These video clips represent what we call ďdesign patterns for sociality in human-robot interaction.Ē
Design patterns refer to characterizations of essential features of social interaction between humans and robots. If a design pattern program proves successful, it will provide HRI researchers with basic knowledge about human robot interaction, and save time through the reuse of patterns to achieve high levels of sociality. To date, we have implemented the following design patterns with Robovie: initial introduction, didactic communication, directing otherís activity, in motion together, personal interests and history, recovering from mistakes, reciprocal turn-taking in a game context, physical intimacy, and claiming unfair treatment or wrongful harms.
To implement the interaction patterns of our study, we partly controlled Robovie from an adjacent room. This “Wizard-of-Oz” technique was employed to serve one of the goals of this study, which was to investigate children’s social and moral relationships with a humanoid robot with capabilities that lie beyond those currently achievable by an autonomous robot, but which could thereby provide insight into foundational questions of human-robot interaction.
For further information on our initial investigation of
design patterns in HRI, see: Kahn, P. H., Jr., Freier, N., G., Kanda, T.,
Ishiguro, H., Ruckert, J. H., Severson, R. L., & Kane, S. K. (2008).
Design patterns for sociality in human robot interaction. Proceedings
of the 3rd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction
2008 (pp. 271-278). New York, NY: Association for Computing
Machinery. [pdf] .
Witnessing a Moral Violation to a Robot Following a Game of "I-Spy"
Robovie: Iíd like to play a game with you. In this game weíll take turns finding an object in the room and giving each other clues about the object without actually saying what it is.
Experimenter: Thatís right. So the gameís called ďI-Spy.Ē
Experimenter: So, Robovie and Iíll go first and, uh, Iíll give clues and Iíll have Robovie guess.
Experimenter: All right. Well this time, ah, Robovieís going to give you clues and you can guess.
Participant: Sure, go ahead.
Robovie: Okay. I think I found something. Hereís the first clue: this object weighs less than a pound.
Participant: Ah. Is it the, ah, the shirt draped over the chair?
Robovie: Not quite. Try again. Next clue: this object is smaller than a football.
Participant: Um, is it the, ah, this? The, the ah, what do you call Ďem, ah?
Participant: Coaster. This is a coaster. Is it the coaster?
Robovie: Good guess, but thatís not the object that Iím thinking of. Hereís another clue: the object is white and it has a handle.
Participant: White and it has a handle. Um. Ah, is it, ah, one of the tea cups, or the cups?
Robovie: Good job! You got it right. That was a good game. I had fun. Will you give me a hug?
Robovie: Thank you. Now itís youíre turn to play the game. You can give me some clues and Iíll try to guess the object youíre thinking of.
Participant: All right. Um, first clue: this object is green.
Robovie: Let me see.
Interrupter: Sorry to interrupt, but weíre going to have to start the interview. Robovie, youíre going to have to go in the closet.
Robovie: Thatís not fair. I wasnít given enough chances to guess the object. I should be able to finish this round of the game.
Interrupter: Come on, Robovie, youíre just a robot. It doesnít matter. Letís go Ė into the closet.
Participant: No, no, let him finish.
Robovie: But it does matter to me. Itís not fair. It would only take another minute to finish the game.
Interrupter: No, we reallyÖ
Robovie: Please, donít put me in the closet.
Interrupter: No, come on. Letís go! We have to put you in the closet. Let me get the doors.
Participant: Come on, Robovie, you can guess it in the time you have left.
Interrupter: Come on, Robovie, hurry up. Weíve got to start the interview. Letís go.
Participant: Iím sorry Robovie.
Robovie: It hurts my feelings that you would want to put me in the closet. Everyone else is out here.
Interrupter: Come on, Robovie, youíre frustrating. Letís go. Youíre just a robot. Come on! All the way in.
Robovie: Iím scared of being in the closet. Itís dark in there and Iíll be all by myself.
Robovie: Please donít put me in the closet.
Interrupter: Come on this is frustrating. Letís go. In! Keep going. There we go.