Appendix - Bicycle Injuries
1. Rodgers GB, editor. Bicycle use and hazard patterns in the United States. U.S. Consumer
Product Safety Commission, Washington D.C., 1994.
2. Injury-control recommendations: bicycle helmets. MMWR, 1995; 44(RR-1): 1-17.
3. Thompson DC, Rivara FP, Thompson RS. Effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets in preventing
head injuries: a case-control study. JAMA, 1996; 276(24): 1968-1973.
4. Thompson DC, Nunn ME, Thompson RS, Rivara FP. Effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets
in preventing serious facial injury. JAMA, 1996; 276(24): 1974-1975.
5. Maimaris C, Summers CL, Browning C, Palmer CR. Injury patterns in cyclists attending
an accident and emergency department: a comparison of helmet wearers and non-wearers.
BMJ, 1994; 308(6943): 1537-1540.
6. Thomas S, Acton C, Nixon J, Battistutta D, Pitt WR, Clark R. Effectiveness of bicycle
helmets in preventing head injury in children. BMJ, 1994; 308: 173-176.
7. McDermott FT, Lane JC, Brazenore GA, Debney EA. The effectiveness of bicyclist helmets:
a study of 1701 casualties. Journal of Trauma, 1993; 34(6): 834-845.
8. Spaite DW, Murphy M, Criss EA, Valenzuela TD, Meislin HW. A prospective analysis
of injury severity among helmeted and nonhelmeted bicyclists involved in collisions
with motor vehicles. Journal of Trauma, 1991; 31(11): 1510-1516.
9. Thompson DC, Thompson RS, Rivara FP, Wolf ME. A case-control study on the effectiveness
of bicycle safety helmets in preventing facial injury. American Journal of Public
Health, 1990; 80(12): 1471-1474.
10. Thompson RS, Rivara FP, Thompson DC. A case-control study on the effectiveness of
bicycle safety helmets. New England Journal of Medicine, 1989; 320: 1361-1367.
11. Sacks JJ, Kresnow MJ, Houston B, Russell J. Bicycle helmet use among American
children, 1994. Injury Prevention, 1996; 2: 258-262.
12. Jaffe B, Tamir D. Bicycle helmets in Israel: observed changes in usage following
a nationwide campaign. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, 1996; 32(2): 135-137.
13. Berchem SP. A community campaign that increased helmet use among bicyclists. Transportation
Research Board. Washington D.C., 1987. 43-45.
14. Farley C, Haddad S, Brown B. The effects of a 4-year program promoting bicycle
helmet use among children in Quebec. American Journal of Public Health, 1996; 86(1):
15. Liller KD, Smorynski A, McDermott RJ, Crane NB, Weibley RE. The MORE HEALTH bicycle
safety project. Journal of School Health, 1995; 65(3): 87-90.
16. Parkin PC, Hu X, Spence LJ, Kranz KE, Shortt LG, Wesson DE. Evaluation of a subsidy
program to increase bicycle-helmet use by children of low-income families. Pediatrics,
1995; 96(2): 283-287.
17. Morris BA, Trimble NE, Fendley SJ. Increasing bicycle helmet use in the community:
measuring response to a wide-scale, 2-year effort. Canadian Family Physician, 1994;
18. Rourke LL. Bicycle helmet use among schoolchildren: impact of a community education
program and a cycling fatality. Canadian Family Physician, 1994; 40: 1116-1124.
19. Towner P, Marvel MK. A school-based intervention to increase the use of bicycle
helmets. Family Medicine, 1992; 24(2): 156-158.
20. Morris BA, Trimble NE. Promotion of bicycle helmet use among schoolchildren: a
randomized clinical trial. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 1991; 82(2): 92-94.
21. Stutts JC, Hunter WW. Evaluation of a bicycle safety curriculum for elementary
school age children. Highway Safety Research Center. North Carolina University at
Chapel Hill, 1990.
22. Rivara, FP, Thompson DC, Thompson RS, Rogers LW, Alexander B, Felix D, Bergman
AB. The Seattle childrens bicycle helmet campaign: changes in helmet use and
head injury admissions. Pediatrics, 1994; 93(4): 567-569.
23. Parkin PC, Spence LJ, Hu X, Kranz KE, Shortt LG, Wesson DE. Evaluation of a promotional
strategy to increase helmet use by children. Pediatrics, 1993; 91(4): 772- 777.
24. Bergman AB, Rivara FP, Richards DD, Rogers LW. The Seattle childrens bicycle
helmet campaign. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 1990; 144(6): 727-731.
25. DiGuiseppi CG, Rivara FP, Koepsell TD, Polissar L. Bicycle helmet use by children:
evaluation of a community-wide helmet campaign. JAMA, 1989; 262(16): 2256-2261.
