Child Pedestrian Injury Interventions
Risk of pedestrian injuries is increased during the twilight and
night hours. This increased risk is only moderate for children, since they generally
are not walking during night hours. Prevention of pedestrian injuries during night
hours has been approached in a number of different ways. One is to increase the
amount of street lighting. This is expensive and may not be practical in rural areas.
Another alternative has been the use of retro-reflective clothing, or special retro-reflective
patches on clothing. These devices have been only evaluated in laboratory settings;
none have been evaluated in real world settings.
No new articles to include in review, updated 2001.
Review of retro-reflective clothing interventions:
Study design and target population
|Non-randomized controlled trial
40 adult volunteer drivers.
|Comparison of different types of clothing
and different types of retro-reflective materials, combined with varying the
level of expectancy of the driver to having pedestrian appear in road
|The distance at which the pedestrian
|Retro-reflective tag increased distance
at which pedestrian was detected from 145 meters for dark clothing to 259 meters
for the tag. However, best detection was with the tag and when the driver excepted
to see pedestrian; if the driver did not expect to see pedestrian, tag made
Study quality and conclusions
|The retro-reflective tag would be
expected to have little effect on detecting an unanticipated pedestrian.
Generalizability to actual conditions is unknown.
Summary of studies on retro-reflective clothing:
The single study of retire-reflective clothing indicates little
effect when the driver does not anticipate the pedestrian, which would be the normal
state of affairs.
Recommendations on retro-reflective clothing:
At this time, there are no data to support their use
and we cannot recommend that they be promoted.