Appendix - Bicycle Injuries


1. Rodgers GB, editor. Bicycle use and hazard patterns in the United States. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington D.C., 1994.

2. Injury-control recommendations: bicycle helmets. MMWR, 1995; 44(RR-1): 1-17.

3. Thompson DC, Rivara FP, Thompson RS. Effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets in preventing head injuries: a case-control study. JAMA, 1996; 276(24): 1968-1973.

4. Thompson DC, Nunn ME, Thompson RS, Rivara FP. Effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets in preventing serious facial injury. JAMA, 1996; 276(24): 1974-1975.

5. Maimaris C, Summers CL, Browning C, Palmer CR. Injury patterns in cyclists attending an accident and emergency department: a comparison of helmet wearers and non-wearers. BMJ, 1994; 308(6943): 1537-1540.

6. Thomas S, Acton C, Nixon J, Battistutta D, Pitt WR, Clark R. Effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury in children. BMJ, 1994; 308: 173-176.

7. McDermott FT, Lane JC, Brazenore GA, Debney EA. The effectiveness of bicyclist helmets: a study of 1701 casualties. Journal of Trauma, 1993; 34(6): 834-845.

8. Spaite DW, Murphy M, Criss EA, Valenzuela TD, Meislin HW. A prospective analysis of injury severity among helmeted and nonhelmeted bicyclists involved in collisions with motor vehicles. Journal of Trauma, 1991; 31(11): 1510-1516.

9. Thompson DC, Thompson RS, Rivara FP, Wolf ME. A case-control study on the effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets in preventing facial injury. American Journal of Public Health, 1990; 80(12): 1471-1474.

10. Thompson RS, Rivara FP, Thompson DC. A case-control study on the effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets. New England Journal of Medicine, 1989; 320: 1361-1367.

11. Sacks JJ, Kresnow MJ, Houston B, Russell J. Bicycle helmet use among American children, 1994. Injury Prevention, 1996; 2: 258-262.

12. Jaffe B, Tamir D. Bicycle helmets in Israel: observed changes in usage following a nationwide campaign. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, 1996; 32(2): 135-137.

13. Berchem SP. A community campaign that increased helmet use among bicyclists. Transportation Research Board. Washington D.C., 1987. 43-45.

14. Farley C, Haddad S, Brown B. The effects of a 4-year program promoting bicycle helmet use among children in Quebec. American Journal of Public Health, 1996; 86(1): 46-51.

15. Liller KD, Smorynski A, McDermott RJ, Crane NB, Weibley RE. The MORE HEALTH bicycle safety project. Journal of School Health, 1995; 65(3): 87-90.

16. Parkin PC, Hu X, Spence LJ, Kranz KE, Shortt LG, Wesson DE. Evaluation of a subsidy program to increase bicycle-helmet use by children of low-income families. Pediatrics, 1995; 96(2): 283-287.

17. Morris BA, Trimble NE, Fendley SJ. Increasing bicycle helmet use in the community: measuring response to a wide-scale, 2-year effort. Canadian Family Physician, 1994; 40: 1126-1131.

18. Rourke LL. Bicycle helmet use among schoolchildren: impact of a community education program and a cycling fatality. Canadian Family Physician, 1994; 40: 1116-1124.

19. Towner P, Marvel MK. A school-based intervention to increase the use of bicycle helmets. Family Medicine, 1992; 24(2): 156-158.

20. Morris BA, Trimble NE. Promotion of bicycle helmet use among schoolchildren: a randomized clinical trial. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 1991; 82(2): 92-94.

21. Stutts JC, Hunter WW. Evaluation of a bicycle safety curriculum for elementary school age children. Highway Safety Research Center. North Carolina University at Chapel Hill, 1990.

22. Rivara, FP, Thompson DC, Thompson RS, Rogers LW, Alexander B, Felix D, Bergman AB. The Seattle children’s bicycle helmet campaign: changes in helmet use and head injury admissions. Pediatrics, 1994; 93(4): 567-569.

23. Parkin PC, Spence LJ, Hu X, Kranz KE, Shortt LG, Wesson DE. Evaluation of a promotional strategy to increase helmet use by children. Pediatrics, 1993; 91(4): 772- 777.

24. Bergman AB, Rivara FP, Richards DD, Rogers LW. The Seattle children’s bicycle helmet campaign. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 1990; 144(6): 727-731.

25. DiGuiseppi CG, Rivara FP, Koepsell TD, Polissar L. Bicycle helmet use by children: evaluation of a community-wide helmet campaign. JAMA, 1989; 262(16): 2256-2261.

