Rubella is caused by a virus.
Rubella spreads from person to person through the air. Rubella is contagious but less so than measles and chickenpox.
The incubation period varies from 12 to 23 days (average, 14 days). Symptoms are often mild and may be inapparent up to half of the time.
Rotavirus disease is caused by a virus, the rotavirus. The name rotavirus is derived from the Latin rota, meaning "wheel," because the rotavirus has a wheel-like appearance when viewed by an electron microscope.
Polio is caused by a virus.
Polio is usually spread via the fecal-oral route (i.e., the virus is transmitted from the stool of an infected person to the mouth of another person from contaminated hands or such objects as eating utensils). Some cases may be spread directly via an oral to oral route.
The incubation period of polio is commonly 6-20 days, with a range of 3-35 days.
Pneumococcal disease is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a bacterium. There are more than 90 subtypes. Most subtypes can cause disease, but only a few produce the majority of invasive pneumococcal infections. The 10 most common subtypes cause 62% of invasive disease worldwide.
Pertussis is caused by a bacterium, Bordetella pertussis.
Pertussis is spread through the air by infectious droplets and is highly contagious.
The incubation period of pertussis is commonly seven to 10 days, with a range of 5-21 days.
Pertussis disease can be divided into three stages:
Meningococcal disease is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. This bacterium has at least 13 different subtypes. Five of these subtypes, A, B, C, Y, and W-135, cause almost all invasive disease. The relative importance of these five subgroups depends on geographic location and other factors.
Measles is caused by a virus.
Measles is spread through the air by infectious droplets and is highly contagious.
It takes an average of 10-12 days from exposure to the first symptom, which is usually fever. The measles rash doesn't usually appear until approximately 14 days after exposure, 2-3 days after the fever begins.
Diphtheria is caused by a bacterium, Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The actual disease is caused when the bacteria release a toxin, or poison, into the person's body.
Diphtheria bacteria live in the mouth, throat, and nose of an infected person and can be passed to others by coughing or sneezing. Occasionally, transmission occurs from skin sores or through articles soiled with discharge from sores of infected persons.
Chickenpox is caused by a virus, the varicella-zoster virus.
Chickenpox spreads from person to person by direct contact or through the air by coughing or sneezing. It is highly contagious. It can also be spread through direct contact with the fluid from a blister of a person infected with chickenpox, or from direct contact with a sore from a person with shingles.
Mumps is caused by a virus. In children, mumps is usually a mild disease. Adults may have more serious disease and more complications.
Due to good immunization coverage, mumps is now rare in the United States. An estimated 212,000 cases occurred in 1964, while only 258 cases were reported in 2004. In 2006, outbreaks of mumps occurred in 45 states and the District of Columbia, primarily on college campuses. During January 1-October 7, 2006, 5,783 confirmed or probable cases of mumps were reported to CDC.