Child Pedestrians

Appendix - Child Pedestrians


1. Roberts I, Ashton T, Dunn R, Lee JT. Preventing child pedestrian injury: pedestrian education or traffic calming? Australian Journal of Public Health, 1994; 18(2): 209-12.

2. Race, K E. Evaluating pedestrian safety education materials for children ages five to nine. Journal of School Health, 1988; 58(7): 277-81.

3. Rivara FP, Booth CL, Bergman AB, Rogers LW, Weiss J. Prevention of pedestrian injuries to children: effectiveness of a school training program. Pediatrics, 1991; 88(4): 770-5.

4. Young DS, Lee DN. Training children in road crossing skills using a roadside simulation. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1987; 19(5): 327-41.

5. Rothengatter T. A behavioural approach to improving traffic behaviour of young children. Ergonomics, 1984; 27(2): 147-60.

6. Van der Molen HH, Van den Herik J, Van der Klaauw C. Pedestrian behaviour of children and accompanying parents during school journeys: an evaluation of a training programme. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1983; 53(Pt 2): 152-168.

7. Fortenberry JC, Brown DB. Problem identification, implementation and evaluation of a pedestrian safety program. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1982; 14(4): 315-22.

8. Limbourg M, Gerber D. A parent training program for the road safety education of preschool children. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1981; 13(3): 255-67.

9. Yeaton WH, Bailey JS. Teaching pedestrian safety skills to young children: an analysis and one-year followup. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1978; 11(3): 315-329.

10. Whittaker JD. An investigation into the effects of British Summer Time on road traffic accident casualties in Cheshire. Journal of Accidents and Emergency Medicine, 1996; 13(3): 189-92.

11. Ferguson SA, Preusser DF, Lund AK, Zador PL, Ulmer RG. Daylight saving time and motor vehicle crashes: the reduction in pedestrian and vehicle occupant fatalities. American Journal of Public Health, 1995; 85(1): 92-5.

12. Shinar D. The effects of expectancy, clothing reflectance, and detection criterion on nighttime pedestrian visibility. Human Factors, 1985; 27(3): 327-333.

13. Engel U, Thomsen LK. Safety effects of speed reducing measures in Danish residential areas. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1992; 24(1): 17-28.

14. Van Houten R, Malenfant L. The influence of signs prompting motorists to yield before marked crosswalks on motor vehicle-pedestrian conflicts at crosswalks with flashing amber. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1992; 24(3): 217-225.

15. Vis AA, Dijkstra A, Slop M. Safety effects of 30Km/H zones in the Netherlands. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1992; 24(1): 75-86.

16. Garder P. Pedestrian safety at traffic signals: a study carried out with the help of a traffic conflicts technique. Accident Analysis and Prevention 1989; 21(5): 435-44.

17. Ytterstad B. The Harstad injury prevention study: hospital-based injury recording used for outcome evaluation of community-based prevention of bicyclist and pedestrian injury. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, 1995; 13(2): 141-9.

18. Malenfant L, Van Houten R. Increasing the percentage of drivers yielding to pedestrians in three Canadian cities with a multifaceted safety program. Health Education Research, 1989; 5(2): 275-279.

19. Blomberg RD, Preusser DF, Hale A, Leaf WA. Experimental field test of proposed pedestrian safety messages. Volume II: child messages. Washington, DC: Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1983; contract no. DOT- HS-4-00952.

20. Thackray RM. The Denver Pedestrian Safety Project. Second Symposium on Traffic Safety Effectiveness (Impact) Evaluation Projects. Washington, DC: Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1982; contract no. DTNH22-81- 05155.

21. Elvik R. The effects on accidents of compulsory use of daytime running lights for cars in Norway. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1993; 25(4): 383-98.

22. Robertson LS. Car design and risk of pedestrian deaths. American Journal of Public Health, 1990; 80(5): 609-10.

23. Robertson LS. Automobile safety regulations and death reductions in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 1981; 71(8): 818-822.

24. DiGuiseppi C, Roberts I, Leah L. Influence of changing travel patterns on child death rates from injury: trend analysis. BMJ, 1997; 314 (7082): 710-713.

25. Renaud L, Suissa S. Evaluation of the efficacy of simulation games in traffic safety education of kindergarten children. American Journal of Public Health, 1989; 79 (3): 307-309.

26. Nishioka N, Ieda S, Takahashi H et al. An experimental study on the safety behaviour of children in a dashing out situation-effects of verbal instructions and traffic conditions on safety behaviour. IATSS Research, 1991; 15: 39-45.

27. Thomson JA, Ampofo-Boateng K, Demetre JD. The effectiveness of parents in promoting the development of road crossing skills in young children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1998; 68: 475-491.