26. Wood T, Milne P. Head injuries to pedal cyclists and the promotion of helmet use in Victoria, Australia. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1988; 20(3): 177-185.

27. Hatziandreu EJ, Sacks JJ, Brown R, Taylor WR, Rosenberg ML, Graham JD. The cost effectiveness of three programs to increase use of bicycle helmets among children. Public Health Reports, 1995; 110(3): 251-259.

28. Dannenberg AL, Gielen AC, Beilenson PL, Wilson MH, Joffe A. Bicycle helmet laws and educational campaigns: an evaluation of strategies to increase children’s helmet use. American Journal of Public Health, 1993; 83(5): 667-674.

29. Cushman R, Down J, MacMillan N, Waclawik H. Helmet protection in the emergency room following a bicycle injury: a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 1991; 88: 43-47.

30. Pendergrast RA, Ashworth CS, Durant RH, Litaker M. Correlates of children’s bicycle helmet use and short-term failure of school-level interventions. Pediatrics, 1992; 90: 354-358.

31. Ni H, Sacks JJ, Curtis L, Cieslak PR, Hedberg K. Evaluation of a statewide bicycle helmet law via multiple measures of helmet use. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 1997; 151: 59-65.

32. Cameron MH, Vulcan AP, Finch CF, Newstead SV. Mandatory bicycle helmet use following a decade of helmet promotion in Victoria, Australia: an evaluation. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1994; 26(3): 325-337.

33. Cote TR, Sacks JJ, Lambert-Huber DA, Dannenberg AL, Kresnow MJ, Lipsitz CM, Schmidt ER. Bicycle helmet use among Maryland children: effect of legislation and education. Pediatrics, 1992; 89(6): 1216-1220.

34. Vulcan AP, Cameron MH, Watson WL. Mandatory bicycle helmet use: experience in Victoria, Australia. World Journal of Surgery, 1992; 16: 389-397.

35. Ozanne-Smith J, Sherry K. Bicycle-related injuries: head injuries since helmet legislation. Hazard–Victorian Injury Surveillance System, 1990; 6: 1-9.

36. Wachtel A, Lewiston D. Risk factors for bicycle-motor vehicle collisions at intersections. Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1994; 64(9): 30-35.

37. Khan AM, Bacchus A. Bicycle use of highway shoulders. Transportation Research Board, 1995. Record 1502, Washington D.C., 8-21.

38. Lott DF, Lott DY. Effect of bike lanes on ten classes of bicycle-automobile accidents in Davis, California. Journal of Safety Research, 1976; 8(4): 171-179.

39. Ytterstad B, Wasmuth HH. The Harstad injury prevention study: evaluation of hospital- based injury recording and community-based intervention for traffic injury prevention. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1995; 27(1): 111-123.

40. Garder P. Rumble strips or not along wide shoulders designated for bicycle traffic. Transportation Research Board, 1995. Record 1502, Washington D.C., 1-7.

41. Ferguson B, Blampied NM. Unenlightened: an unsuccessful attempt to promote the use of cycle lights at night. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1991; 23(6): 561-571.

42. van Schagen INLG, Brookhuis KA. Training young cyclists to cope with dynamic traffic situations. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1994; 26(2): 223-230.

43. Macarthur C, Parkin PC, Sidky M, Wallace W. Evaluation of a bicycle skills training program for young children: a randomized controlled trial. Injury Prevention, 1998; 4(2): 116-121.

44. Carlin JB, Taylor P, Nolan T. School based bicycle safety education and bicycle injuries in children: a case control study. Injury Prevention, 1998; 4(1): 22-27.

45. Attewell RG, Glase K, McFadden M. Bicycle helmet efficacy: a meta-analysis. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2001; 33: 345-352.

46. Kelsch G, Helber MU, Ulrich C. Craniocerebral trauma in fall from bicycles--what is the effect of a protective helmet?. Unfallchirurg, 1996; 99(3): 202-206.

47. Finvers , Strother RT, Mohatdi N. The effect of bicycling helmets in preventing significant bicycle-related injuries in children. Clin J Sport Med, 1996; 6(2): 102-107.

48. Acton CH, Nixon JW, Clark RC. Bicycle riding and oral/maxillofacial trauma in young children. MJA, 1996; 165: 249-251.

49. Cook A, Sheikh A. Trends in serious head injuries among cyclists in England: analysis of routinely collected data. BMJ, 2000; 321: 1055.

50. Floerchinger FG, Machala M, Goodale K, Gerberding S. Evaluation of a pilot program in rural schools to increase bicycle and motor vehicle safety. Journal of Community Health, 2000; 25(2): 113-124.