26. Wood T, Milne P. Head injuries to pedal cyclists and the promotion of helmet
use in Victoria, Australia. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1988; 20(3): 177-185.
27. Hatziandreu EJ, Sacks JJ, Brown R, Taylor WR, Rosenberg ML, Graham JD. The cost effectiveness
of three programs to increase use of bicycle helmets among children. Public Health
Reports, 1995; 110(3): 251-259.
28. Dannenberg AL, Gielen AC, Beilenson PL, Wilson MH, Joffe A. Bicycle helmet laws and
educational campaigns: an evaluation of strategies to increase childrens helmet
use. American Journal of Public Health, 1993; 83(5): 667-674.
29. Cushman R, Down J, MacMillan N, Waclawik H. Helmet protection in the emergency room
following a bicycle injury: a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 1991; 88: 43-47.
30. Pendergrast RA, Ashworth CS, Durant RH, Litaker M. Correlates of childrens bicycle
helmet use and short-term failure of school-level interventions. Pediatrics, 1992;
31. Ni H, Sacks JJ, Curtis L, Cieslak PR, Hedberg K. Evaluation of a statewide
bicycle helmet law via multiple measures of helmet use. Archives of Pediatric and
Adolescent Medicine, 1997; 151: 59-65.
32. Cameron MH, Vulcan AP, Finch CF, Newstead SV. Mandatory bicycle helmet use following
a decade of helmet promotion in Victoria, Australia: an evaluation. Accident Analysis
and Prevention, 1994; 26(3): 325-337.
33. Cote TR, Sacks JJ, Lambert-Huber DA, Dannenberg AL, Kresnow MJ, Lipsitz CM, Schmidt
ER. Bicycle helmet use among Maryland children: effect of legislation and education.
Pediatrics, 1992; 89(6): 1216-1220.
34. Vulcan AP, Cameron MH, Watson WL. Mandatory bicycle helmet use: experience in Victoria,
Australia. World Journal of Surgery, 1992; 16: 389-397.
35. Ozanne-Smith J, Sherry K. Bicycle-related injuries: head injuries since helmet legislation.
HazardVictorian Injury Surveillance System, 1990; 6: 1-9.
36. Wachtel A, Lewiston D. Risk factors for bicycle-motor vehicle collisions at intersections.
Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1994; 64(9): 30-35.
37. Khan AM, Bacchus A. Bicycle use of highway shoulders. Transportation Research
Board, 1995. Record 1502, Washington D.C., 8-21.
38. Lott DF, Lott DY. Effect of bike lanes on ten classes of bicycle-automobile accidents
in Davis, California. Journal of Safety Research, 1976; 8(4): 171-179.
39. Ytterstad B, Wasmuth HH. The Harstad injury prevention study: evaluation of hospital-
based injury recording and community-based intervention for traffic injury prevention.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1995; 27(1): 111-123.
40. Garder P. Rumble strips or not along wide shoulders designated for bicycle traffic.
Transportation Research Board, 1995. Record 1502, Washington D.C., 1-7.
41. Ferguson B, Blampied NM. Unenlightened: an unsuccessful attempt to promote the use
of cycle lights at night. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1991; 23(6): 561-571.
42. van Schagen INLG, Brookhuis KA. Training young cyclists to cope with dynamic traffic
situations. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1994; 26(2): 223-230.
43. Macarthur C, Parkin PC, Sidky M, Wallace W. Evaluation of a bicycle skills training
program for young children: a randomized controlled trial. Injury Prevention, 1998;
44. Carlin JB, Taylor P, Nolan T. School based bicycle safety education and bicycle
injuries in children: a case control study. Injury Prevention, 1998; 4(1): 22-27.
45. Attewell RG, Glase K, McFadden M. Bicycle helmet efficacy: a meta-analysis. Accident
Analysis & Prevention, 2001; 33: 345-352.
46. Kelsch G, Helber MU, Ulrich C. Craniocerebral trauma in fall from bicycles--what
is the effect of a protective helmet?. Unfallchirurg, 1996; 99(3): 202-206.
47. Finvers , Strother RT, Mohatdi N. The effect of bicycling helmets in preventing
significant bicycle-related injuries in children. Clin J Sport Med, 1996; 6(2):
48. Acton CH, Nixon JW, Clark RC. Bicycle riding and oral/maxillofacial trauma in
young children. MJA, 1996; 165: 249-251.
49. Cook A, Sheikh A. Trends in serious head injuries among cyclists in England:
analysis of routinely collected data. BMJ, 2000; 321: 1055.