28. Roberts I. Adult accompainment and the risk of pedestrian injury on the school-home journey. Injury Prevention, 1995; 1 (4): 242-244.

29. Gielen AC, Dannenberg AL, Ashburn N, Kou J. Teaching safety: evaluation of a children's village in Maryland. Injury Prevention, 1996; 2 (1): 26-31.

30. Roberts I. Why have child pedestrian death rates fallen? BMJ, 1993; 306: 1737-1739.

31. MacPherson A, Roberts I, Pless B. Children's exposure to traffic and pedestrian injuries. Am J of Public Health, 1998; 88 (12): 1840-1843.

32. ITE Task Force. ITE Pedestrian and bike task force survey results summary. ITE Journal, 2001: 50pp.

33. Wazana A, Krueger P, Raina P, Chambers L. A review of risk factors for child pedestrian injuries: are they modifiable?. Injury Prevention, 1997; 3(4): 295-304.

34. Brilion AW, Blanke, H. CTraffic safety effects of traffic claming. VTI Report, 1990; 363A: 133-148.

35. Retting RA, Persaud BN, Garder PE, Lord D. Crash and injury reduction following installation of roundabouts in the United States. Am J of Public Health, 2001; 91(4): 628-631.

36. Kaplan JL, Wright MJ, Lazarus L, Congemi N, duTreil K, Arnold R, Mercante D, Diaz JH, Vrahas M, Hunt JP. Use of an unarmed police car to reduce traffic speed. J Trauma, 2000; 49 (1): 43-46.

37. Corben BF, Newstead S, Diamantopoulou K, Cameron M. Results of an evaluation of TAC funded accident black spot treatments. ARRB Transport Rresearch 18th Conference Proceedings, Roads 96, 1996; 5: 343-360.

38. Mountain L, Fawaz B. The area-wide effects of engineering measures on road accident occurence. Traffic Engineering and Control, 1989; 30(7-8): 355-360.

39. Box PC. Major road accident reduction by illumination. Transport Research Record, 1989: 32-38.

40. Vis AA, Dijkstra A, Slop M. Safety effects of 30km/h zones in the Netherlands. Accid Anal and Prev, 1992; 24(1): 75-86.

41. Aljanahi AA, Rhodes AH, Metcalfe AV. Speed, speed limits, and road traffic accidents under free flow conditions. Accid Anal and Prev, 1999; 31(1-2): 161-168.

42. Cloke J, Webster D, Boutler P, Harris G. Traffic calming: environmental assessment of the Leigh Park area safety scheme in Havant. TRL report, 1999; 397: 70pp.

43. TRL Transportation Research Board Special Report. 1999.

44. Holland CA, Conner MT. Exceeding the speed limit: an evlauation of the effectiveness of a police intervention. Accid Anal and Prev, 1996; 28 (5): 587-597.

45. Chorlton E. Burnthouse lan traffic calming scheme. J of the Inst of Highways and Transportation & IHIE, 1990; 37(8): 7-11.

46. Elvik R. Area-wide urban traffic calming schemes: a meta-analysis of safety effects. Accid Anal and Prev, 2001; 33(3): 327-336.

47. Hyden C, Varhelyi A. The effects on safety, time consumption and environment of large scale use of roundabouts in an urban area: a case study. Accid Anal and Prev, 2000; 32(1): 11-23.

48. Garder P, Leden L, Pulkkinen U. Measuring the safety effects of raised bicycle crossings using a new research methodology. Transportation Research Record, 1998; 1636: 64-70.

49. Webster , 1996..

50. Mackie AM, Ward HA, Walker RT. Urban safety project2. Interim results for area wide scheme. TRRL Research Report, 1998; 154: 16pp..

51. Schnull R, Lange J. Speed reduction on through roads in Nordrhein-Westfallen. Accid Anal and Prev, 1992; 24(1): 67-74.

52. Cross D, Stevenson M, Hall M, Burns S, Laughlin D, Officer J, Howat P. Child pedestrian injury prevention project: student results. Prev Med, 2000; 30(3): 179-187.

53. Stevenson M, Iredell H, Howat P, Cross D, Hall M. Measuring community/environmental interventions: the Child Pedestrian Injury Prevention Project. Injury Prevention, 1999; 5(1): 26-30.

54. Durkin MS, Laraque D, Lubman I, Barlow B. Epidemiology and prevention of traffic injuries to urban children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 1999; 103 (6): e74.

55. Kopjar B, Engeland A, Bjorndal A. Impact of the Safe Community program in Harstad on the incidence of injuries. Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 1999; 7(1): 29-39.