51. Lee AJ, Mann NP, Takriti P. A hospital led promotion campaign aimed to increase bicycle helmet wearing among children aged 11-15 living in West Berkshire 1992-1998. Injury Prevention, 2000; 6: 151-153.

52. Wesson D, Spence L, Hu X, Parkin P. Trends in bicycling-related head injuries in children after implementation of a community-based bike helmet campaign. J Pediatr Surg, 2000; 35(5): 688-689.

53. Durkin MS, Laraque D, Lubman I, Barlow B. Epidemiology and prevention of traffic injuries to urban children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 1999; 103(6): e74.

54. Britt J, Silver I, Rivara FP. Bicycle helmet promotion among low income preschool children. Injury Prevention, 1998; 4: 280-283.

55. Logan P, Leadbetter S, Gibson RE, Schieber R, Branche C, Bender P, Zane D, Humphreys J, Anderson S. Evaluation of a bicycle helmet giveaway program--Texas, 1995. Pediatrics, 1998; 101(4): 578-582.

56. Abularrage JJ, DeLuca AJ, Abularrage CJ. Effect of education and legislation on bicycle helmet use in a multiracial population. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 1997; 151: 41-44.

57. Ekman R, Schelp L, Welander G, Svanstrom L. Can a combination of local, regional, and national information substantially increase bicycle-helmet wearing and reduce injuries? Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1997; 29: 321-328.

58. Mock CN, Maier RV, Boyle E, Pilcher S, Rivara FP. Injury prevention strategies to promote helmet use and decrease severe head injuries at level 1 trauma center. J Trauma, 1995; 39: 29-33.

59. Rouzier P, Alto WA. Evolution of a successful community bicycle helmet campaign. J Am Board Fam Pract, 1995; 8(4): 283-287.

60. Wright M, Rivara FP, Ferse D. Evaluation of the Think First head and spinal cord injury prevention program..Injury Prevention, 1995; 1: 81-85.

61. Scuffham P, Alsop J, Cryer C, Langley D. Head injuries to bicyclists and the New Zealand bicycle helmet law. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2000; 32: 565-573.

62. Foss RD, Beirness DJ. Bicycle helmet use in British Columbia: effects of the Helmet Use Law. Pre-and Post-Law Bicycle Helmet Use in British Columbia, 2000.

63. Gilchrist J, Schieber RA, Leadbetter S, Davidson SC. Police enforcement as part of a comprehensive bicycle helmet program. Pediatrics, 2000; 106(1): 6-9.

64. Borglund ST, Hayes JS, Eckes JM. Florida's bicycle helmet law and a bicycle safety educational program: did they help? J Emerg Nurs, 1999; 25: 496-500.

65. Povey LJ, Frith WJ, Graham PG. Cycle helmet effectiveness in New Zealand. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1999; 31: 763-770.

66. Puder DR, Visintainer P, Spitzer D, Casal D. A comparison of the effect of different bicycle helmet laws in 3 New York City suburbs. Am J of Public Health, 1999; 89(11): 1736-1738.

67. Shafi S, Gilbert JC, Loghmanee F, Allen JE, Caty MG, Glick PL, Carden S, Azizkhan RG. Impact of bicycle helmet safety legislation on children admitted to a regional pediatric trauma center. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 1998; 33(2): 317-321.

68. Finch CF, Heiman L, Neiger D. Bicycle use and helmet wearing rates in Melbourne 1987-1992: the influence of the Helmet Wearing Law. Accident Research Centre, Monash University, Victoria, Australia, 1993.

69. Henderson M. The effectiveness of bicycle helmets: a review. Motor Accidents Authority of NSW, Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,, 1995.

70. Carr D, Skalova M, Cameron M. Evaluation of the bicycle helmet wearing law in Victoria during its first four years. Accident Research Centre, Monash University, Victoria, Australia, 1995.

71. Hillman M. Cycle helmets: the case for and against. Policy Study Institute, London, UK, 1993.

72. Kinney L, McCloskey S. 1997 Duvall County bicycle helmet and child bicycle riding behavior in traffic observational survey. Duval County Department of Health, Jacksonville, FL, 1997.

73. Towner E, Dowswell T, Jarvis S. Updating the evidence. A systematic review of what works in preventing childhood unintentional injuries: Part 1. Injury Prevention, 2001; 7: 161-164.

74. Savill T, Bryan-Brown K, Harland G. The effectiveness of child cycle training schemes. TRL Report, 1996; 214: 1-29.