Funded by the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention
- IL28B genotype: The IL28 gene encodes interleukin 28, also known as interferon lambda, a cytokine (chemical messenger) with antiviral activity. Investigators discovered that genetic variations of this gene are strongly associated both with spontaneous clearance and sustained virologic response to treatment of hepatitis C. Patients with genotype C/C, for example, are 2.5 times more likely to respond to hepatitis C treatment than those with genotype T/T.
- Immune-tolerant hepatitis B: Typically seen in patients who acquired HBV perinatally, this stage of hepatitis B infection is characterized by HBeAg-positive status, high HBV DNA levels often in million IU/mL range but with normal ALT and the absence of significant ongoing necroinflammatory disease activity on liver biopsy.
- Inactive carrier: Also called a “low-replicative” phase, this stage of hepatitis B infection is characterized by HBeAg-negative status, low HBV DNA levels typically <2000 IU/mL, normal ALT and the absence of significant ongoing necroinflammatory disease activity on liver biopsy.
- Interferon Ineligible: The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) have established criteria for considering patients interferon ineligible.