Life in urban areas can present many demands and challenges. Stress is one of the most important factors related to ill-health in modern times, and is a malady that includes psychological, physiological and behavioral components. Unresolved, long-term stress can lead to secondary symptoms and illnesses.1 The experience of nature is one antidote to stress, and the body’s positive response is remarkably fast.
More information later . . . .
1. Baum, A, R Fleming, and JE Singer. 1985. Understanding Environmental Stress: Strategies for Conceptual and Methodological Integration. In: A Baum, and JE Singer (eds) Advances in Environmental Psychology, Vol. 5: Methods and Environmental Psychology. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale NJ, pp. 185-205.
2. Atkinson, RL, et al. 2000. Hilgard's Introduction to Psychology. Harcourt College Publishers.
3. Grahn, P, and UK Stigsdotter. 2010. The Relation Between Perceived Sensory Dimensions of Urban Green Space and Stress Restoration. Landscape and Urban Planning 94, 3-4:264-275.
4. McGonagle, KA, and RC Kessler. 1990. Chronic Stress, Acute Stress, and Depressive Symptoms. American Journal of Community Psychology 18, 5:681-706.
5. Lepore, SJ, HJ Miles, and JS Levy. 1997. Relation of Chronic and Episodic Stressors to Psychological Distress, Reactivity, and Health Problems. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 4, 1:39-59.
6. Grahn, P, and UA Stigsdotter. 2003. Landscape Planning and Stress. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2, 1:1-18.
7. Ulrich, RS, and R Parsons. 1992. Influences of passive experiences with plants on individual well-being and health. In: D Relf (ed) The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium. Timber Press, Arlington VA, pp. 93-103.
8. Ulrich, RS, RF Simons, BD Losito, E Fiorito, MA Miles, and M Zelson. 1991. Stress Recovery During Exposure to Natural and Urban Environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology 11, 3:201-230.
9. Ulrich, RS. 1986. Human Responses to Vegetation and Landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 13:29-44.
10. Kaplan, R, and S Kaplan. 1989. The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective. Cambridge University Press, New York.
11. Ulrich, RS, and DL Addoms. 1981. Psychological and Recreational Benefits of a Residential Park. Journal of Leisure Research 13, 1:43-65.
12. Ulrich, RS, U Dimberg, and BL Driver. 1991. Psychophysiological indicators of leisure benefits. In: BL Driver, LR Brown, and GL Peterson (eds) Benefits of Leisure. Venture Publishing, State College PA, pp. 73-89.
13. Korpela, KM, M Ylén, L Tyrväinen, and H Silvennoinen. 2008. Determinants of Restorative Experiences in Everyday Favorite Places. Health & Place 14, 4:636-652.
14. Morita, E, S Fukuda, J Nagano, N Hamajima, H Yamamoto, Y Iwai, T Nakashima, H Ohira, and T Shirakawa. 2007. Psychological Effects of Forest Environments on Healthy Adults: Shinrin-Yoku (Forest-Air Bathing, Walking) As a Possible Method of Stress Reduction. Public Health 121, 1:54-63.
15. Ohira, H, S Takagi, K Masui, M Oishi, and A Obata. 1999. Effects on Shinrin-Yoku (Forest-Air Bathing and Walking) on Mental and Physical Health. Bulletin of Tokai Women's University 19:217-232.
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