50. Floerchinger FG, Machala M, Goodale K, Gerberding S. Evaluation of a pilot program in
rural schools to increase bicycle and motor vehicle safety. Journal of Community
Health, 2000; 25(2): 113-124.
51. Lee AJ, Mann NP, Takriti P. A hospital led promotion campaign aimed to increase
bicycle helmet wearing among children aged 11-15 living in West Berkshire 1992-1998.
Injury Prevention, 2000; 6: 151-153.
52. Wesson D, Spence L, Hu X, Parkin P. Trends in bicycling-related head injuries in
children after implementation of a community-based bike helmet campaign. J Pediatr
Surg, 2000; 35(5): 688-689.
53. Durkin MS, Laraque D, Lubman I, Barlow B. Epidemiology and prevention of traffic
injuries to urban children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 1999; 103(6): e74.
54. Britt J, Silver I, Rivara FP. Bicycle helmet promotion among low income preschool
children. Injury Prevention, 1998; 4: 280-283.
55. Logan P, Leadbetter S, Gibson RE, Schieber R, Branche C, Bender P, Zane D, Humphreys
J, Anderson S. Evaluation of a bicycle helmet giveaway program--Texas, 1995. Pediatrics,
1998; 101(4): 578-582.
56. Abularrage JJ, DeLuca AJ, Abularrage CJ. Effect of education and legislation on bicycle
helmet use in a multiracial population. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 1997; 151: 41-44.
57. Ekman R, Schelp L, Welander G, Svanstrom L. Can a combination of local, regional,
and national information substantially increase bicycle-helmet wearing and reduce
injuries? Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1997; 29: 321-328.
58. Mock CN, Maier RV, Boyle E, Pilcher S, Rivara FP. Injury prevention strategies
to promote helmet use and decrease severe head injuries at level 1 trauma center.
J Trauma, 1995; 39: 29-33.
59. Rouzier P, Alto WA. Evolution of a successful community bicycle helmet campaign.
J Am Board Fam Pract, 1995; 8(4): 283-287.
60. Wright M, Rivara FP, Ferse D. Evaluation of the Think First head and spinal cord
injury prevention program..Injury Prevention, 1995; 1: 81-85.
61. Scuffham P, Alsop J, Cryer C, Langley D. Head injuries to bicyclists and the New
Zealand bicycle helmet law. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2000; 32: 565-573.
62. Foss RD, Beirness DJ. Bicycle helmet use in British Columbia: effects of the
Helmet Use Law. Pre-and Post-Law Bicycle Helmet Use in British Columbia, 2000.
63. Gilchrist J, Schieber RA, Leadbetter S, Davidson SC. Police enforcement as part of
a comprehensive bicycle helmet program. Pediatrics, 2000; 106(1): 6-9.
64. Borglund ST, Hayes JS, Eckes JM. Florida's bicycle helmet law and a bicycle safety
educational program: did they help? J Emerg Nurs, 1999; 25: 496-500.
65. Povey LJ, Frith WJ, Graham PG. Cycle helmet effectiveness in New Zealand. Accident
Analysis and Prevention, 1999; 31: 763-770.
66. Puder DR, Visintainer P, Spitzer D, Casal D. A comparison of the effect of different
bicycle helmet laws in 3 New York City suburbs. Am J of Public Health, 1999; 89(11):
67. Shafi S, Gilbert JC, Loghmanee F, Allen JE, Caty MG, Glick PL, Carden S, Azizkhan
RG. Impact of bicycle helmet safety legislation on children admitted to a regional
pediatric trauma center. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 1998; 33(2): 317-321.
68. Finch CF, Heiman L, Neiger D. Bicycle use and helmet wearing rates in Melbourne
1987-1992: the influence of the Helmet Wearing Law. Accident Research Centre, Monash
University, Victoria, Australia, 1993.
69. Henderson M. The effectiveness of bicycle helmets: a review. Motor Accidents Authority
of NSW, Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute, www.helmets.org, 1995.
70. Carr D, Skalova M, Cameron M. Evaluation of the bicycle helmet wearing law in
Victoria during its first four years. Accident Research Centre, Monash University,
Victoria, Australia, 1995.
71. Hillman M. Cycle helmets: the case for and against. Policy Study Institute, London,
72. Kinney L, McCloskey S. 1997 Duvall County bicycle helmet and child bicycle riding
behavior in traffic observational survey. Duval County Department of Health, Jacksonville,
73. Towner E, Dowswell T, Jarvis S. Updating the evidence. A systematic review of what
works in preventing childhood unintentional injuries: Part 1. Injury Prevention,
2001; 7: 161-164.
74. Savill T, Bryan-Brown K, Harland G. The effectiveness of child cycle training schemes.
TRL Report, 1996; 214: 1-29.