. Grassian, University of Iowa
Mineral dust aerosol is composed of particles derived from windblown soils. Mineral dust particles originating from one part of the world can impact air quality, visibility and precipitation thousands of miles from where it originated, i.e. mineral dust has no international boundaries. Furthermore, mineral dust aerosol can impact a wide range of global processes including the chemical balance of the Earth's atmosphere through heterogeneous chemistry, climate by scattering and absorbing solar light and nucleating clouds and human health. Laboratory studies can provide a framework in which to understand the chemistry of mineral dust aerosol as these particles are transported through the atmosphere. As will be discussed, a combined approach of applying state-of-the-art surface sensitive probes, aerosol instrumentation and reactivity studies provides for a fundamental molecular understanding of reactions that occur on the surface of the components of mineral dust, including oxide and carbonate surfaces as well as how these reactions can alter the global impacts of mineral dust aerosol. International efforts to understand the chemistry and impacts of mineral dust aerosol and other atmospheric aerosols are ongoing. Some examples of these efforts will be highlighted in this talk.
Advanced manufacturing: The 21st century materials challenge
Dr. Eric J. Amis, University of Akron
Even the most exciting new materials must buy their way into applications in demanding industries such as aerospace. Performance, cost, reliability, sustainability, and time to market must all converge. Going from invention and design through scale up and production demands an integrated scientifically based approach that extends to manufacturing. Transitioning a discovery through the “valley of death” is challenged by complex requirements and interacting systems, ever expanding options, and even by new manufacturing methods. The UTC approach to manufacturing encompasses physics based modeling, agile methods, integrated computational modeling, and virtual design optimization.