You may not have considered it, but every time you read health information, from food labels to medical forms, you're exercising your health literacy skills.
Health literacy is the ability to obtain, process, and understand health information needed to make informed health decisions. Health literacy affects your ability to:
In addition to basic literacy skills, health literacy requires knowledge of health topics and math. For example, you use math skills to calculate cholesterol and blood sugar levels, measure medications, and understand nutrition labels.
If you have limited health literacy, you may lack knowledge or have misinformation about the body as well as the nature and causes of disease. Without this knowledge, you may not understand the relationship between lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise and various health outcomes.
According to the Institute of Medicine, a nonprofit organization that offers advice on science matters, approximately one-half of the adult population may lack the needed literacy skills to use the U.S. healthcare system. Low literacy has been linked to poor health outcomes such as higher rates of hospitalization, less frequent use of preventive services, and higher healthcare costs.
People with limited health literacy skills are more likely to skip important preventive measures such as Pap smears and flu shots. When compared to those with adequate health literacy skills, studies have shown that patients with limited health literacy skills enter the healthcare system when they are sicker.
People with limited health literacy skills are more likely to have chronic conditions and are less able to manage them effectively. Studies have found that patients with high blood pressure, diabetes, asthma, or HIV/AIDS who have limited health literacy skills have less knowledge of their illness and its management.
Limited health literacy skills are associated with an increase in preventable hospital visits and admissions. Studies have shown a higher rate of hospitalization and use of emergency services among patients with limited literacy skills.
Studies show that people with limited health literacy skills are significantly more likely than people with adequate health literacy skills to report their health as poor.
Those with limited health literacy skills use more services designed to treat complications of disease and less services designed to prevent complications. Higher rates of hospitalization and use of emergency services among patients with limited health literacy skills is associated with higher healthcare costs.
Low health literacy may also have negative psychological effects. One study found that those with limited health literacy skills reported a sense of shame about their skill level. As a result, they may hide reading or vocabulary difficulties to maintain their dignity.
STUDY: While you're in school, many of the classes you're taking will help raise your health literacy. Reading, English, science, math, and health classes are all important for raising health literacy skills.
RESEARCH: If you do have a health problem, be an informed consumer by researching your condition. A good place to start your research is http://www.healthfinder.gov/, a federal Website developed for consumers, by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and other federal agencies. The FDA website can also help you find health information about topics such as drugs, medical devices, and food.
ASK: Your healthcare provider can answer questions you have about your health. Advice from your healthcare provider can keep you safe while improving your health literacy. Not sure what to ask?
Where can I get more information on health literacy?